Abstract in English:Nitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in mediating many aspects of inflammatory responses. NO is an effector molecule of cellular injury, and can act as an anti-oxidant. It can modulate the release of various inflammatory mediators from a wide range of cells participating in inflammatory responses (e.g., leukocytes, macrophages, mast cells, endothelial cells, and platelets). It can modulate blood flow, adhesion of leukocytes to the vascular endothelium and the activity of numerous enzymes, all of which can have an impact on inflammatory responses. In recent years, NO-releasing drugs have been developed, usually as derivatives of other drugs, which exhibit very powerful anti-inflammatory effects.
Abstract in English:Mast cells (MC) are important in the numerous physiological processes of homeostasis and disease. Most notably, MC are critical effectors in the development and exacerbation of allergic disorders. Nitric oxide (NO) is a diatomic radical produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and has pluripotent cell signaling and cytotoxic properties. NO can influence many MC functions. Recent evidence shows the source of this NO can be from the mast cell itself. Governing the production of this endogenous NO, through alterations in the expression of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4), a NOS cofactor, has stabilizing effects on MC degranulation. Furthermore, NO regulates the synthesis and secretion of de novo generated mediators, including leukotrienes and chemokines. These novel observations add to the growing body of knowledge surrounding the role of NO in the MC.
Abstract in English:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is the primary physiological source of nitric oxide (NO) that regulates cardiovascular homeostasis. Historically eNOS has been thought to be a constitutively expressed enzyme regulated by calcium and calmodulin. However, in the last five years it is clear that eNOS activity and NO release can be regulated by post-translational control mechanisms (fatty acid modification and phosphorylation) and protein-protein interactions (with caveolin-1 and heat shock protein 90) that direct impinge upon the duration and magnitude of NO release. This review will summarize this information and apply the post-translational control mechanisms to disease states.
Abstract in English:Asthma results from allergen-driven intrapulmonary Th2 response, and is characterized by intermittent airway obstruction, airway hyperreactivity (AHR), and airway inflammation. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract are commonly associated with elevated production of nitric oxide (NO). It has been shown that exhaled NO may be derived from constitutive NO synthase (NOS) such as endothelial (NOS 3) and neural (NOS 1) in normal airways, while increased levels of NO in asthma appear to be derived from inducible NOS2 expressed in the inflamed airways. Nevertheless, the functional role of NO and NOS isoforms in the regulation of AHR and airway inflammation in human or experimental models of asthma is still highly controversial. In the present commentary we will discuss the role of lipopolysaccharides contamination of allergens as key element in the controversy related to the regulation of NOS2 activity in experimental asthma.
Abstract in English:We have previously reported that in comparison with normal rats, the presence of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) leads to decreased endogenous inhibitory activity (EIA) of Ca2+-dependent nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in both brain and serum, and increased expression of protein 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) in brain. In this work we show that animals recovered from the clinical signs of EAE are not different from controls in terms of either brain NOS activity, EIA of NOS, or NT expression. These results suggest that parallel to the reversal of the disease symptoms, a normalization of the production of nitric oxide and related species occurs.
Abstract in English:Recent work has demonstrated that hyperglycemia-induced overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron-transport chain triggers several pathways of injury [(protein kinase C (PKC), hexosamine and polyol pathway fluxes, advanced glycation end product formation (AGE)] involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications by inhibiting glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity. Increased oxidative and nitrosative stress activates the nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP). PARP activation, on one hand, depletes its substrate, NAD+, slowing the rate of glycolysis, electron transport and ATP formation. On the other hand, PARP activation results in inhibition of GAPDH by poly-ADP-ribosylation. These processes result in acute endothelial dysfunction in diabetic blood vessels, which importantly contributes to the development of various diabetic complications. Accordingly, hyperglycemia-induced activation of PKC and AGE formation are prevented by inhibition of PARP activity. Furthermore, inhibition of PARP protects against diabetic cardiovascular dysfunction in rodent models of cardiomyopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, and retinopathy. PARP activation is also present in microvasculature of human diabetic subjects. The present review focuses on the role of PARP in diabetic complications and emphasizes the therapeutic potential of PARP inhibition in the prevention or reversal of diabetic complications.
