Abstract in English:The wide variety of Leishmania species responsible for human American cutaneous leishmaniasis combined with the immune mechanisms of the host results in a large spectrum of clinical, histopathological, and immunopathological manifestations. At the middle of this spectrum are the most frequent cases of localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) caused by members of the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, which respond well to conventional therapy. The two pathogenicity extremes of the spectrum generally recognized are represented at the hypersensitivity pole by mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) and at the hyposensitivity pole by anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCL). Following the present study on the clinical, histopathological and immunopathological features of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Amazonian Brazil, we propose the use of the term "borderline disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis" for the disseminated form of the disease, due to parasites of the subgenera Leishmania and Viannia, which might be regarded as intermediate between LCL and the extreme pathogenicity poles MCL and ADCL.
Abstract in English:In most countries, Chagas disease transmission control remains based on domestic insecticide application. We thus evaluated the efficacy of intra-domicile cyfluthrin spraying for the control of Triatoma dimidiata, the only Chagas disease vector in the Yucatán peninsula, Mexico, and monitored potential re-infestation every 15 days for up to 9 months. We found that there was a re-infestation of houses by adult bugs starting 4 months after insecticide application, possibly from sylvatic/peridomicile areas. This points out the need to take into account the potential dispersal of sylvatic/peridomestic adult bugs into the domiciles as well as continuity action for an effective vector control.
Abstract in English:The variation of abundances of intermediate snail hosts of Fasciola hepatica in Cuba (Fossaria cubensis and Pseudosuccinea columella) was studied during one year under natural conditions at five sampling sites in San Juan y Martinez municipality, Pinar del Rio province, Cuba. The effect of some environmental variables on the lymnaeid abundances was also studied. A canonical correspondence analysis showed that both species do not generally occur together in the same habitat and that most factors affect them in an opposite fashion, although both of them correlate positively through time to the diversity of the habitats. F. cubensis prefers the sites that are in or closer to the city whereas P. columella is more abundant in rural sites. Lymnaeid abundances are mainly affected by nitrite and nitrate concentrations as well as by the abundance of the thiarid Tarebia granifera. F. cubensis is more abundant in polluted habitats with low densities (or absence) of T. granifera whereas P. columella prefers cleaner habitats and can coexist with the thiarid, even at its higher densities. The implications of divergent preferences of the two lymnaeids for the control of fasciolosis are discussed.
Abstract in English:In order to assay the triatomine infestation and domiciliation in the rural area of Jaguaruana district, state of Ceará, Brazil, we studied, from November 2000 to April 2002, 4 localities comprising 158 domiciles as a whole, with an average of 4 inhabitants/house, who are dwelling in there for more than 7 years. Most houses have tile-covered roofs and the walls built with plaster-covered bricks (57%), followed by bricks without plaster (33%), and mud walls (7.5%). A total of 3082 triatomines were captured from different locations, according to the following capture plan: (a) intradomiciles: 238 Triatoma brasiliensis, 6 T. pseudomaculata, 9 Rhodnius nasutus, and 2 Panstrongylus lutzi; (b) peridomiciles (annexes): 2069 T. brasiliensis, 223 T. pseudomaculata, 121 R. nasutus, and 1 P. lutzi; (c) wild, in carnauba palms (Copernicia prunifera): 413 R. nasutus. From the captured triatomines, 1773 (57.5%) were examined. The natural index of Trypanosoma cruzi infection ranged from 10.8% to 30.2% (average of 17%), depending on the species and the location from where the triatomines were captured.
Abstract in English:Blood samples from 159 birds of the New-world family Tyrannidae (the flycatchers) from the eastern plains of Colombia, were examined for haematozoa parasites, in 1999-2000. Haematozoa were detected in six of 20 species. The overall prevalence was 10.1%. The most common parasites detected were microfilariae, followed by Trypanosoma and Plasmodium. The highest prevalence (9.6%) was found in the Ochre-bellied Flycatcher (Mionectes oleaginea). Mixed infections with more than one genus of blood parasite were rare and most infections encountered were of low intensity. The results of this study suggest an important role of ecologically diverse conditions determining composition, transmission, and prevalence of a blood parasite fauna, presumably through host interaction population density. Some new host parasite relationship records are presented.
