Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 99 Supplement 1, Published: 2004
  • Foreword

    Reis, Mitermayer Galvão dos
  • The role of the scientific research in the control of schistosomiasis in endemic areas

    Prata, Aluízio

    Abstract in English:

    The way the researches established the lines of direction for considering fight against schistosomiasis on the double aspect of transmission and morbidity control is outstanding. Chemotherapy in the morbidity control is emphasized. The research priorities for schistosomiasis control are mentioned.
  • Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas

    Coura, JR; Amaral, RS

    Abstract in English:

    The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease distribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission.
  • Cytokine profile associated with human chronic schistosomiasis mansoni

    Magalhães, Andréa; Miranda, Delfin Gonzalez; Miranda, Roberval Gonzalez; Araújo, Maria Ilma; Jesus, Adriana Almeida de; Silva, Angela; Santana, Luciana B; Pearce, Edward; Carvalho, Edgar M; Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro de

    Abstract in English:

    This study objective was to evaluate the cytokines associated with early events of hepatic fibrosis in schistosomiasis mansoni. Hepatic fibrosis was classified by ultrasonography in 94 patients. Immunological evaluation was performed by measurement of secreted cytokines (interleukin IL-5, IL-10, IL-13, interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factors-beta) in peripherl blood mononuclear cells stimulated by Schistosoma mansoni antigens. Significantly, higher levels of IL-5, IL-10 and IL-13 were found in supernatants of SEA-stimulated PBMC from subjects with degree III hepatic fibrosis as compared to patients with degree I or II fibrosis, Significant increases in IL-5 and IL-13 levels were also observed in some of the subjects who remained untreated for one year following initial assessment and developed more serious fibrosis during this period. The data suggests a role for type 2 cytokines in early stages of hepatic fibrosis in human schistosomiasis mansoni.
  • Schistosoma mansoni infection modulates the immune response against allergic and auto-immune diseases

    Araújo, Maria Ilma; Hoppe, Bradford S; Medeiros Jr, Manoel; Carvalho, Edgar M

    Abstract in English:

    Chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection leads to a type 2-immune response with increased production of interleukin (IL-10). Evidence indicates chronic exposure to S. mansoni down regulates the type 1 immune response and prevents the onset of Th1-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis, diabetes mellitus and Cronh's disease. Furthermore, our own studies have revealed that chronic exposure to S. mansoni also down regulates atopic disease, Th2-mediated diseases. Our studies show an inverse association between the skin prick test reactivity and infection with S. mansoni and show the severity of asthma is reduced in subjects living in an endemic area of S. mansoni. Moreover, we hypothesize the mechanisms involved in the modulation of inflammatory response in atopic individuals, is likely dependent on IL-10 production, an anti-inflammatory cytokine elevated during helminth infections. Patients with asthma and helminth infections produced less IL-5 than patients with asthma without helminth infections, and this down regulation could, in part, be mediated by IL-10. In conclusion, helminthic infections, through induction of regulatory mechanisms, such as IL-10 production, are able to modulate the inflammatory immune response involved in the pathology of auto-immune and allergic disease.
  • Schistosomiasis protects against multiple sclerosis

    La Flamme, Anne Camille; Canagasabey, Kanishka; Harvie, Marina; Bäckström, B Thomas

    Abstract in English:

    The incidences of schistosomiasis and multiple sclerosis (MS) are mutually exclusive worldwide suggesting that schistosomiasis may offer protection against the induction of the immune-mediated disease, MS. Recent studies using the mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, support a direct suppression of the onset of MS by chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection. Self-reactive Th1 but not Th2 responses develop in infected mice immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein albeit at reduced levels indicating that the induction of auto-reactive T cells is not abolished nor phenotypically altered. CNS infiltration by inflammatory cells, particularly macrophages, is significantly reduced in S. mansoni-infected, immunized mice compared to uninfected, immunized mice. Because activated macrophages are crucial to the induction of clinical disease, these findings support the hypothesis that differences in macrophage activation may contribute to the reduced incidence and delayed progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis during schistosomiasis.
  • Vaccination with antioxidant enzymes confers protective immunity against challenge infection with Schistosoma mansoni