Abstract in English:The concept of anti-inflammation is currently evolving with the definition of several endogenous inhibitory circuits that are important in the control of the host inflammatory response. Here we focus on one of these pathways, the annexin 1 (ANXA1) system. Originally identified as a 37 kDa glucocorticoid-inducible protein, ANXA1 has emerged over the last decade as an important endogenous modulator of inflammation. We review the pharmacological effects of ANXA1 on cell types involved in inflammation, from blood-borne leukocytes to resident cells. This review reveals that there is scope for more research, since most of the studies have so far focused on the effects of the protein and its peptido-mimetics on neutrophil recruitment and activation. However, many other cells central to inflammation, e.g. endothelial cells or mast cells, also express ANXA1: it is foreseen that a better definition of the role(s) of the endogenous protein in these cells will open the way to further pharmacological studies. We propose that a more systematic analysis of ANXA1 physio-pharmacology in cells involved in the host inflammatory reaction could aid in the design of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics based on this endogenous mediator.
Abstract in English:Aspirin has always remained an enigmatic drug. Not only does it present with new benefits for treating an ever-expanding list of apparently unrelated diseases at an astounding rate but also because aspirin enhances our understanding of the nature of these diseases processe. Originally, the beneficial effects of aspirin were shown to stem from its inhibition of cyclooxygenase-derived prostaglandins, fatty acid metabolites that modulate host defense. However, in addition to inhibiting cyclooxygenase activity aspirin can also inhibit pro-inflammatory signaling pathways, gene expression and other factors distinct from eicosanoid biosynthesis that drive inflammation as well as enhance the synthesis of endogenous protective anti-inflammatory factors. Its true mechanism of action in anti-inflammation remains unclear. Here the data from a series of recent experiments proposing that one of aspirin's predominant roles in inflammation is the induction of nitric oxide, which potently inhibits leukocyte/endothelium interaction during acute inflammation, will be discussed. It will be argued that this nitric oxide-inducing effects are exclusive to aspirin due to its unique ability, among the family of traditional anti-inflammatory drugs, to acetylate the active site of inducible cyclooxygenase and generate a family of lipid mediators called the epi-lipoxins that are increasingly being shown to have profound roles in a range of host defense responses.
Abstract in English:An impressive array of cellular and molecular adaptive responses achieves homeostasis. The inflammatory reaction is an adaptive response triggered by an insult to culminate into the overt cardinal signs of inflammation, eventually leading to resolution and returning the organism back to its original centered state. This article focuses on some aspects of the lipoxin A4 signaling pathway during the resolution phase, to better understand molecular mechanisms by which a neutrophil directs an inflammatory reaction to switch off and resume homeostasis. Defining the resolution state of a neutrophil at the molecular level will aid in treatments of diseases that are associated with an exaggerated and uncontrolled inflammation.
Abstract in English:A major goal in the treatment of acute ischemia of a vascular territory is to restore blood flow to normal values, i.e. to "reperfuse" the ischemic vascular bed. However, reperfusion of ischemic tissues is associated with local and systemic leukocyte activation and trafficking, endothelial barrier dysfunction in postcapillary venules, enhanced production of inflammatory mediators and great lethality. This phenomenon has been referred to as "reperfusion injury" and several studies demonstrated that injury is dependent on neutrophil recruitment. Furthermore, ischemia and reperfusion injury is associated with the coordinated activation of a series of cytokines and adhesion molecules. Among the mediators of the inflammatory cascade released, TNF-alpha appears to play an essential role for the reperfusion-associated injury. On the other hand, the release of IL-10 modulates pro-inflammatory cytokine production and reperfusion-associated tissue injury. IL-1beta, PAF and bradykinin are mediators involved in ischemia and reperfusion injury by regulating the balance between TNF-alpha and IL-10 production. Strategies that enhance IL-10 and/or prevent TNF-alpha concentration may be useful as therapeutic adjuvants in the treatment of the tissue injury that follows ischemia and reperfusion.