Abstract in English:In this paper, the forth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Sul Fluminense Mesoregion from 2000 to 2002 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 18 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Biomphalaria glabrata; Biomphalaria peregrina; Biomphalaria straminea; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida and Pomacea sp. As to the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni the most frequent species was B. tenagophila, found in all municipalities surveyed, except Parati. Besides new records the present study extends the distribution of B. peregrina and B. straminea in the state. No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed. An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well.
Abstract in English:We report the prevalence of human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) variants in women with cervical lesions from the Federal District, Central Brazil. We analyzed 34 HPV-16 samples, identifying the sequence variations of E6 and L1 genes and correlating variant frequency with disease status. The most prevalent HPV-16 variant was the European (50%), followed by Asian-American (41.2%), African-1 (5.9%), and African-2 (2.9%). European and non-European variants appeared in equal frequencies among the cytological types of lesions - atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance, cytological alterations suggesting HPV infection, cervical intraepithelial neoplasias, squamous cell carcinoma, and adenocarcinoma.
Abstract in English:Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis whose interaction with the host may lead to a cell-mediated protective immune response. The presence of interferon<FONT FACE=Symbol>-g</FONT> (IFN-gamma) is related to this response. With the purpose of understanding the immunological mechanisms involved in this protection, the lymphoproliferative response, IFN<FONT FACE=Symbol>-g</FONT> and other cytokines like interleukin (IL-5, IL-10), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF<FONT FACE=Symbol>-a</FONT>) were evaluated before and after the use of anti-TB drugs on 30 patients with active TB disease, 24 healthy household contacts of active TB patients, with positive purified protein derivative (PPD) skin tests (induration > 10 mm), and 34 asymptomatic individuals with negative PPD skin test results (induration < 5 mm). The positive lymphoproliferative response among peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients showed high levels of IFN<FONT FACE=Symbol>-g</FONT>, TNF<FONT FACE=Symbol>-a</FONT>, and IL-10. No significant levels of IL-5 were detected. After treatment with rifampicina, isoniazida, and pirazinamida, only the levels of IFN<FONT FACE=Symbol>-g</FONT> increased significantly (p < 0.01). These results highlight the need for further evaluation of IFN<FONT FACE=Symbol>-g</FONT> production as a healing prognostic of patients treated.
Abstract in English:Resistance to infection by Leishmania major has been associated with the development of a Th1 type response that is dependent on the presence of interleukin 12 (IL-12). In this work the involvement of this cytokine in the response to infection by L. braziliensis, a less virulent species in the mouse model, was evaluated. Our results show that while interferon (IFN<FONT FACE=Symbol>-g</FONT>) deficient (-/-) mice inoculated L. braziliensis develop severe uncontrolled lesions, chronic lesions that remained under control up to 12 weeks of infection were observed in IL-12p40 -/- mice. IL 12p40 -/- mice had fewer parasites in their lesions than IFN<FONT FACE=Symbol>-g</FONT>-/- mice. Lymph node cells from IL-12p40 -/- were capable of producing low but consistent levels of IFN<FONT FACE=Symbol>-g</FONT> suggestive of its involvement in parasite control. Furthermore, as opposed to previous reports on L. major-infected animals, no switch to a Th2 response was observed in IL-12p40 -/- infected with L. braziliensis.
Abstract in English:The factors affecting the sexual behaviour of Panstrongylus megistus were studied under laboratory conditions. A general description of mating behaviour is presented for this species. The effect of the time elapsed after the first imaginal feeding on the mating frequency, the motivation of males to mate and the rejection behaviour by females, were analyzed. We also determined the number of copulas accepted by females of this species. Finally, the possible existence of a sexual chemical signal promoting male aggregation around mating couples was evaluated. Results showed that mating frequency increased with the time elapsed since the first adult meal. Despite the number of male copulatory attempts did not change as a function of time, the rejection behaviour of females became gradually less frequent. Females rejected mating by means of body flattening on the substrate, abdominal movements, evasion or stridulation. After a single copula, females did not usually accept to mate again. Neither male nor female aggregation around mating couples was observed, suggesting the absence of a sexual assembling pheromone in P. megistus.