    LoVerde, Philip T; Carvalho-Queiroz, Claudia; Cook, Rosemary

    Abstract in English:

    Schistosoma mansoni, an intravascular parasite, lives in a hostile environment in close contact with host humoral and cellular cytotoxic factors. To establish itself in the host, the parasite has evolved a number of immune evasion mechanisms, such as antioxidant enzymes. Our laboratory has demonstrated that the expression of antioxidant enzymes is developmentally regulated, with the highest levels present in the adult worm, the stage least susceptible to immune elimination, and the lowest levels in the larval stages, the most susceptible to immune elimination. Vaccination of mice with naked DNA constructs containing Cu/Zn cytosolic superoxide dismutase (CT-SOD), signal-peptide containing SOD or glutathione peroxidase (GPX) showed significant levels of protection compared to a control group. We have further shown that vaccination with SmCT-SOD but not SmGPX results in elimination of adult worms. Anti-oxidant enzyme vaccine candidates offer an advance over existing vaccine strategies that all seem to target the larval developmental stages in that they target adult worms and thus may have therapeutic as well as prophylactic value. To eliminate the potential for cross-reactivity of SmCT-SOD with human superoxide dismutase, we identified parasite-specific epitope-containing peptides. Our results serve as a basis for developing a subunit vaccine against schistosomiasis.
  • From genomes to vaccines via the proteome

    Wilson, R Alan; Curwen, Rachel S; Braschi, Simon; Hall, Stephanie L; Coulson, Patricia S; Ashton, Peter D

    Abstract in English:

    An effective vaccine against schistosomiasis mansoni would be a valuable control tool and the high levels of protection elicited in rodents and primates by radiation-attenuated cercariae provide proof of principle. A major obstacle to vaccine development is the difficulty of identifying the antigens that mediate protection, not least because of the size of the genome at 280Mb DNA encoding 14,000 to 20,000 genes. The technologies collectively called proteomics, including 2D electrophoresis, liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, now permit any protein to be identified provided there is extensive DNA data, and preferably a genome sequence. Applied to soluble (cytosolic) proteins from schistosomes, proteomics reveals the great similarity in composition between life cycle stages, with several WHO vaccine candidates amongst the most abundant constituents. The proteomic approach has been successfully applied to identify the secretions used by cercaria to penetrate host skin, the gut secretions of adult worms and the proteins exposed on the tegument surface. Soluble proteins can also be separated by 2D electrophoresis before western blotting to identify the full range of antigenic targets present in a parasite preparation. The next step is to discover which target proteins represent the weak points in the worm's defences.
  • Schistosomal hepatopathy

    Andrade, Zilton A

    Abstract in English:

    Gross anatomical features and a complex set of vascular changes characterize schistosomal hepatopathy as a peculiar form of chronic liver disease, clinically known as "hepatosplenic schistosomiasis". It differs from hepatic cirrhosis, although clinical and pathological aspects may sometimes induce confusion between these two conditions. Intrahepatic portal vein obstruction and compensatory arterial hypertrophy render the hepatic parenchyma vulnerable to ischemic insult. This may lead to focal necrosis, which may give place to focal post-necrotic scars. These events are of paramount importance for the clinico-pathological evolution of schistosomal hepatopathy. Although portal fibrosis due to schistosomiasis sometimes reveals numerous myofibroblasts, it does not mean that such fibrosis belongs to a peculiar type. Damage to the muscular walls of the portal vein may be followed by dissociation of smooth muscle cells and their transition toward myofibroblasts, which appear only as transient cells in schistosomal portal fibrosis. Studies made with plastic vascular casts, especially those with the murine model of "pipestem" fibrosis have helped to reveal the mechanisms involved in systematized portal fibrosis formation. However, the factors involved in the pathogenesis of hepatosplenic disease remain poorly understood. A process of chronic hepatitis is a common accompaniment of portal fibrosis in schistosomiasis. Most of the times it is caused by concomitant viral infection. However, no especial interaction seems to exist between schistosomal hepatopathy and viral hepatitis.
  • Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Ferrari, Teresa Cristina de Abreu