Abstract in English:The ubiquitous free radical, nitric oxide (NO), plays an important role in many biological processes including the regulation of the inflammatory response. Alterations in NO synthesis by endogenous systems likely influence inflammatory processes occurring in a wide range of diseases including many in the cardiovascular system (e.g. atherosclerosis). Progression of inflammatory conditions depends not only upon the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells but also upon their subsequent removal from the inflammatory milieu. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is a fundamental process regulating inflammatory cell survival and is critically involved in ensuring the successful resolution of an inflammatory response. Apoptosis results in shutdown of secretory pathways and renders effete, but potentially highly histotoxic, cells instantly recognisable for non-inflammatory clearance by phagocytes (e.g., macrophages). However, dysregulation of apoptosis and phagocytic clearance mechanisms can have drastic consequences for development and resolution of inflammatory processes. In this review we highlight the complexities of NO-mediated regulation of inflammatory cell apoptosis and clearance by phagocytes and discuss the molecular mechanisms controlling these NO mediated effects. We believe that manipulation of pathways involving NO may have previously unrecognised therapeutic potential for limiting or resolving inflammatory and cardiovascular disease.
Abstract in English:Human eosinophils have been demonstrated to contain a multitude of cytokines and chemokines that exist pre-formed within these cells. This content of pre-formed cytokines, with diverse potential biologic activities, provides eosinophils with capabilities distinct from most other leukocytes. The localization of pre-formed cytokines within eosinophils is both within specific granules and associated with substantial numbers of morphologically distinct cytoplasmic vesicles. Stimulation for release of specific cytokines, such as IL-4, leads to a regulated signal transduction cascade, which is dependent on the formation of leukotriene C4 within eosinophils where it acts as an intracrine mediator. IL-4 release occurs selectively and is by means of vesicular transport. The capabilities of eosinophils not only to rapidly release pre-formed cytokines but also to differentially regulate which cytokines are released endow eosinophils with distinct abilities in innate and acquired immunity.
Abstract in English:Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is one of the most potent lipid mediators involved in inflammatory events. The acetyl group at the sn-2 position of its glycerol backbone is essential for its biological activity. Deacetylation induces the formation of the inactive metabolite lyso-PAF. This deacetylation reaction is catalyzed by PAF-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH), a calcium independent phospholipase A2 that also degrades a family of PAF-like oxidized phospholipids with short sn-2 residues. Biochemical and enzymological evaluations revealed that at least three types of PAF-AH exist in mammals, namely the intracellular types I and II and a plasma type. Many observations indicate that plasma PAF AH terminates signals by PAF and oxidized PAF-like lipids and thereby regulates inflammatory responses. In this review, we will focus on the potential of PAF-AH as a modulator of diseases of dysregulated inflammation.
Abstract in English:The comprehension of the pathogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi-elicited myocarditis is crucial to delineate new therapeutic strategies aiming to ameliorate the inflammation that leads to heart dysfunction, without hampering parasite control. The augmented expression of CCL5/RANTES and CCL3/MIP-1alpha, and their receptor CCR5, in the heart of T. cruzi-infected mice suggests a role for CC-chemokines and their receptors in the pathogenesis of T. cruzi-elicited myocarditis. Herein, we discuss our recent results using a CC-chemokine receptor inhibitor (Met-RANTES), showing the participation of CC-chemokines in T. cruzi infection and unraveling CC-chemokine receptors as an attractive therapeutic target for further evaluation in Chagas disease.
Abstract in English:Oxidative stress underlies many forms of vascular disease as well as tissue injury following ischemia and reperfusion. The major source of oxidative stress in the artery wall is an NADPH oxidase. This enzyme complex as expressed in vascular cells differs from that in phagocytic leucocytes both in biochemical structure and functions. The crucial flavin-containing catalytic subunits, Nox1 and Nox4, are not found in leucocytes, but are highly expressed in vascular cells and upregulated with vascular remodeling, such as that found in hypertension and atherosclerosis. The difference in catalytic subunits offers the opportunity to develop "vascular specific" NADPH oxidase inhibitors that do not compromise the essential physiological signaling and phagocytic functions carried out by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Nitric oxide and targeted inhibitors of NADPH oxidase that block the source of oxidative stress in the vasculature are more likely to prevent the deterioration of vascular function that leads to stroke and heart attack, than are conventional antioxidants. The roles of Nox isoforms in other inflammatory conditions are yet to be explored.
