Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 102, Issue: 5, Published: 2007
  • Mini Review

    Shaw, Jeffrey

    Abstract in English:

    The number of cases of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasing globally at an alarming rate irrespective of the region and the leishmaniases are amongst the top emergent diseases in spite of control measures. In the present review attention is drawn to some of the reasons for this. The leishmaniases have expanded beyond their natural ecotopes due to the ecological chaos caused by man and this in turn affects the levels of his exposure to the vectors. Examples of how different phenomana (such as war, civilian migration, immuno-suppression caused by medication and viral infections, globalization of work and leisure and transmission outside endemic areas) contribute to the spread and increase of the disease are discussed.
  • Polymerase chain reaction with two molecular targets in mucosal leishmaniasis' diagnosis: a validation study Articles

    Ovalle Bracho, Clemencia; Porras de Quintana, Luisa; Muvdi Arenas, Sandra; Rios Parra, Melania

    Abstract in English:

    We validated the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a composite reference standard in 61 patients clinically suspected of having mucosal leishmaniasis, 36 of which were cases and 25 were non-cases according to this reference standard. Patient classification and test application were carried out independently by two blind observers. One pair of primers was used to amplify a fragment of 120 bp in the conserved region of kDNA and another pair was used to amplify the internal transcript spacers (ITS) rDNA. PCR showed 68.6% (95% CI 59.2-72.6) sensitivity and 92% (95% CI 78.9-97.7) specificity; positive likelihood ratio: 8.6 (95% CI 2.8-31.3) and negative likelihood ratio: 0.3 (95% CI 0.3-0.5), when kDNA molecular target was amplified. The test performed better on sensitivity using this target compared to the ITS rDNA molecular target which showed 40% (95% CI 31.5-42.3) sensitivity and 96% (95% CI 84.1-99.3) specificity; positive likelihood ratio: 10 (95% CI 2.0-58.8) and negative likelihood ratio: 0.6 (95% CI 0.6-0.8). The inter-observer agreement was excellent for both tests. Based upon results obtained and due to low performance of conventional methods for diagnosing mucosal leishmaniasis, we consider PCR with kDNA as molecular target is a useful diagnostic test and the ITS rDNA molecular target is useful when the aim is to identify species.
  • Rotavirus and adenovirus in Rondônia Articles

    Magalhães, Gleiciene Félix; Nogueira, Paulo Afonso; Grava, Andréa Fagundes; Penati, Marilene; Silva, Luiz Hildebrando Pereira da; Orlandi, Patricia Puccinelli

    Abstract in English:

    Acute gastroenteritis is one of the most common diseases in humans worldwide. Viral gastroenteritis is a global problem in infants and young children. In this study the incidence of diarrhea was assessed in 877 hospitalized children under five years old, over a period of 24 months and distributed in 470 cases of diarrhea and 407 age-matched group with other pathologies, as control group. Two antigen detection techniques based on enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and latex particles were used for detection of rotavirus and adenovirus. Rotavirus A was a major cause of gastroenteritis with 23.6% of cases, being 90% of these cases in young children. Adenovirus infections was detected by EIA with frequency of 6.4%. Rotavirus and adenovirus were detected in 10.1 and 1.7% of stools from control group, respectively. Interestingly, the frequency of the youngest children in the control group excreting Rotavirus A was comparable to that detected in stools from diarrheic children. We cannot rule out the existence of other enteric viruses because the etiology of 171 cases of diarrhea was not determined and active search for astrovirus and calicivirus was not done. This is the first study that shows the presence of enteric viruses in the infantile population from Western Brazilian Amazonia and it was important to help physicians in the treatment of viral gastroenteritis.
  • Experimental transmission of the parasitic flagellates Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli between triatomine bugs or mice and captive neotropical bats Articles

    Thomas, Maurice E; Rasweiler IV, John J; D'Alessandro, Antonio

    Abstract in English:

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli-like trypanosomes have been found in a variety of neotropical bat species. In this study, bats (Artibeus lituratus, Carollia perspicillata, Desmodus rotundus, Glossophaga soricina, Molossus molossus, Phyllostomus hastatus) were maintained under controlled conditions, and experiments were conducted to determine how they might become infected naturally with trypanosomes. All bats were first screened for existing infections by hemoculture and the examination of blood smears, and only apparently uninfected animals were then used in the experiments. Proof was obtained that the triatomine bug Rhodnius prolixus would readily feed upon some of the bats, and two species became infected after being bitten by bugs infected with T. rangeli. Some bats also became infected by ingesting R. prolixus carrying T. cruzi, or following subcutaneous or intragastic inoculation with fecal suspensions of R. prolixus containing T. cruzi. P. hastatus became infected after ingesting mice carrying T. cruzi. All of the bats studied inhabit roosts that may be occupied by triatomine bugs and, with the exception of D. rotundus, all also feed to at least some extent upon insects. These findings provide further evidence of how bats may play significant roles in the epidemiology of T. cruzi and T. rangeli in the New World tropics.
  • More productive in vitro culture of Cryptosporidium parvum for better study of the intra- and extracellular phases Articles

    Perez Cordón, G; Marin, C; Romero, D; Rosales, C; Sánchez Moreno, M; Rosales, MJ

    Abstract in English:

    The great difficulties in treating people and animals suffering from cryptosporidiosis have prompted the development of in vitro experimental models. Due to the models of in vitro culture, new extracellular stages of Cryptosporidium have been demonstrated. The development of these extracellular phases depends on the technique of in vitro culture and on the species and genotype of Cryptosporidium used. Here, we undertake the molecular characterization by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment lenght polymorphism of different Cryptosporidium isolates from calves, concluding that all are C. parvum of cattle genotype, although differing in the nucleotide at positions 472 and 498. Using these parasites, modified the in vitro culture technique for HCT-8 cells achieving greater multiplication of parasites. The HCT-8 cell cultures, for which the culture had not been renewed in seven days, were infected with C. parvum sporozoites in RPMI-1640 medium with 10% IFBS, CaCl2 and MgCl2 1 mM at pH 7.2. Percentages of cell parasitism were increased with respect to control cultures (71% at 48 h vs 14.5%), even after two weeks (47% vs 1.9%). Also, the percentage of extracellular stages augmented (25.3% vs 1.1% at 96 h). This new model of in vitro culture of C. parvum will enable easier study of the developmental phases of C. parvum in performing new chemotherapeutic assays.
  • Genetic variability of Aedes aegypti in the Americas using a mitochondrial gene: evidence of multiple introductions Articles

    Bracco, José Eduardo; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    Abstract in English:

    To analyze the genetic relatedness and phylogeographic structure of Aedes aegypti, we collected samples from 36 localities throughout the Americas (Brazil, Peru, Venezuela, Guatemala, US), three from Africa (Guinea, Senegal, Uganda), and three from Asia (Singapore, Cambodia, Tahiti). Amplification and sequencing of a fragment of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene identified 20 distinct haplotypes, of which 14 are exclusive to the Americas, four to African/Asian countries, one is common to the Americas and Africa, and one to the Americas and Asia. Nested clade analysis (NCA), pairwise distribution, statistical parsimony, and maximum parsimony analyses were used to infer evolutionary and historic processes, and to estimate phylogenetic relationships among haplotypes. Two clusters were found in all the analyses. Haplotypes clustered in the two clades were separated by eight mutational steps. Phylogeographic structure detected by the NCA was consistent with distant colonization within one clade and fragmentation followed by range expansion via long distance dispersal in the other. Three percent of nucleotide divergence between these two clades is suggestive of a gene pool division that may support the hypothesis of occurrence of two subspecies of Ae. aegypti in the Americas.
  • Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) and species abundance in an endemic area of American cutaneous leishmaniasis in southeastern Minas Gerais, Brazil Articles

    Loiola, Carlos Frederico; Silva, Delano Anibal da; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    Abstract in English:

    This study was undertaken to identify the phlebotomine fauna and species abundance in domiciliary and peridomiciliary (hen-house and guava-tree) environments, on a lake shore, a cultivated area of coffee and banana, and a forested area of Conceição da Aparecida municipality, southeastern the state of Minas Gerais, to provide information for the control and epidemiological surveillance of leishmaniasis in this area. The captures were carried out monthly between May 2001 and November 2002, with automatic light and Shannon traps. A total of 1444 sand flies were captured, 951 (76.5%) with automatic light traps and 493 (23.5%) with the Shannon trap. Thirteen species were captured, the most frequent being Nyssomyia whitmani (62.7%), Migonemyia migonei (21.4%), Pintomyia fischeri (6.9%), and Evandromyia lenti (3.6%). Species abundance was determined using the automatic light traps installed in the six environments. The most abundant species according to the standardized index of species abundance were Ny. whitmani (1.0) and Mg. migonei (0.82). In view of the dominance of these two species, known vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis in other Brazilian areas, their participation in the transmission of the disease in this county is suggested. The diversity and evenness indexes in the domicile were the lowest due to the high frequency (83%) of Ny. whitmani. The capture of Lutzomyia longipalpis, rarely recorded in the south-eastern and southern regions of Minas Gerais, is also noteworthy.
  • Ribotyping and virulence markers of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains isolated from animals in Brazil Articles

