Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 99, Issue: 2, Published: 2004
  • The frequency of Toxocara infection in mental retarded children Epidemiology

    Kaplan, Mustafa; Kalkan, Ahmet; Hosoglu, Salih; Kuk, Salih; Özden, Mehmet; Demirdag, Kutbedtin; Ozdarendeli, Aykut

    Abstract in English:

    Human toxocariasis is commonly seen in places where stray and Toxocara canis-infected dog population is high. There is a strong correlation between frequency of Toxocara infection, life style, and infection risk. Institutionalization of mental retarded patients increases to risk of toxocariasis. In this study, we aimed at investigating the frequency of Toxocara infection among children with mental retardation not requiring institutionalization. The study included 96 cases, who had educatable mental retardation and 85 healthy subjects who comprised the control group. Anti-Toxocara IgG or IgM antibodies were investigated in all serum samples, using ELISA method. The frequency of Toxocara infection was found significantly higher in mental retarded cases than in those in the control group (18.8% and 7.1% respectively) (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference between mental retarded children and the control group in terms of mean age, age groups, gender, owning dogs and cats and duration of their ownership, socio-economic level and behavioural factors, and personal hygiene (p > 0.05). We did not find any significant difference between Toxocara seropositive and seronegative mental retarded children in terms of demographic factors and epidemiological factors that could increase the risk of Toxocara infection (p > 0.05). The present study is the first seroprevalence study carried out with a mental retarded group not requiring institutionalization. Determination of high frequency of Toxocara infection suggests that these subjects constitute a risk factor for Toxocara infection, which may be attributed to their behavioural patterns.
  • First record of Lutzomyia evansi (Nuñez-Tovar 1924) in Mexico (Diptera: Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) Epidemiology

    Ibáñez-Bernal, Sergio; Rodríguez-Domínguez, Gabriela; Gómez-Hernández, Carlos Hugo; Ricardez-Esquinca, Jorge R

    Abstract in English:

    The phlebotomine sand fly Lutzomyia evansi is recorded in Mexico for the first time. This species is a suspected vector of Leishmania infantum in other parts of its geographical range and was captured in a focus of American visceral leishmaniasis where the principal vector, Lu. longipalpis sensu lato, was also found. The relative public health importance of the two species in the study area (Chiapas state, Southern Mexico) is discussed.
  • Phenotypic plasticity in adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni (Trematoda:Schistosomatidae) evidenced by brightfield and confocal laser scanning microscopies General Biology

    Neves, Renata Heisler; Costa-Silva, Michele; Martinez, Elaine Machado; Branquinho, Thiago B; Oliveira, Regina Maria Figueiredo de; Lenzi, Henrique Leonel; Gomes, Delir Corrêa; Machado- Silva, José Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    A comparative morphometric study was performed to identify host-induced morphological alterations in Schistosoma mansoni adult worms. A wild parasite population was obtained from a naturally infected rodent (Nectomys squamipes)and then recovered from laboratory infected C3H/He mice. Furthermore, allopatric worm populations maintained for long-term under laboratory conditions in Swiss Webster mice were passed on to N. squamipes. Suckers and genital system (testicular lobes, uterine egg, and egg spine) were analyzed by a digital system for image analysis. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) showed details of the genital system (testicular lobes, vitelline glands, and ovary) and the tegument just below the ventral sucker. Significant morphological changes (p < 0.05) were detected in male worms in all experimental conditions, with no significant variability as assessed by CLSM. Significant changes (p < 0.05) were evident in females from the wild population related to their ovaries and vitelline glands, whereas allopatric females presented differences only in this last character. We conclude that S. mansoni worms present the phenotypic plasticity induced by modifications in the parasite's microenvironment, mainly during the first passage under laboratory conditions.
  • Feeding sources and natural infection of Belminus herreri (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) from dwellings in Cesar, Colombia General Biology

    Sandoval, Claudia Magaly; Duarte, Rosemere; Gutíerrez, Reinaldo; Rocha, Dayse da Silva; Angulo, Victor Manuel; Esteban, Lida; Reyes, Marlen; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber

    Abstract in English:

    Belminus herreri, originally described from specimens collected in Panama, was considered entirely silvatic until to 2000 when it was found for the first time in a domestic habitat in Colombia. In 2001, during a new search of houses in the Department of Cesar, Colombia, 121 specimens were collected. Study of their feeding sources using an ELISA test revealed that 96% of these specimens had fed on cockroaches (Blattidae). However, a small proportion of these B. herreri specimens also showed the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in their gut contents, suggesting a possible role for these insects in the epidemiology of Chagas disease.
  • Effects of tetrodotoxin and ion replacements on the short-circuit current induced by Escherichiacoli heat stable enterotoxin across small intestine of the gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani) Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Al-Balool, Fawzia Yaqoub

    Abstract in English:

    The effects of mucosally added Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa 30 ng ml-1) on the basal short-circuit current (Isc in µA cm-2) across stripped and unstripped sheets of jejuna and ilea taken from fed, starved (4 days, water ad lib) and undernourished (50% control food intake for 21 days) gerbil (Gerbillus cheesmani) were investigated. The effect of neurotoxin tetrodotoxin (TTX 10 µM) and the effects of replacing chloride by gluconate or the effects of removing bicarbonate from bathing buffers on the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa were also investigated. The maximum increase in Isc which resulted from the addition of STa were significantly higher in jejuna and ilea taken from starved and undernourished gerbils when compared with the fed control both using stripped and unstripped sheets. In the two regions of the small intestine taken from fed and starved animals TTX reduced the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across unstripped sheets only. Moreover in jejuna and ilea taken from undernourished gerbils TTX reduced significantly the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across stripped and unstripped sheets. Replacing chloride by gluconate decreased the maximum increase in Isc induced by STa across jejuna and ilea taken from undernourished gerbils only. Removing bicarbonates from bathing buffer decreased the maximum increase in Isc across the jejuna and ilea taken from starved and undernourished gerbils.
  • Genetic variability analysis among clinical Candida spp. isolates using random amplified polymorphic DNA Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Pinto, Patrícia M; Resende, Maria A; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Y; Tendler, Miriam

    Abstract in English:

    The patterns of genetic variation of samples of Candida spp. isolated from patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus in Vitória, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were examined. Thirty-seven strains were isolated from different anatomical sites obtained from different infection episodes of 11 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). These samples were subjected to randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis using 9 different primers. Reproducible and complex DNA banding patterns were obtained. The experiments indicated evidence of dynamic process of yeast colonization in HIV-infected patients, and also that certain primers are efficient in the identification of species of the Candida genus. Thus, we conclude that RAPD analysis may be useful in providing genotypic characters for Candida species typing in epidemiological investigations, and also for the rapid identification of pathogenic fungi.
  • Analysis of the first and second internal transcribed spacer sequences of the ribosomal DNA in Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (Mollusca: Planorbidae) Biochemistry And Molecular Biology

    Vidigal, Teofânia HDA; Spatz, Linus; Kissinger, Jessica C; Redondo, Rodrigo AF; Pires, Edina CR; Simpson, Andrew JG; Carvalho, Omar S

    Abstract in English:

    The first and second internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2) of the ribosomal DNA of Biomphalaria tenagophila complex (B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis, and B. t. guaibensis) were sequenced and compared. The alignment lengths of these regions were about 655 bp and 481 bp, respectively. Phylogenetic relationships among the Biomphalaria species were inferred by Maximum Parsimony and Neighbor-joining methods. The phylogenetic trees produced, in most of the cases, were in accordance with morphological systematics and other molecular data previously obtained by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The present results provide support for the proposal that B. tenagophila represents a complex comprising B. tenagophila, B. occidentalis and B. t. guaibensis.
  • Abnormal expression of CD54 in mixed reactions of mononuclear cells from hyper-IgE syndrome patients Immunopathology

    Martínez, Adriano M; Montoya, Carlos J; Rugeles, María T; Franco, José L; Patiño, Pablo J

    Abstract in English:

    Hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare multisystem disorder characterized by increased susceptibility to infections associated with heterogeneous immunologic and non-immunologic abnormalities. Most patients consistently exhibit defective antigen-induced-T cell activation, that could be partly due to altered costimulation involving accessory molecules; however, the expression of these molecules has never been documented in HIES. Therefore, we investigated the expression of CD11a, CD28, CD40, CD54, CD80, CD86, and CD154 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from six patients and six healthy controls by flow cytometry after autologous and mixed allogeneic reactions. Only the allogeneic stimuli induced significant proliferative responses and interleukin 2 and interferon gamma production in both groups. Most accessory molecules showed similar expression between patients and controls with the exception of CD54, being expressed at lower levels in HIES patients regardless of the type of stimulus used. Decreased expression of CD54 could partly explain the deficient T cell activation to specific recall antigens in HIES patients, and might be responsible for their higher susceptibility to infections with defined types of microorganisms.
  • Effect of angiotensin II and losartan on the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages from Balb/C mice Immunopathology

    Belline, Paula; Melo, Patrícia da Silva; Haun, Marcela; Palhares, Fernanda Boucault; Boer, Patrícia Aline; Gontijo, José Antônio Rocha; Figueiredo, José Francisco

    Abstract in English:

    Angiotensin II (AII), a product of rennin-angiotensin system, exerts an important role on the function of immune system cells. In this study, the effect of AII on the phagocytic activity of mouse peritoneal macrophages was assessed. Mice peritoneal macrophages were cultured for 48 h and the influence of different concentrations of AII (10-14 to 10-7 M) and/or losartan, 10-16 to 10-6 M), an AT1 angiotensin receptor antagonist, on phagocytic activity and superoxide anion production was determined. Dimethylthiazoldiphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction and the nucleic acid content were used to assess the cytotoxicity of losartan. A stimulatory effect on phagocytic activity (P < 0.05) was observed with 10-13 M and 10-12 M AII concentrations. The addition of losartan (up to10-14 M) to the cell cultures blocked (P < 0.001) the phagocytosis indicating the involvement of AT1 receptors. In contrast, superoxide anion production was not affected by AII or losartan. The existence of AT1 and AT2 receptors in peritoneal macrophages was demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. These results support the hypothesis that AII receptors can modulate murine macrophage activity and phagocytosis, and suggest that AII may have a therapeutic role as an immunomodulatory agent in modifying the host resistance to infection.
  • A contribution to the diagnosis of Capillaria hepatica infection by indirect immunofluorescence test Diagnosis

    Assis, Bárbara CA; Cunha, Liliane M; Baptista, Ana Paula; Andrade, Zilton A

    Abstract in English:

    A highly specific pattern of immunofluorescence was noted when sera from Capillaria hepatica-infected rats were tested against the homologous worms and eggs present either in paraffin or cryostat sections from mouse liver. The pattern was represented by a combined apple green fluorescence of the internal contents of worms and eggs, which persisted in serum-dilutions of 1:400 up to 1:1600. Unequivocal fluorescent pattern was observed from 15 days up to 3 months following inoculation of rats with embryonated C. hepatica eggs and such result was confirmed by the ELISA. After the 4th month of infection, the indirect immunofluorescence test turned negative, probably revealing the extinction of parasitism, however the ELISA was contradictory, disclosing high levels of antibodies in this period . The IIF was also negative when control normal rat sera and sera from rats administered by gavage with immature C. hepatica eggs (spurious infection), or for reactions made against Schistosoma mansoni eggs, although a weakly positive pattern occurred with Fasciola hepatica eggs. The indirect immunofluorescence test may be recommended for use with human sera to detect early C. hepatica infection in special clinical instances and in epidemiological surveys, since it is a simple, inexpensive, and reliable test, presenting excellent sensitivity and specificity. Although the diagnosis is positive only during early infection, this is the period when the symptoms are usually more severe and the need for differential diagnosis is greater.
  • Stage-specific activity of potential antimalarial compounds measured in vitro by flow cytometry in comparison to optical microscopy and hypoxanthine uptake Diagnosis

    Contreras, Carmen E; Rivas, María A; Domínguez, José; Charris, Jaime; Palacios, Mario; Bianco, Nicolás E; Blanca, Isaac