Abstract in English:Hemopressin (PVNFKFLSH), a novel bioactive peptide derived from the alpha1-chain of hemoglobin, was originally isolated from rat brain homogenates. Hemopressin causes hypotension in anesthetized rats and is metabolized in vivo and in vitro by endopeptidase 24.15 (EP24.15), neurolysin (EP24.16), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Hemopressin also exerts an antinociceptive action in experimental inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by carrageenin or bradykinin via a mechanism that is independent of opioids. These findings suggest that this peptide may have important regulatory physiological actions in vivo.
Abstract in English:Edema is a consistent observation in inflamatory bowel disease (IBD), and immune responses are inevitable in inflammation. Because the lymphatic system is an integral part of both tissue fluid homeostasis and immune reactions, it is likely that lymphatics play a role in the complex etiology of IBD. Despite the consistent findings that the lymphatic system is altered during gastrointestinal inflammation, the majority of studies conducted on the disease only mention the lymphatic system in passing. The effects of inflammatory mediators on lymphatic vessel function also remain poorly defined, despite its essential role in immunity and prevention of tissue edema. Processes allowing effective lymph transport are altered during inflammation, however, the mode of alteration and reason why lymphatics are ineffective in inflammatory reactions need to be further investigated. In addition, these processes have not yet been examined in an appropriate animal model and little has been done using in vivo methods of investigation in any model of gastrointestinal inflammation. This paper reviews the role of the lymphatic system in intestinal inflammation, as well as the role of the inflammatory products in mediating lymphatic contractile function.
Abstract in English:Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is now established as a principle vaso-active mediator in the vasculature. Its actions on arteries are complex, and are mediated by the P2X and P2Y receptor families. It is generally accepted that ATP induces a bi-phasic response in arteries, inducing contraction via the P2X and P2Y receptors on the smooth muscle cells, and vasodilation via the actions of P2Y receptors located on the endothelium. However, a number of recent studies have placed P2X1 receptors on the endothelium of some arteries. The use of a specific P2X1 receptor ligand, <FONT FACE=Symbol>a, b</FONT> methylene ATP has demonstrated that P2X1 receptors also have a bi-functional role. The actions of ATP on P2X1 receptors is therefore dependant on its location, inducing contraction when located on the smooth muscle cells, and dilation when expressed on the endothelium, comparable to that of P2Y receptors.
Abstract in English:An area of increasingly interest for the understanding of cell signaling are the spatio-temporal aspects of the different enzymes involved in lipid mediator generation (eicosanoid-forming enzymes, phospholipases and their regulatory kinases and phosphatases) and pools of lipid precursors. The compartmentalization of signaling components within discrete and dynamic sites in the cell is critical for specificity and efficiency of enzymatic reactions of phosphorilation, enzyme activation and function. We hypothesized that lipid bodies - inducible non-membrane bound cytoplasmic lipid domains - function as specialized intracellular sites of compartmentalization of signaling with major roles in lipid mediator formation within leukocytes engaged in inflammatory process. Over the past years substantial progresses have been made demonstrating that all enzymes involved in eicosanoid synthesis localize at lipid bodies and lipid bodies are distinct sites for eicosanoid generation. Here we will review our current knowledge on the mechanisms of formation and functions of lipid bodies pertinent to inflammation.
Abstract in English:The prevalence of atopic diseases and diabetes is increasing worldwide though the concurrence of these pathologies in individual patients is found less frequent than it would be predicted. Moreover, co-existence of diabetes and allergy is generally marked by attenuation of their respective symptoms, and effective treatment of one disease exacerbates the other. This review gives an update of the state-of-the-art concerning the intercurrence of allergy and diabetes, particularly focusing on the consequences to the allergen-evoked vascular and cellular changes. It is proposed that the reduction in mast cell numbers and reactivity may be a pivotal mechanism behind the mutual exclusion phenomenon.
Abstract in English:We previously reported that alloxan-induced diabetes results in reduction in the number and reactivity of mast cells at different body sites. In this study, the influence of diabetes on thymic mast cells was investigated. Thymuses from diabetic rats showed marked alterations including shrinkage, thymocyte depletion, and increase in the extracellular matrix network, as compared to those profiles seen in normal animals. Nevertheless, we noted that the number and reactivity of mast cells remained unchanged. These findings indicate that although diabetes leads to critical alterations in the thymus, the local mast cell population is refractory to its effect. This suggests that thymic mast cells are under a different regulation as compared to those located in other tissues.