    Martins, Carlos Henrique Gomes; Bauab, Taís Maria; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura; Falcão, Deise Pasetto

    Abstract in English:

    Ribotyping and virulence markers has been used to investigate 68 Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains of serogroups O:1a and O:3. The strains were isolated from clinical material obtained from healthy and sick animals in the Southern region of Brazil. Ribotypes were identified by double digestion of extracted DNA with the restriction endonucleases SmaI and PstI, separation by electrophoresis and hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled cDNA probe. The presence of the chromosomal virulence marker genes inv, irp1, irp2, psn, ybtE, ybtP-ybtQ, and ybtX-ybtS, of the IS100 insertion sequence, and of the plasmid gene lcrF was detected by polymerase chain reaction. The strains were grouped into four distinct ribotypes, all of them comprising several strains. Ribotypes 1 and 4 presented distinct profiles, with 57.3% genetic similarity, ribotypes 2 and 3 presented 52.5% genetic similarity, and genetic similarity was 45% between these two groups (1/4 and 2/3). All strains possessed the inv, irp1, and irp2 genes. Additionally, strains of serogroup O:1a carried psn, ybtE, ybtP-ybtQ, ybtX-ybtS, and IS100. As expected lcrF was only detected in strains harboring the virulence plasmid. These data demonstrate the presence of Y. pseudotuberculosis strains harboring genotypic virulence markers in the livestock from Southern Brazil and that the dissemination of these bacteria may occur between herds.
  • Effects of timber harvest on phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a production forest: abundance of species on tree trunks and prevalence of trypanosomatids Articles

    Pessoa, Felipe Arley Costa; Medeiros, Jansen Fernandes; Barrett, Toby Vincent

    Abstract in English:

    The Amazon forest is being exploited for timber production. The harvest removes trees, used by sand flies as resting sites, and decreases the canopy, used as refuges by some hosts. The present study evaluated the impact of the timber harvest, the abundance of sand flies, and their trypanosomatid infection rates before and after selective logging. The study was accomplished in terra-firme production forest in an area of timber harvest, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Sand fly catches were carried out in three areas: one before and after the timber harvest, and two control areas, a nature preservation area and a previously exploited area. The flies were caught by aspiration on tree trunks. Samples of sand flies were dissected for parasitological examination. In the site that suffered a harvest, a larger number of individuals was caught before the selective extraction of timber, showing significant difference in relation to the number of individuals and their flagellate infection rates after the logging. The other two areas did not show differences among their sand fly populations. This fact is suggestive of a fauna sensitive to the environmental alterations associated with selective logging.
  • Effect of sphingosine and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate on the growth and dimethylsulfoxide-induced differentiation in the insect trypanosomatid Herpetomonas samuelpessoai Articles

    Santos, André Luis Souza dos; Soares, Rosangela Maria de Araújo

    Abstract in English:

    We investigated the effect of two modulators of protein kinase C, sphingosine and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), on the growth and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-induced differentiation in Herpetomonas samuelpessoai. Sphingosine did not stimulate the transformation of undifferentiated-promastigotes in differentiated-paramastigotes. PMA alone or in association with DMSO increased the number of paramastigotes in comparison to control cells. DMSO inhibited the parasite growth (35%) and several unusual morphological features resembling aberrant cell division were observed. Sphingosine did not significantly reduce the growth in contrast to PMA. Collectively, our results demonstrated that the reduction of the proliferation translates in an increase of the differentiation rate in the insect trypanosomatid H. samuelpessoai.
  • The subgenus Migonemyia Galati 1995 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), with description of a new species Migonemyia vaniae: a review Articles

    Galati, Eunice A Bianchi; Fonseca, Mauro Breviglieri; Marassá, Ana Maria

    Abstract in English:

    The capture of a new species of the subgenus Migonemyia Galati, 1995 (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae), Migonemyia vaniae sp. nov. in the Ribeira Valley, state of São Paulo, Brazil, together with the other two species: Mg. migonei (França, 1920) and Mg. rabelloi (Galati & Gomes, 1992) lead us to review this subgenus. The new species was described and illustrated. The genitalia of the two other species were also illustrated and some genital characteristics (number of setae on the gonocoxite tuft, ejaculatory ducts and pump and ducts/pump ratio; and number of setae on the tergite VIII of the females) considered important to differentiate the three species, including five populations of Mg. migonei (from Northeastern, Southeastern, and Southern Brazilian regions and of Peru) were submitted to variance analyses. The Mg. migonei population of Northeastern Brazilian region showed distinct smaller values (P < 0.05) than the other Brazilian populations studied as regarding these characteristics. The capture of both sexes of these three species in sympatry confirms the association between the sexes of Mg. rabelloi, recognised as doubtful when this species was originally described. Identification keys for male and female of the three species are presented.
  • Distribution of dengue vectors in neighborhoods with different urbanization types of Manaus, state of Amazonas, Brazil Articles

    Ríos-Velásquez, Claudia M; Codeço, Cláudia T; Honório, Nildimar A; Sabroza, Paulo S; Moresco, Mônica; Cunha, Ivana CL; Levino, Antônio; Toledo, Luciano M; Luz, Sérgio LB

    Abstract in English:

    Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are vectors of dengue viruses, which cause endemic disease in the city of Manaus, capital of the state of Amazonas, Brazil. More than 53 thousand cases have been registered in this city since the first epidemic in 1998. We evaluated the hypothesis that different ecological conditions result in different patterns of vector infestation in Manaus, by measuring the infestation level in four neighborhoods with different urbanization patterns, during the rainy (April), dry (August), and transitional (November) seasons. Ae. aegypti predominated throughout the study areas and sampling periods, representing 86% of all specimens collected in oviposition traps. High frequencies of houses positive for both species were observed in all studied sites, with Ae. aegypti present in more than 84% of the houses in all seasons. Ae. albopictus, on the other hand, showed more spatial and temporal variation in abundance. We found no association between infestation level and house traits. This study highlights the homogeneity of dengue vector distribution in Manaus.
  • T-cell responses associated with resistance to Leishmania infection in individuals from endemic areas for Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Articles

    Bittar, Rita C; Nogueira, Ricardo S; Vieira-Gonçalves, Ricardo; Pinho-Ribeiro, Vanessa; Mattos, Marise S; Oliveira-Neto, Manoel Paes; Coutinho, Sergio G; Da-Cruz, Alda M

    Abstract in English:

    Subclinical or asymptomatic infection is documented in individuals living in endemic areas for leishmaniasis suggesting that the development of an appropriate immune response can control parasite replication and maintain tissue integrity. A low morbidity indicates that intrinsic factors could favor resistance to Leishmania infection. Herein, leishmanial T-cell responses induced in subjects with low susceptibility to leishmaniasis as asymptomatic subjects were compared to those observed in cured cutaneous leishmaniasis (CCL) patients, who controlled the disease after antimonial therapy. All of them have shown maintenance of specific long-term immune responses characterized by expansion of higher proportions of CD4+ as compared to CD8+ Leishmania reactive T-lymphocytes. Asymptomatic subjects had lower indexes of in vitro Leishmania induced lymphoproliferative responses and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in comparison to CCL patients. On the other hand, interleukin (IL-10) production was much higher in asymptomatics than in CCL, while no differences in IL-5 levels were found. In conclusion, long lived T-cell responses achieved by asymptomatic individuals differed from those who had developed symptomatic leishmaniasis in terms of intensity of lymphocyte activation (proliferation or IFN-gamma) and regulatory mechanisms (IL-10). The absence of the disease in asymptomatics could be explained by their intrinsic ability to create a balance between immunoregulatory (IL-10) and effector cytokines (IFN-gamma), leading to parasite destruction without producing skin tissue damage. The establishment of profiles of cell-mediated immune responses associated with resistance against Leishmania infection is likely to make new inroads into understanding the long-lived immune protection against the disease.
  • Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity Articles

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    Abstract in English:

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.
  • Early Cretaceous trypanosomatids associated with fossil sand fly larvae in Burmese amber Articles

    Poinar Jr, George

    Abstract in English:

    Early Cretaceous flagellates with characters typical of trypanosomatids were found in the gut of sand fly larvae, as well as in surrounding debris, in Burmese amber. This discovery supports a hypothesis in which free-living trypanosomatids could have been acquired by sand fly larvae in their feeding environment and then carried transtadially into the adult stage. At some point in time, specific genera were introduced into vertebrates, thus establishing a dixenous life cycle.
  • Isolation and identification of bovine tuberculosis in a Brazilian herd (São Paulo) Short Communications

    Nassar, AFC; Miyashiro, S; Oliveira, CG; Pacheco, WA; Ogata, RA

    Abstract in English:

    Mycobacterium was verified in animals from a Brazilian dairy herd, a total of 42 samples from 30 cows were submitted to culture and the isolated strains were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the first specific for species belonging to the Mycobacterium complex (MTBC) and the other for differentiating M. tuberculosis from M. bovis. Twenty seven samples (64.3%) from 18 animals (60%) were positive for mycobacteria by culture, including samples from 15 retrofaryngeal lymphnodes (55.5%), 9 prescapular lymphnodes (33.3%), 2 lungs (7.4%), and 1 liver (3.7%). All isolated colonies were confirmed by PCR to contain MTBC organisms, and were identified as M. bovis by the same methodology.
  • First report on the occurrence of Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920 in the state of Ceará, Brazil, in naturally infected triatomine Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) Short Communications

    Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Diotaiuti, Liléia; Romanha, Alvaro José; Bezerra, Cláudia Mendonça; Machado, Evandro Marques de Menezes

    Abstract in English:

    The aim of this work was to identify and report the occurrence of Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma cruzi in naturally infected Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae) in the state of Ceará, Brazil. Triatomines feces, salivary glands, and hemolymph were collected for fresh examination, and specific detection of T. rangeli and T. cruzi DNA by polymerase chain reaction was carried out. The specific characterization of these two parasites showed the simultaneous presence of both parasites in two (7.7%) of the 26 positive insects. Our results provide further knowledge on the geographical distribution of T. rangeli in Brazil.
  • Molecular evidence that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 dissemination in a small Brazilian city was already taking place in the early 1990s Short Communications

    Eyer-Silva, Walter A; Bello, Gonzalo; Morgado, Mariza G

    Abstract in English:

    We recently performed a molecular epidemiology survey of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in Miracema, a small city in Southeast Brazil, and found multiple monophyletic clusters, consistent with independent introductions and spread of different viral lineages in the city. Here we apply Bayesian coalescent-based methods to the two largest subtype B clusters and estimate that the most recent common ancestors that gave rise to these two transmission chains were in circulation around 1991-1992. The finding that HIV-1 spread in this Brazilian small city was already taking place at a time Aids was considered a problem restricted to large urban centers may have important public health implications.
  • Ki-67 is expressed in multiplying forms of Schistosoma mansoni, but not in snail host tissues Short Communications

    Silva, Tânia Maria Correia; Souza, Samaly dos Santos; Almeida, Tais Fontoura de; Andrade, Zilton A

    Abstract in English:

    Ki-67 is a protein expressed in the nucleus of several species during cell-division, being absent during the GO resting phase of the cellular cycle. During attempts to disclose mitosis in the so-called " amebocyte-producing organ " in Biomphalaria glabrata infected with Schistosoma mansoni, the parasite multiplying forms appeared strongly marked for Ki-67, while the snail tissues were completely negative. These data are worth registering to complement general data on Ki-67, and to help future studies on the relationship of the parasite and of its intermediate host.
  • Isolation and molecular identification of Leishmania ( Viannia ) peruviana from naturally infected Lutzomyia peruensis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Peruvian Andes Short Communications

    Enrique Perez, J; Veland, Nicolas; Espinosa, Diego; Torres, Katherine; Ogusuku, Elena; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Gamboa, Dionicia; Arévalo, Jorge

    Abstract in English:

    Leishmania (Viannia) peruviana was isolated from 1/75 Lutzomyia peruensis captured during May 2006 in an endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis region of the Peruvian Andes (Chaute, Huarochiri, Lima, Peru). Sand fly gut with promastigotes was inoculated into a hamster and the remaining body was fixed in ethanol. L. (Viannia) sp. was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and Leishmania species through molecular genotyping by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses targeting the genes cpb and hsp70, resulting L. (V.) peruviana. The infected sand fly appeared 15 days after the rains finished, time expected and useful real time data for interventions when transmission is occurring.
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