    Abstract in English:

    The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS) is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR) present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.
  • Identification of immunodominant epitopes of Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate antigens using human T cells

    Fonseca, CT; Cunha-Neto, E; Kalil, J; Jesus, AR de; Correa-Oliveira, R; Carvalho, EM; Oliveira, SC

    Abstract in English:

    Paramyosin and Sm14 are two of the six antigens selected by the World Health Organization as candidates to compose a subunit vaccine against schistosomiasis. Both antigens are recognized by individuals naturally resistant to Schistosoma mansoni infection and induced protective immunity in the murine model. Three Sm14 epitopes and eleven paramyosin epitopes were selected by their ability to bind to different HLA-DR molecules using the TEPITOPE computer program, and these peptides were synthetically produced. The cellular recognition of Sm14 and paramyosin epitopes by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of individuals living in endemic area for schistosomiasis was tested by T cell proliferation assay. Among all Sm14 and paramyosin epitopes studied, Sm14-3 was preferentially recognized by individuals naturally resistant to S. mansoni infection while Para-5 was preferentially recognized by individuals resistant to reinfection. These two peptides represent promising antigens to be used in an experimental vaccine against schistosomiasis, since their preferential recognition by resistant individuals suggest their involvement in the induction of protective immunity.
  • Hypertensive portal colopathy in schistosomiasis mansoni: proposal for a classification

    Miranda, Maria Angelina C; Domingues, Ana Lúcia C; Dias, Heloisa S; Miranda, Renata C; Jucá, Norma T; Albuquerque, Maria Fátima M; Cordeiro, Fernando T

    Abstract in English:

    Portal hypertension is a frequent complication of chronic liver disease, detected not only in schistosomiasis, but also in cirrhosis of any etiology. Vascular alterations in the colonic mucosa are a potential source for acute or chronic bleeding and have been observed in patients with portal hypertension. The purpose of this prospective study was to describe and propose a classification for the vascular alterations of portal hypertension in the colonic mucosa among patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni. One or more alterations of portal colopathy were observed in all patients and they were classified according to their intensity, obeying the classification proposed by the authors. Portal colopathy is an important finding in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis and might be the cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with severe portal hypertension.
  • The initial epidemiological studies in the low endemicity schistosomiasis area in esteio, Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost Brazilian State, 1997 to 2000

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; Valar, Cristiana; Moraes, Caroline K de; Salvany, Adriana Mostardeiro; Brum, Charles de Ornellas; Maurer, Rafael Lucyk; Ben, Renata; Mardini, Lúcia BLF; Jobim, Marta Bañolas; Amaral, Ronaldo Santos do

    Abstract in English:

    Nor Biomphalaria glabrata neither Schistosoma mansoni were reported from Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost Brazilian state before 1997. Their detection next to the Sinos River, Esteio, confirmed predictions of schistosomiasis expansion to the south. Parasitological examinations both in snails and fecal samples from the human population were performed from 1997 to 2000. The last 3 out of 5 surveys were performed after a preliminar serological screening procedure in a risk group identified at a population census. A total of 11 infected individuals were found infected and snails from 2 different sites were positive for S. mansoni. Samples from these 2 and other sites were identified as B. glabrata. Egg counts in feces were below 1 per gram in 6 out of 11 patients. Some socio-cultural perceptions of water contact activities next to the Sinos River may cause difficulties to control efforts, but they also may be partially acting against a very rapid increase in transmission intensity. The southernmost schistomiasis mansoni foci in Americas rise the alert for its ongoing expansion.
  • Spatial distribution of schistosomiasis foci on Itamaracá Island, Pernambuco, Brazil

    Barbosa, CS; Araújo, KC; Antunes, L; Favre, T; Pieri, OS

    Abstract in English:

    Acute cases of schistosomiasis have been found on the coastal area of Pernambuco, Brazil, due to environmental disturbances and disorderly occupation of the urban areas. This study identifies and spatially marks the main foci of the snail host species, Biomphalaria glabrata on Itamaracá Island. The chaotic occupation of the beach resorts has favoured the emergence of transmission foci, thus exposing residents and tourists to the risk of infection. A database covering five years of epidemiological investigation on snails infected by Schistosoma mansoni in the island was produced with information from the geographic positioning of the foci, number of snails collected, number of snails tested positive, and their infection rate. The spatial position of the foci were recorded through the Global Positioning System (GPS), and the geographical coordinates were imported by AutoCad. The software packages ArcView and Spring were used for data processing and spatial analysis. AutoCad 2000 was used to plot the pairs of coordinates obtained from GPS. Between 1998 and 2002 5009 snails, of which 12.2% were positive for S. mansoni, were collected in Forte Beach. A total of 27 foci and areas of environmental risk were identified and spatially analyzed allowing the identification of the areas exposed to varying degrees of risk.
  • Malnutrition and hepatic fibrosis in murine schistosomiasis

    Coutinho, Eridan M

    Abstract in English:

    In this paper, four different approaches attempting to reproduce the schistosomal liver fibrosis in undernourished mice are reported: shifting from a deficient to a balanced diet and vice-versa, repeated infections, influence of the genetic background, and immunological response. Infections were performed with 30 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni and lasted at least four months. Undernourished mice were unable to reproduce the picture of "pipestem" fibrosis, except the C57 BL/10 inbred strain, four out of 21 mice developing the liver lesion. A link of this histological finding to the type of parasite strain can not be discarded at the moment. Repeated infections increased collagen deposition mainly in well nourished animals (seven out of 16 Swiss mice developed "pipestem"-like fibrosis). In undernourished infected Swiss mice the serum levels of soluble egg antigen specific antibodies IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 were two to four times lower than those detected for well nourished controls. The decreased humoral immune response coupled to the morphological, morphometric, and biochemical results reinforce the influence of the host nutritional status on the connective tissue changes of hepatic schistosomiasis.
  • Interactions between schistosomiasis and human immunodeficiency virus in Western Kenya

    Secor, W Evan; Karanja, Diana MS; Colley, Daniel G

    Abstract in English:

    For the past ten years, we have been exploring the relationship between schistosomiasis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and how coinfection with both agents may affect the pathology and progression of each infection. To date, given the systems we have examined, the effects of HIV-1 on schistosomiasis have been more profound than the effects of schistosomiasis on HIV-1 progression. Additional key questions with important public health implications remain unanswered, but hopefully not unanswerable.
  • Evaluation of tests based on the antibody response to keyhole limpet haemocyanin and soluble egg antigen to differentiate acute and chronic human schistosomiasis mansoni

    Beck, Lílian; Van-Lüme, Daniele SM; Souza, Joelma R de; Morais, Clarice N Lins de; Melo, Wlademir G; Xavier, Edeneide; Barbosa, Constança S; Aroucha, Marcílio L; Domingues, Ana Lúcia C; Favre, Tereza; Pieri, Otávio; Abath, Frederico GC; Montenegro, Silvia ML

    Abstract in English:

    Specific IgG and IgM responses to soluble egg antigen (SEA) and keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) were measured by ELISA in patients with acute and chronic schistosomiasis. The tests based upon IgM and IgG antibodies responses to KLH presented the best diagnostic discrimination, and can be used in conjunction with clinical and epidemiological data to the differential diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis.
  • Freshwater snails and schistosomiasis mansoni in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: V - Norte fluminense mesoregion

    Thiengo, Silvana C; Mattos, Aline C; Boaventura, M Fernanda; Loureiro, Márcio S; Santos, Sonia B; Fernandez, Monica A

    Abstract in English:

    In this paper, the fifth of a series dealing with the survey of freshwater gastropods of the state of Rio de Janeiro, the results of collections carried out in the Norte Fluminense Mesoregion from 2002 to 2003 are presented and revealed the occurrence of 19 species: Antillorbis nordestensis; Burnupia sp.; Biomphalaria tenagophila; Drepanotrema anatinum; Drepanotrema cimex; Drepanotrema depressissimum; Drepanotrema lucidum; Ferrissia sp.; Gundlachia ticaga; Gundlachia sp.; Heleobia sp.; Hebetancylus moricandi; Idiopyrgus sp.; Lymnaea columella; Melanoides tuberculatus; Physa acuta; Physa marmorata; Pomacea sordida, and Pomacea sp. Concerning the snail hosts of Schistosoma mansoni only B. tenagophila was found, in contrast with other previuosly studied mesoregions.No specimens were found harbouring larval forms of S. mansoni although different kinds of cercariae had been observed.An account about the current schistosomiasis transmission sites in this Mesoregion is presented as well.
  • Rural tourism as risk factor for the transmission of schistosomiasis in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Enk, Martin J; Caldeira, Roberta L; Carvalho, Omar S; Schall, Virginia T

    Abstract in English:

    Recently, the booming rural tourism in endemic areas of the state of Minas Gerais was identified as a contributing factor in the dissemination of the infection with Schistosoma mansoni. This article presents data from six holiday resorts in a rural district approximately 100 km distant from Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil, where a possibly new and until now unperceived way of transmission was observed. The infection takes place in swimming pools and little ponds, which are offered to tourists and the local population for fishing and leisure activities. The health authorities of the district reported cases of schistosomiasis among the local population after visiting these sites. As individuals of the non-immune middle class parts of the society of big urban centers also frequent these resorts, infection of these persons cannot be excluded. A malacological survey revealed the presence of molluscs of the species Biomphalaria glabrata and Biomphalaria straminea at the resorts. The snails (B. glabrata) of one resort tested positive for S. mansoni. In order to resolve this complex problem a multidisciplinary approach including health education, sanitation measures, assistance to the local health services, and evolvement of the local political authorities, the local community, the tourism association, and the owners of the leisure resorts is necessary. This evidence emphasizes the urgent need for a participative strategic plan to develop the local tourism in an organized and well-administered way. Only so this important source of income for the region can be ensured on the long term without disseminating the disease and putting the health of the visitors at risk.
  • Biomphalaria tenagophila/Schistosoma mansoni interaction: premises for a new approach to biological control of schistosomiasis

    Coelho, PMZ; Carvalho, OS; Andrade, ZA; Martins-Sousa, RL; Rosa, FM; Barbosa, L; Pereira, CAJ; Caldeira, RL; Jannotti-Passos, LK; Godard, ALB; Moreira, LA; Oliveira, GC; Franco, GR; Teles, HMS; Negrão-Corrêa, D

    Abstract in English:

    Biomphalaria tenagophila is very important for schistosomiasis transmission in Brazil. However its mechanisms of interaction with Schistosoma mansoni are still scantly studied. Since this snail displays strains highly susceptible or completely resistant to the parasite infection, the knowledge of that would be a useful tool to understand the mechanism of snail resistance. Particularly, the Taim strain consistently shows absolute resistance against the trematode, and this resistance is a dominant character. A multidisciplinary research group was created aiming at studying B. tenagophila/S. mansoni interaction. The possibility for applying the knowledge acquired to obtain a biological model for the control of S. mansoni transmission in endemic areas is discussed.
  • A Pedagogical approach of schistosomiasis an experience in health education in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Schall, Virgínia Torres

    Abstract in English:

    The experience described here is part of an extensive program that aims to stimulate schools to develop health integrated projects from theme generators, i.e., themes that have a meaning for the community. It was developed in Jaboticatubas, a town in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, capital of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, and the focus was schistosomiasis. The selection was based on the expressive and historical prevalence of this disease in the county, which has been known as the "capital of schistosomiasis", in a national press release since the 1960's. Schistosomiasis is also a theme pointed out by teachers as requiring more information and methodologies to work with their students, most of them living in areas of high risk of transmission. In addition, during the last years, this disease has been transmitted silently through an increasing rural tourism in that region, requiring integrated and effective control actions. The developed strategy included four schools, whose teachers, students, and families took part in the process. It emphasizes in a critical pedagogy approach, which focuses on health issues as themes that may mobilize the school community and awake the population to a work which integrates environment, health, and citizenship. The results demonstrate that teachers and students not only acquired new knowledge and methodological skills, but also gained confidence in their ability to improve their health conditions. Thus, the project promotes a critical education that can result a more permanent effect on the control of schistosomiasis as well as other benefits for the schools and for the population.
  • Clinical and immunological consequences of human T cell leukemia virus type-I and Schistosoma mansoni co-infection