Abstract in English:Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are responsible for the breakdown of intracellular cyclic nucleotides, from which PDE4 are the major cyclic AMP metabolizing isoenzymes found in inflammatory and immune cells. This generated greatest interest on PDE4 as a potential target to treat lung inflammatory diseases. For example, cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilia in BAL was dose and time dependently reduced by cilomilast. Beside the undesired side effects associated with the first generation of PDE4 inhibitors, the second generation of selective inhibitors such as cilomilast and roflumilast showed clinical efficacy in asthma and chronic obstrutive pulmonary diseases trials, thus re-enhancing the interest on these classes of compounds. However, the ability of PDE4 inhibitors to prevent or modulate the airway remodelling remains relatively unexplored. We demonstrated that selective PDE4 inhibitor RP 73-401 reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activity and TGF-beta1 release during LPS-induced lung injury in mice and that CI-1044 inhibited the production of MMP-1 and MMP-2 from human lung fibroblasts stimulated by pro-inflammatory cytokines. Since inflammatory diseases of the bronchial airways are associated with destruction of normal tissue structure, our data suggest a therapeutic benefit for PDE4 inhibitors in tissue remodelling associated with chronic lung diseases.
Abstract in English:Allergic diseases have been closely related to Th2 immune responses, which are characterized by high levels of interleukin (IL) IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. These cytokines orchestrate the recruitment and activation of different effector cells, such as eosinophils and mast cells. These cells along with Th2 cytokines are key players on the development of chronic allergic inflammatory disorders, usually characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness, reversible airway obstruction, and airway inflammation. Accumulating evidences have shown that altering cytokine-producing profile of Th2 cells by inducing Th1 responses may be protective against Th2-related diseases such as asthma and allergy. Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), the principal Th1 effector cytokine, has shown to be crucial for the resolution of allergic-related immunopathologies. In fact, reduced production of this cytokine has been correlated with severe asthma. In this review, we will discuss the role of IFN-gamma during the generation of immune responses and its influence on allergic inflammation models, emphasizing its biologic properties during the different aspects of allergic responses.
Abstract in English:Stem cell factor (SCF) is a major mast cell growth factor, which could be involved in the local increase of mast cell number in the asthmatic airways. In vivo, SCF expression increases in asthmatic patients and this is reversed after treatment with glucocorticoids. In vitro in human lung fibroblasts in culture, IL-1beta, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, confirms this increased SCF mRNA and protein expression implying the MAP kinases p38 and ERK1/2 very early post-treatment, and glucocorticoids confirm this decrease. Surprisingly, glucocorticoids potentiate the IL-1beta-enhanced SCF expression at short term treatment, implying increased SCF mRNA stability and SCF gene transcription rate. This potentiation involves p38 and ERK1/2. Transfection experiments with the SCF promoter including intron1 also confirm this increase and decrease of SCF expression by IL-1beta and glucocorticoids, and the potentiation by glucocorticoids of the IL-1beta-induced SCF expression. Deletion of the GRE or kappaB sites abolishes this potentiation, and the effect of IL-1beta or glucocorticoids alone. DNA binding of GR and NF-kappaB are also demonstrated for these effects. In conclusion, this review concerns new mechanisms of regulation of SCF expression in inflammation that could lead to potential therapeutic strategy allowing to control mast cell number in the asthmatic airways.
Abstract in English:Allergic diseases result in a considerable socioeconomic burden. The incidence of allergic diseases, notably allergic asthma, has risen to high levels for reasons that are not entirely understood. With an increasing knowledge of underlying mechanisms, there is now more potential to target the inflammatory process rather than the overt symptoms. This focuses attention on the role of leukocytes especially Th2 lymphocytes that regulate allergic inflammation and effector cells where eosinophils have received much attention. Eosinophils are thought to be important based on the high numbers that are recruited to sites of allergic inflammation and the potential of these cells to effect both tissue injury and remodelling. It is hoped that future therapy will be directed towards specific leukocyte types, without overtly compromising essential host defence responses. One obvious target is leukocyte recruitment. This necessitates a detailed understanding of underlying mechanisms, particularly those involving soluble che-moattractants signals and cell-cell adhesion molecules.