Abstract in English:SEN virus (SENV) is a circular, single stranded DNA virus that has been first characterized in the serum of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patient. Eight genotypes of SENV (A-H) have been identified and further recognized as variants of TT virus (TTV) in the family Circoviridae. Here we describe the first genomic characterization of a SENV isolate (5-A) from South America. Using 'universal' primers, able to amplify most, if not all, TTV/SENV genotypes, a segment of > 3 kb was amplified by polymerase chain reaction from the serum of an HIV-1 infected patient. The amplicon was cloned and a 3087-nucleotide sequence was determined, that showed a high (85%) homology with the sequence of the Italian isolate SENV-F. Proteins encoded by open reading frames (ORFs) 1 to 4 consisted of 758, 129, 276, and 267 amino acids, respectively. By phylogenetic analysis, isolate 5-A was classified into TTV genotype 19 (phylogenetic group 3), together with SENV-F and TTV isolate SAa-38.
Abstract in English:Bacteroides fragilis has been isolated from several human and non-human monomicrobial and mixed infections. In this study, some virulence markers and the antimicrobial susceptibility of bacteria of the B. fragilis group isolated from children's stools were evaluated. All the 64 isolates showed the following characteristics: capsulated, beta-hemolytic, hydrophilic, and serum-resistant. Only, 24 (37.5%) strains were resistant at 60ºC, for 30 min, and among them, 12 (18.75%) were resistant at 60ºC, for 60 min. Also, none strain was resistant at 100ºC. Four strains were able to hemagglutinate erythrocytes and D-mannose, D-galactose, D-arabinose, and D-xylose inhibited hemagglutination in 2 B. fragilis strains (p76a, p76b). The hemagglutination in the strain B. uniformis p3-2 was inhibited by D-xylose and D-galactose. The bft gene detection and the enterotoxin production were observed only in 13 EF-enterotoxigenic species. Fragilysin activity was confirmed on HT-29 cells. The antimicrobial determination confirmed that both imipenem and metronidazole were efficient against B. fragilis species; all the strains were resistant to lead and nickel. Plasmids of 2.9, 4.4, 4.8, and 8.9 kb were observed in 6 tested strains. These results show the values of the species identification from clinical infections, as well as of the periodic evaluation of the resistance patterns of the B. fragilis group at Brazilian medical institutions.
Abstract in English:Rotaviruses have been implicated as the major causal agents of acute diarrhoea in mammals and fowls. Experimental rotavirus infection have been associated to a series of sub-cellular pathologic alterations leading to cell lysis which may represent key functions in the pathogenesis of the diarrhoeic disease. The current work describes the cytopathic changes in cultured MA-104 cells infected by a simian (SA-11) and a porcine (1154) rotavirus strains. Trypan blue exclusion staining showed increased cell permeability after infection by both strains, as demonstrated by cell viability. This effect was confirmed by the leakage of infected cells evaluated by chromium release. Nuclear fragmentation was observed by acridine orange and Wright staining but specific DNA cleavage was not detected. Ultrastructural changes, such as chromatin condensation, cytoplasm vacuolisation, and loss of intercellular contact were shown in infected cells for both strains. In situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tunel) assay did not show positive result. In conclusion, we demonstrated that both strains of rotavirus induced necrosis as the major degenerative effect.
Abstract in English:The bacteria of the Bacteroides fragilis group are considered important clinical pathogens and they are the most common anaerobes isolated from human endogenous infections. In this study, the susceptibility patterns to antibiotics and metals of 114 species of the B. fragilis group isolated from children with and without diarrhea were determined. Susceptibility was assayed by using an agar dilution method with Wilkins-Chalgren agar. All B. fragilis strains were resistant to lead and nickel, but susceptible to metronidazole and imipenem. beta-lactamase production was detected by using biological and nitrocefin methods, respectively, in 50% and 90.6% of the isolates of children with diarrhea and in 60% and 90% of the isolates of children without diarrhea. Our results show an increase of antibiotics and metals resistance in this microbial group, and a periodic evaluation of the antimicrobial susceptibility is needed. In Brazil, the contamination for antibiotics or metal ions is often observed, and it is suggested an increase the antimicrobial resistance surveillance of this microbial group, mainly those isolated from children's diarrhea.