    Abstract in English:

    The evaluation of new antimalarial agents using older methods of monitoring sensitivity to antimalarial drugs are laborious and poorly suited to discriminate stage-specific activity. We used flow cytometry to study the effect of established antimalarial compounds, cysteine protease inhibitors, and a quinolone against asexual stages of Plasmodium falciparum. Cultured P. falciparum parasites were treated for 48 h with different drug concentrations and the parasitemia was determined by flow cytometry methods after DNA staining with propidium iodide. P. falciparum erythrocytic life cycle stages were readily distinguished by flow cytometry. Activities of established and new antimalarial compounds measured by flow cytometry were equivalent to results obtained with microscopy and metabolite uptake assays. The antimalarial activity of all compounds was higher against P. falciparum trophozoite stages. Advantages of flow cytometry analysis over traditional assays included higher throughput for data collection, insight into the stage-specificity of antimalarial activity avoiding use of radioactive isotopes.
  • Detection of Toxoplasma gondii DNA by polymerase chain reaction in experimentally desiccated tissues Diagnosis

    Terra, Márcia Andreia Barge Loução; Bello, Alexandre Ribeiro; Bastos, Otilio Machado; Amendoeira, Regina Reis; Coelho, Janice Mary Chicarino de Oliveira; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto

    Abstract in English:

    Despite toxoplasmosis being a common infection among human and other warm-blooded animals worldwide, there are no findings about Toxoplasma gondii evolutionary forms in ancient populations. The molecular techniques used for amplification of genetic material have allowed recovery of ancient DNA (aDNA) from parasites contained in mummified tissues. The application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to paleoparasitological toxoplasmosis research becomes a promising option, since it might allow diagnosis, acquisition of paleoepidemiological data, access to toxoplasmosis information related origin, evolution, and distribution among the ancient populations.Furthermore, it makes possible the analysis of parasite aDNA aiming at phylogenetic studies. To standardize and evaluate PCR applicability to toxoplasmosis paleodiagnostic, an experimental mummification protocol was tested using desiccated tissues from mice infected with the ME49 strain cysts, the chronic infection group (CIG), or infected with tachyzoites (RH strain), the acute infection group (AIG). Tissues were subjected to DNA extraction followed by PCR amplification of T. gondii B1 gene. PCR recovered T. gondii DNA in thigh muscle, encephalon, heart, and lung samples. AIG presented PCR positivity in encephalon, lungs, hearts, and livers. Based on this results, we propose this molecular approach for toxoplasmosis research in past populations.
  • Immunoblotting for the serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori  infection in Brazilian patients with and without gastric carcinoma Diagnosis

    Rocha, Andreia MC; Rocha, Gifone A; Leite, Janise L; Lisboa, Renato LL; Silva, Patrícia VO; Queiroz, Dulciene M M

    Abstract in English:

    We evaluated the performance of a commercial immunoblotting in the serodiagnosis of Helicobacter pylori infection in Brazilian patients. The presence of anti-H. pylori antibodies was also investigated in a group of 20 duodenal ulcer patients after successful treatment. One hundred and ninety one patients were studied. Among the 164 infected patients, 46 had gastric carcinoma. The duodenal ulcer patients were treated with antimicrobial drugs and the eradication of the microorganism was confirmed in all of them one month after the end of the treatment by the 13C-urea breath test. Sera were assayed for H. pylori antibodies using the Helicoblot 2.0 (Genelabs Diagnostics, Singapore). The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the test were 93.9%, 92.6%, 98.7%, and 71.4%, respectively. The sensitivity of the test was similar in patients with (93.5%) and without (95.7%) gastric carcinoma. Twenty-four months after the end of the treatment, the band of 116 kDa was still detected in one of the patients. In conclusion, the Helicoblot 2.0 is an accurate test to diagnose H. pylori infection and although it can not be employed to monitor the bacterium eradication, it may be useful for diagnosing past infection, especially in gastric carcinoma patients.
  • Comparison between splenic and lymph node aspirations as sampling methods for the parasitological detection of Leishmania chagasi infection in dogs Diagnosis

    Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Trigo, Joelma; Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; dos-Santos, Washington Luís Conrado; Pontes-de- Carvalho, Lain

    Abstract in English:

    The sensitivities of spleen and lymph node cultures for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis were compared in 64 anti-Leishmania antibody positive dogs from an endemic area in Brazil. The sensitivity of spleen cultures for Leishmania detection was 97.9%; in lymph node cultures it was 25%. Positive spleen culture was more frequent (p = 0.048, Fisher's exact probability test) in symptomatic (28 out of 33 animals) than in asymptomatic animals (19 out of 31 animals). These results support the use of spleen instead of lymph node aspiration as the choice method for the parasitological diagnosis of the infection.
  • Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos during 2001 in several municipalities in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Sergipe, and Alagoas, Brazil Control

    Braga, Ima Aparecida; Lima, José Bento Pereira; Soares, Sidinei da Silva; Valle, Denise

    Abstract in English:

    For more than 30 years temephos, an organophosphate insecticide, has been the sole larvicide used in Brazil in the control of Aedes aegypti. Organophosphates were also used for adult control, being replaced by pyrethroids since l999. In this same year, the Brazilian Health Foundation started the coordination of the Ae. aegypti Insecticide Resistance Monitoring Program. In the context of this program, our group was responsible for the detection of temephos resistance in a total of 12 municipalities in the states of Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Alagoas (AL), and Sergipe (SE) during 2001. In each municipality, a pool of mosquitoes collected from different districts was used, with the exception of Rio de Janeiro city, where eight districts have been separately evaluated. Exposure of larvae to the diagnostic dose of temephos revealed resistance in all localities examined, with mortality levels ranging from 4% (Pilares district, Rio de Janeiro, RJ) to 61.9% (Campos dos Goytacazes, RJ). Quantification of mortality showed resistance ratios from 6.1 (Aracaju, SE) to 16.8 (São Gonçalo, RJ and Penha district, Rio de Janeiro, RJ). The national dengue control program is presently using these data to subside insecticide resistance management.
  • Molluscicidal effect of nicotinanilide and its intermediate compounds against a freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola, the vector of animal schistosomiasis Control

    Sukumaran, D; Parashar, BD; Gupta, AK; Jeevaratnam, K; Prakash, Shri

    Abstract in English:

    The molluscicidal effect of nicotinanilide was evaluated and compared with niclosamide (2',5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide, ethanolamide salt) against different stages of the freshwater snail Lymnaea luteola i.e., eggs, immature, young mature, and adults. Calculated values of lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90 ) showed that both nicotinanilide and niclosamide as toxic against eggs, immature, and adults. The young mature stage of the snails was comparatively more tolerant to both molluscicides than the other stages. The toxicity of the intermediate compounds of nicotinanilide against the young mature stage of the snails showed them as ineffective. The mortality pattern of the snails exposed to LC90 concentration of these molluscicides showed niclosamide to kill faster (within 8 to 9 h) than nicotinanilide (26 to 28 h). In view of the above studies it may be concluded that both molluscicides are toxic against all the stages of the L. luteola snails.
  • Activity of oil-formulated Beauveria bassiana against Triatoma sordida in peridomestic areas in central Brazil Control

    Luz, Christian; Rocha, Luiz FN; Nery, Gustavo V; Magalhães, Bonifácio P; Tigano, Myrian S

    Abstract in English:

    Field tests were carried out during the rainy season of 2001/2002 in São Luís de Montes Belos, Goiás, Brazil, to evaluate the potential of the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, against peridomestic Triatoma sordida. An oil-water formulation of the isolate CG 14 (Embrapa) was applied in triatomine infested hen houses of four farms at a final concentration of 10(6) conidia/cm². Numbers of T. sordida decreased over the next 25 days, after application of the fungus, and B. bassiana developed on dead insects in one hen house. A high number of B. bassiana colonies was detected in substrates collected in treated hen houses 24 h after application of CG 14. In the following three months the presenceof B. bassiana declined to values found before treatment.
  • Evaluation of cholinesterase level in an endemic population exposed to malathion suspension formulation as a vector control measure Control