Abstract in English:It is presumed that drugs able to prevent bronchial spasm and/or inflammation may have therapeutic potential to control asthma symptoms. The local anaesthetic lidocaine has recently received increased attention as an alternative form of treatment for asthmatic patients. This paper reviews the major findings on the topic and summarizes the putative mechanisms underlying the airway effects of local anaesthetic agents. We think that lidocaine extends the spectrum of options in asthma therapy, probably by counteracting both spasmogenic and inflammatory stimuli in the bronchial airways. The possibility of development of new anti-asthma compounds based on the synthesis of lidocaine derivatives is also on the horizon.
Abstract in English:As many metalloproteinases (MMPs), macrophage elastase (MMP-12) is able to degrade extracellular matrix components such as elastin and is involved in tissue remodeling processes. Studies using animal models of acute and chronic pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as pulmonary fibrosis and chronic obstrutive pulmonary disease (COPD), have given evidences that MMP-12 is an important mediator of the pathogenesis of these diseases. However, as very few data regarding the direct involvement of MMP-12 in inflammatory process in the airways were available, we have instilled a recombinant form of human MMP-12 (rhMMP-12) in mouse airways. Hence, we have demonstrated that this instillation induced a severe inflammatory cell recruitment characterized by an early accumulation of neutrophils correlated with an increase in proinflammatory cytokines and in gelatinases and then by a relatively stable recruitment of macrophages in the lungs over a period of ten days. Another recent study suggests that resident alveolar macrophages and recruited neutrophils are not involved in the delayed macrophage recruitment. However, epithelial cells could be one of the main targets of rhMMP-12 in our model. We have also reported that a corticoid, dexamethasone, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitor, rolipram and a non-selective MMP inhibitor, marimastat could reverse some of these inflammatory events. These data indicate that our rhMMP-12 model could mimic some of the inflammatory features observed in COPD patients and could be used for the pharmacological evaluation of new anti-inflammatory treatment. In this review, data demonstrating the involvement of MMP-12 in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis and COPD as well as our data showing a pro-inflammatory role for MMP-12 in mouse airways will be summarized.
Abstract in English:Recent advances in basic science pointed to a role for proteinases, through the activation of proteinase-activated receptors (PARs) in nociceptive mechanisms. Activation of PAR1, PAR2 and PAR4 either by proteinases or by selective agonists causes inflammation inducing most of the cardinal signs of inflammation: swelling, redness, and pain. Sub-inflammatory doses of PAR2 agonist still induced hyperalgesia and allodynia while PAR2 has been shown to be implicated in the generation of hyperalgesia in different inflammatory models. In contrast, sub-inflammatory doses of PAR1 increases nociceptive threshold, inhibiting inflammatory hyperalgesia, thereby acting as an analgesic agent. PARs are present and functional on sensory neurons, where they participate either directly or indirectly to the transmission and/or inhibition of nociceptive messages. Taken together, the results discussed in this review highlight proteinases as signaling molecules to sensory nerves. We need to consider proteinases and the receptors that are activated by proteinases as important potential targets for the development of analgesic drugs in the treatment of inflammatory pain.
Abstract in English:Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) belongs to a novel subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors with seven-transmembrane domains. This receptor is widely distributed throughout the body and seems to be importantly involved in inflammatory processes. PAR2 can be activated by serine proteases such as trypsin, mast cell tryptase, and bacterial proteases, such as gingipain produced by Porphyromonas gingivalis. This review describes the current stage of knowledge of the possible mechanisms that link PAR2 activation with periodontal disease, and proposes future therapeutic strategies to modulate the host response in the treatment of periodontitis.
Abstract in English:Metalloproteinases are abundant enzymes in crotaline and viperine snake venoms. They are relevant in the pathophysiology of envenomation, being responsible for local and systemic hemorrhage frequently observed in the victims. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) are zinc-dependent enzymes of varying molecular weights having multidomain organization. Some SVMP comprise only the proteinase domain, whereas others also contain a disintegrin-like domain, cysteine-rich, and lectin domains. They have strong structural similarities with both mammalian matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and members of ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase) group. Besides hemorrhage, snake venom metalloproteinase induce local myonecrosis, skin damage, and inflammatory reaction in experimental models. Local inflammation is an important characteristic of snakebite envenomations inflicted by viperine and crotaline snake species. Thus, in the recent years there is a growing effort to understand the mechanisms responsible for SVMP-induced inflammatory reaction and the structural determinants of this effect. This short review focuses the inflammatory effects evoked by SVMP.