    Santos, Silvane Braga; Porto, Aurélia Fonseca; Muniz, André Luiz; Jesus, Amélia Ribeiro de; Carvalho, Edgar M

    Abstract in English:

    Human T cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I) infection is associated with spontaneous T cell activation and uncontrolled lymphocyte proliferation. An exacerbated type-1 immune response with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) is significantly higher in patients with myelopathy associated to HTLV-I than in HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers. In contrast with HTLV-I, a chronic Schistosoma mansoni infection is associated with a type-2 immune response with high levels of interleukin (IL-4, IL-5, and IL-10) and low levels of IFN-gamma. In this study, clinical and immunological consequences of the HTLV-I and S. mansoni infection were evaluated. The immune response in patients with schistosomiasis co-infected with HTLV-I showed low levels of IL-5 (p < 0.05) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells cultures stimulated with S. mansoni antigen (SWAP) and decreased SWAP-specific IgE levels when compared with patients with only schistosomiasis (p < 0.05). Liver fibrosis was mild in all HTLV-I co-infected patients. Immunological response was also compared in individuals who had only HTLV-I infection with those who were co-infected with HTLV-I and helminths (S. mansoni and Strongyloides stercoralis). In patients HTLV-I positive co-infected with helminths the IFN-gamma levels were lower than in individuals who had only HTLV-I. Moreover, there were fewer cells expressing IFN-gamma and more cells expressing IL-10 in individuals co-infected with HTLV-I and helminths. These dates indicate that HTLV-I infection decrease type 2-response and IgE synthesis and are inversely associated with the development of liver fibrosis. Moreover, helminths may protect HTLV-I infected patients to produce large quantities of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma.
  • Factors associated with schistosomiasis mansoni in a population from the municipality of Jaboticatubas, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Massara, Cristiano Lara; Peixoto, Sérgio Viana; Barros, Héliton da Silva; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carvalho, Omar dos Santos; Schall, Virgínia

    Abstract in English:

    Jaboticatubas is a municipality in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte which has been a target of a wide media release as "the capital of schistosomiasis" since the 1960's. In order to give support to a work based on an integrated control, we sought to identify the disease determinants at the site. A transversal study was carried out aimed at identifying prevalence rates of the disease and factors associated with the infection in the district of São José de Almeida, and two close localities, Cipó Velho and São José da Serra, all of them located in the municipality of Jaboticatubas. A parasitological survey was performed, applying the Kato-Katz method with two slides per sample in 1186 schoolchildren which represents 77% of all registered pupils in four public schools in 2001. Among these schoolchildren a number of 101 (8.6%) prooved positive for Schistosoma mansoni eggs in their stool samples. A total of 64 families, whose schoolchildren had shown to be positive for schistosomiasis, also undertook examinations. As negative control, a random sample was collected from the 206 families, whose children had proven negative for schistosomiasis. The prevalence among 270 families (1304 people) was 12%. To assess those who continued to have contact with possibly contaminated water, 1061 (81.4%) people of the 270 families were interviewed. A multivariate analysis identified the following factors associated with the infection: time of residence in the area (short period), garbage disposal (use of deserted areas), gender (male), age (from 10 to 29 years), and water contact (daily and weekly). Further analysis of these factors revealed a close correlation between water contact and the disease, with a positive significant frequency concerning almost all those items. Depending on gender and age significant variations of water contact patterns associated with leisure and professional activities were found. A malacological survey on water collections in the area identified snails of the species Biomphalaria straminea and B. glabrata. The latter showed 17 (0.6%) specimens positive for S. mansoni. Qualitative studies have complemented such evidences, which allowed us to design a reference picture and specific indicators of the disease for the local population. Those data provided the essential information to continue the development of an already ongoing educative process, as well as projects on environmental improvements.
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