Abstract in English:Infections due to protozoa of the genus Leishmania are a major worldwide health problem, with high endemicity in developing countries. The drugs of choice for the treatment of leishmaniasis are the pentavalent antimonials (SbV), which present renal and cardiac toxicity. Besides, the precise chemical structure and mechanism of action of these drugs are unknown up to date. In order to find new drugs against leishmaniasis, we have been studying extracts of Brazilian trees. In the present study, we have evaluated the effectiveness of an alkaloid extract of Aspidosperma ramiflorum Muell. Arg. (Apocynaceae), against the extracellular forms promastigotes of L. (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis. The alkaloid extract of A. ramiflorum was much more effective against L. (L.) amazonensis (LD50 < 47 µg/ml) than L. (V.) braziliensis. Based on these in vitro results against L. (L.) amazonensis new studies should be made to find the compounds with anti-leishmanial activity.
Abstract in English:Current therapy for leishmaniasis is not satisfactory. We describe the in vitro antiproliferative effects of new thiadiazine derivatives against Leishmania amazonensis. The compounds were found to be active against the amastigote form of the parasite, inhibiting parasite growing, from 10 to 89%, at a concentration of 100 ng/ml. This activity suggests that thiadiazine derivatives could be considered as potential antileishmanial compounds.
Abstract in English:Multi-resistant gram-negative rods are important pathogens in intensive care units (ICU), cause high rates of mortality, and need infection control measures to avoid spread to another patients. This study was undertaken prospectively with all of the patients hospitalized at ICU, Anesthesiology of the Hospital São Paulo, using the ICU component of the National Nosocomial Infection Surveillance System (NNIS) methodology, between March 1, 1997 and June 30, 1998. Hospital infections occurring during the first three months after the establishment of prevention and control measures (3/1/97 to 5/31/97) were compared to those of the last three months (3/1/98 to 5/31/98). In this period, 933 NNIS patients were studied, with 139 during the first period and 211 in the second period. The overall rates of infection by multi-resistant microorganisms in the first and second periods were, respectively, urinary tract infection: 3.28/1000 patients/day; 2.5/1000 patients/day; pneumonia: 2.10/1000 patients/day; 5.0/1000 patients/day; bloodstream infection: 1.09/1000 patients/day; 2.5/1000 patients/day. A comparison between overall infection rates of both periods (Wilcoxon test) showed no statistical significance (p = 0.067). The use of intervention measures effectively decreased the hospital bloodstream infection rate (p < 0.001), which shows that control measures in ICU can contribute to preventing hospital infections.
Abstract in English:Deltamethrin and other pyrethroids have been extensively used in Argentina since 1980, for the chemical control of Triatoma infestans Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Recently, resistance to deltamethrin was detected in field populations by the survival of bugs exposed by topical application to the diagnostic dose estimated on the CIPEIN susceptible strain. Results of the current study showed low resistant ratios (RRs) to deltamethrin for the resistant populations (RR ranged from 2.0 for San Luis colony to 7.9 for Salta colony). Biochemical studies were made on the most resistant colony (Salta) and the susceptible strain (CIPEIN), in order to establish the importance of degradative mechanisms as a cause of the detected resistance. Esterase activity was measured on 3 days old first instars through phenylthioacetate and a-naphtyl acetate activities. The results showed a significant difference in no cholinesterase esterase activity from susceptible (7.6 ± 0,7 µM S./i.min.) and Salta resistant colony (9.5 ± 0.8 µM S./i.min.). Cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase (P450) activity was measured on individual insects through ethoxycoumarine deethylase (ECOD) activity using a fluorescence micro plate reader. The dependence of ECOD activity on age and body region of the nymphs, and pH and time of incubation were studied in order to optimize the measurement. As a result, comparative studies were performed on abdomens of 2 days old first instars at pH 7.2 and 4 h incubation time. ECOD activity of first nymphs was significantly lower in the susceptible colony (61.3 ± 9.08 pg ECOD/ insect) than in the resistant one (108.1± 5.7 pg ECOD/ insect). These results suggest that degradative esterases (no-cholinesterase) and mono-oxygenases cytochrome P450, play an important role in the resistance to deltamethrin in Salta colony from Argentina.