Abstract in English:T lymphocyte-mediated pathogenesis is common to a variety of enteropathies, including giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, bacterial enteritis, celiac's disease, food anaphylaxis, and Crohn's disease. In giardiasis as well as in these other disorders, a diffuse loss of microvillous brush border, combined or not with villus atrophy, is responsible for disaccharidase insufficiencies and malabsorption of electrolytes, nutrients, and water, which ultimately cause diarrheal symptoms. Other mucosal changes may include crypt hyperplasia and increased infiltration of intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Recent studies using models of giardiasis have shed new light on the immune regulation of these abnormalities. Indeed, experiments using an athymic mouse model of infection have found that these epithelial injuries were T cell-dependent. Findings from further research indicate that that the loss of brush border surface area, reduced disaccharidase activities, and increase crypt-villus ratios are mediated by CD8+ T cells, whereas both CD8+ and CD4+ small mesenteric lymph node T cells regulate the influx of intra-epithelial lymphocytes. Future investigations need to characterize the CD8+ T cell signaling cascades that ultimately lead to epithelial injury and malfunction in giardiasis and other malabsorptive disorders of the intestine.
Abstract in English:The symptomatic phases of many inflammatory diseases are characterized by migration of large numbers of neutrophils (PMN) across a polarized epithelium and accumulation within a lumen. For example, acute PMN influx is common in diseases of the gastrointestinal system (ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, bacterial enterocolitis, gastritis), hepatobiliary system (cholangitis, acute cholecystitis), respiratory tract (bronchial pneumonia, bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis), and urinary tract (pyelonephritis, cystitis). Despite these observations, the molecular basis of leukocyte interactions with epithelial cells is incompletely understood. In vitro models of PMN transepithelial migration typically use N-formylated bacterial peptides such as fMLP in isolation to drive human PMNs across epithelial monolayers. However, other microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) are major constituents of the intestinal lumen and have potent effects on the immune system. In the absence of LPS, we have shown that transepithelial migration requires sequential adhesive interactions between the PMN beta2 integrin CD11b/CD18 and JAM protein family members. Other epithelial ligands appear to be abundantly represented as fucosylated proteoglycans. Further studies indicate that the rate of PMN migration across mucosal surfaces can be regulated by the ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein CD47 and microbial-derived factors, although many of the details remain unclear. Current data suggests that Toll-like receptors (TLR), which recognize specific pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), are differentially expressed on both leukocytes and mucosal epithelial cells while serving to modulate leukocyte-epithelial interactions. Exposure of epithelial TLRs to microbial ligands has been shown to result in transcriptional upregulation of inflammatory mediators whereas ligation of leukocyte TLRs modulate specific antimicrobial responses. A better understanding of these events will hopefully provide new insights into the mechanisms of epithelial responses to microorganisms and ideas for therapies aimed at inhibiting the deleterious consequences of mucosal inflammation.
Abstract in English:Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, including the serotype O157:H7 that is most commonly identified with human disease, cause both sporadic cases and outbreaks of non-bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis. In about 10% of infected subjects, the hemolytic uremic syndrome (hemolytic anemic, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure) develops, likely as a consequence of systemic spread of bacterial-derived toxins variously referred to as Shiga-like toxin, Shiga toxin, and Verotoxin. Increasing evidence points to a complex interplay between bacterial products - for example, adhesins and toxins - and host signal transduction pathways in mediating responses to infection. Identification of critical signaling pathways could result in the development of novel strategies for intervention to both prevent and treat this microbial infection in humans.