    Lal, CS; Kumar, V; Ranjan, A; Das, VNR; Kumar, N; Kishore, K; Bhattacharya, SK

    Abstract in English:

    The manuscript describes a study on the blood cholinesterase (ChE) level in an exposed population at different interval of time after spraying with malathion suspension (SRES) use for kala-azar vector control in an endemic area of Bihar, India. The toxicity of a 5% malathion formulation in the form of a slow release emulsified suspension (SRES) was assessed by measuring serum ChE levels in spraymen and in the exposed population.The study showed a significant decrease in ChE levels in the spraymen (p < 0.01) after one week of spraying and in exposed population one week and one month after of spraying (p < 0.01), but was still within the normal range of ChE concentration, one year after spraying, the ChE concentration in the exposed population was the same as prior to spraying (p > 0.01). On no occasion was the decrease in ChE level alarming. A parallel examination of the clinical status also showed the absence of any over toxicity or any behavioural changes in the exposed population. Hence, it may be concluded that 5% malathion slow release formulation, SRES, is a safe insecticide for use as a vector control measure in endemic areas of kala-azar in Bihar, India so long as good personal protection for spraymen is provided to minimize absorption and it can substitute the presently used traditional DDT spray.
  • Ivermectin resistant and susceptible third-stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus: cholinesterase and phosphatase activities Control

    Giménez-Pardo, Consuelo; Martínez-Grueiro, Maria Mercedes; Gómez-Barrio, Alicia; Rodríguez-Caabeiro, Filomena

    Abstract in English:

    Cholinesterase and acid phosphatase (AP), but not alkaline phosphatase activities, were detected in cytosolic and membrane-bound fractions of ivermectin resistant and susceptible Haemonchus contortus infective-stage larvae. Some differences in acetylcholinesterase activity of cytosolic fractions and in the AP activity of these fractions as well as in the response to AP inhibitors by membrane-bound fractions were detected. Data are discussed.
  • Trypanocidal activity of Meliaceae and Rutaceae plant extracts Anti-Parasite Drugs Activities

    Ambrozin, Alessandra Regina Pepe; Vieira, Paulo Cezar; Fernandes, João Batista; Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes da; Albuquerque, Sérgio de

    Abstract in English:

    The in vitro trypanocidal activity of 22 extracts and 43 fractions of plants belonging to the families Meliaceae and Rutaceae was evaluated. The extracts from leaves of Conchocarphus heterophyllus and branches of Trichilia ramalhoi were the most active. The trypanocidal activity seems to be increased by fractionation of the extracts. Fractions from C. heterophyllus and Galipea carinata were the most active and a 100% lysis of the parasites was observed for five fractions. From one of them were isolated two flavonoids: flavone and 7-methoxyflavone, which showed weak trypanocidal activity. The results obtained from the extracts and fractions revealed that the order Rutales is a promising source for the search of new drugs for Chagas disease. Phytochemical studies with the other active fractions are underway in order to isolate compounds, which could be associated with observed activities.
  • In vitro activity of Etanidazole against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi Anti-Parasite Drugs Activities

    Petray, Patricia B; Morilla, María J; Corral, Ricardo S; Romero, Eder L

    Abstract in English:

    We investigated the in vitro action of an hydrosoluble 2-nitroimidazole, Etanidazole (EZL), against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. EZL displayed lethal activity against isolated trypomastigotes as well as amastigotes of T. cruzi (RA strain) growing in Vero cells or J774 macrophages, without affecting host cell viability. Although not completely equivalent to Benznidazole (BZL), the reference drug for Chagas chemotherapy, EZL takes advantage in exertingits anti-T. cruzi activity for longer periods without serious toxic side effects, as those recorded in BZL-treated patients. Our present results encourage further experiments to study in depth the trypanocidal properties of this drug already licensed for use in human cancers.
  • Dictionnaire de la Pensée Médicale Book Review

    Coura, José Rodrigues
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Av. Brasil, 4365 - Pavilhão Mourisco, Manguinhos, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel.: (55 21) 2562-1222, Fax: (55 21) 2562 1220 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: memorias@fiocruz.br