Abstract in English:Many studies demonstrate that intestinal inflammation is either initiated or exaggerated by a component of the normal microbiota, most likely commensal bacteria or products derived from these organisms. We review the nature of human inflammatory bowel disease, the evidence for the involvement of the normal bacterial flora in these disorders and the relevance of maintaining the integrity of the epithelial barrier. Moreover, we, and others, have shown abnormal mitochondria structure in tissue resections from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and tissues from rodents that demonstrated psychological stress-induced increases in epithelial permeability. Thus, we also consider the possibility that a defect in epithelial mitochondrial function would predispose an individual to respond to their commensal bacteria flora - no longer considering them as a beneficial passive inhabitant, but rather perceiving them as a threatening and pro-inflammatory stimulus. In support of this postulate, we discuss our recent findings from an in vitro model showing that the human colon-derived T84 cell line exposed to the metabolic stressor, dinitrophenol, and the non-pathogenic, non-invasive, Escherichia coli (strain HB101) display a loss of barrier function, increased signal transduction and increased production of the chemokine, interleukin 8.
Abstract in English:The intestinal epithelium plays a crucial role in providing a barrier between the external environment and the internal milieu of the body. A compromised mucosal barrier is characteristic of mucosal inflammation and is a key determinant of the development of intestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The intestinal epithelium is regularly exposed to serine proteinases and this exposure is enhanced in numerous disease states. Thus, it is important to understand how proteinase-activated receptors (PARs), which are activated by serine proteinases, can affect intestinal epithelial function. This review surveys the data which demonstrate the wide distribution of PARs, particularly PAR-1 and PAR-2, in the gastrointestinal tract and accessory organs, focusing on the epithelium and those cells which communicate with the epithelium to affect its function. PARs have a role in regulating secretion by epithelia of the salivary glands, stomach, pancreas and intestine. In addition, PARs located on subepithelial nerves, fibroblasts and mast cells have important implications for epithelial function. Recent data outline the importance of the cellular site of PAR expression, as PARs expressed on epithelia may have effects that are countered by PARs expressed on other cell types. Finally, PARs and their ability to promote epithelial cell proliferation are discussed in terms of colon cancer.
Abstract in English:Sepsis is a major challenge in medicine. It is a common and frequently fatal infectious condition. The incidence continues to increase, with unacceptably high mortality rates, despite the use of specific antibiotics, aggressive operative intervention, nutritional support, and anti-inflammatory therapies. Typically, septic patients exhibit a high degree of heterogeneity due to variables such as age, weight, gender, the presence of secondary disease, the state of the immune system, and the severity of the infection. We are at urgent need for biomarkers and reliable measurements that can be applied to risk stratification of septic patients and that would easily identify those patients at the highest risk of a poor outcome. Such markers would be of fundamental importance to decision making for early intervention therapy or for the design of septic clinical trials. In the present work, we will review current biomarkers for sepsis severity and especially the use of cytokines as biomarkers with important pathophysiological role.
Abstract in English:Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response commonly caused by bacterial infection. We demonstrated that the outcome of sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) correlates with the severity of the neutrophil migration failure towards infectious focus. Failure appears to be due to a decrease in the rolling and adhesion of neutrophil to endothelium cells. It seems that neutrophil migration impairment is mediated by the circulating inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-8, which induce the nitric oxide (NO) production systemically. It is supported by the fact that intravenous administration of these cytokines reduces the neutrophil migration induced by different inflammatory stimuli, and in severe sepsis the circulating concentrations of the cytokines and chemokines are significantly increased. Moreover, the neutrophil migration failure and the reduction in the rolling/adhesion were not observed in iNOS-/- mice and, aminoguanidine prevented this event. We also demonstrated that the failure of neutrophil migration is a Toll-4 receptor (TLR4) dependent mechanism, since it was not observed in TLR4 deficient mice. Furthermore, it was also observed that circulating neutrophils obtained from septic patients present failure of neutrophil chemotaxis toward fMLP, IL-8, and LTB4 and an increased in sera concentrations of NO3 and cytokines. In conclusion, we demonstrated that, in sepsis, failure of neutrophil migration is critical for the outcome and that NO is involved in the process.
Abstract in English:Hemolytic episodes such as sickle cell disease, malaria and ischemia-reperfusion occurrence are often associated to the statement of an inflammatory response which may develop or not to a chronic inflammatory status. Although these pathological states are triggered by distinct etiological agents, all of them are associated to high levels of free heme in circulation. In this review, we aim to focus the very recent achievements that have led to the statement of free heme as a proinflammatory molecule, which may play a central role during the onset and/or persistance of inflammation during these pathologies.