Accessibility / Report Error
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 103, Issue: 3, Published: 2008
  • Human bartonellosis: seroepidemiological and clinical features with an emphasis on data from Brazil - A review Review

    Lamas, C; Curi, A; Bóia, MN; Lemos, ERS

    Abstract in English:

    Bartonellae are fastidious Gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature with several animal reservoirs (mainly cats, dogs, and rodents) and insect vectors (mainly fleas, sandflies, and human lice). Thirteen species or subspecies of Bartonella have been recognized as agents causing human disease, including B. bacilliformis, B. quintana, B. vinsonii berkhoffii, B. henselae, B. elizabethae, B. grahamii, B. washoensis, B. koehlerae, B. rocha-limaea, and B. tamiae. The clinical spectrum of infection includes lymphadenopathy, fever of unknown origin, endocarditis, neurological and ophthalmological syndromes, Carrion's disease, and others. This review provides updated information on clinical manifestations and seroepidemiological studies with an emphasis on data available from Brazil.
  • Biological and genetic aspects of experimental hybrids from species of the Phyllosoma complex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) Articles

    Martínez-Ibarra, José Alejandro; Ventura-Rodríguez, Luz Verónica; Meillon-Isais, Karla; Barajas-Martínez, Héctor; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Lupercio-Coronel, Patricia; Rocha-Chávez, Gonzalo; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín

    Abstract in English:

    The present work is a thorough investigation of the degree of reproductive isolation between Meccus mazzottii and Meccus longipennis, Meccus picturatus, Meccus pallidipennis and Meccus bassolsae, as well as between M. longipennis and M. picturatus. We examined fertility and segregation of morphological characteristics in two generations of hybrids derived from crosses between these species. The percentage of pairs with (fertile) offspring was highest in the set of crosses between M. longipennis and M. picturatus, and lowest between M. mazzottii and M. picturatus. Most first-generation (F1) individuals from crosses involving M. mazzottii were morphologically similar to this species, while only F1 x F1 progeny of parental crosses between M. mazzottii and M. longipennis had offspring second generation that looked like M. mazzottii. The results indicate that different degrees of reproductive isolation apparently exist among the species of the Phyllosoma complex examined in this study. The biological evidence obtained in this study does not support the proposal that M. longipennis and M. picturatus are full species. It could indicate on the contrary, that both could be considered as subspecies of a single polytypic species. On the other hand, biological evidence supports the proposal that M. mazzottii is a full species.
  • Polysaccharide-rich fraction of Agaricus brasiliensis enhances the candidacidal activity of murine macrophages Articles

    Martins, Priscila Raquel; Gameiro, Maria Carolina; Castoldi, Lindsey; Romagnoli, Graziela Gorete; Lopes, Fabiane Catanho; Pinto, Andréa Vanessa Ferreira da Silva; Loyola, Wagner; Kaneno, Ramon

    Abstract in English:

    A polysaccharide-rich fraction (ATF) of medicinal mushroom Agaricus brasiliensis was evaluated on the candidacidal activity, H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) production, and expression of mannose receptors by murine peritoneal macrophages. Mice received three intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of ATF and after 48 h their peritoneal resident macrophages were assayed against Candida albicans yeast forms. The treatment increased fungicidal activity and it was associated with higher levels of H2O2, whereas NO production was not affected. We also found that the treatment enhances mannose receptor expression by peritoneal macrophages, which are involved in the attachment and phagocytosis of non-opsonized microorganisms. Treatment of animals with ATF was able to enhance the clearance of C. albicans during the first 6 h after the experimental i.p. infection. Our results suggest that this extract can increase host resistance against some infectious agents through the stimulation of microbicidal activity of macrophages.
  • Lutzomyia maruaga (Diptera: Psychodidae), a new bat-cave sand fly from Amazonas, Brazil Articles

    Alves, Veracilda Ribeiro; Freitas, Rui Alves de; Barrett, Toby

    Abstract in English:

    A new species of parthenogenetic, autogenic and apparently extremely endemic phlebotomine is described from a sandstone cave located in primary terra firme forest to the North of the city of Manaus. Specimens were collected in the aphotic zone of the Refúgio do Maruaga cave by light trap and reared from bat guano. The adult morphology suggests a closer relationship to some Old World Phlebotominae than to species of Lutzomyia França encountered in the surrounding rainforest, but it shares characteristics with the recently proposed Neotropical genera Edentomyia Galati, Deanemyia Galati and Oligodontomyia Galati.
  • Hepatitis A virus subgenotypes dissemination during a community outbreak in a surrounding region of Rio de Janeiro Articles

    Santos, Débora Regina Lopes dos; Villar, Livia Melo; Paula, Vanessa Salete de; Lima, Gerson Silva de; Gaspar, Ana Maria Coimbra

    Abstract in English:

    From December 1999 to December 2001, many cases of hepatitis A were notified in the county of Belford Roxo involving individuals aged 0 to 79 years. Serum samples were collected to evaluate the prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus (HAV) antibodies, to detect HAV-RNA and to correlate with possible risk factors of HAV infection. Serum samples were screened by commercial IgM and total anti-HAV antibody ELISA and HAV-RNA was isolated and subsequently amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at VP1/2A region, sequenced and analyzed. Total anti-HAV prevalence was 87.9% (203/231) and IgM anti-HAV prevalence was 38.7% (89/231). Multivariate analysis showed that individuals under 20 years old are risks groups to acquire the infection suggesting that hygienic habits of young subjects are the principal factor of transmission and so they could be the target for vaccine programs. HAV-RNA was amplified from 29 (32.5%) IgM anti-HAV positive patients and 26 samples were sequenced and classified into subgenotypes IB (8 isolates) and IA (18 isolates). Isolates classified into subgenotype IB were identical representing one distinct strain. We could observe both subgenotypes circulating during the study which suggests different sources of infection. Prophylactic measures as vaccination strategies added to improvements in hygienic and sanitary conditions would be highly effective to reduction of infection.
  • Description of Culicoides pseudoheliconiae sp.n. from Peruvian Amazon and revalidation of Culicoides contubernalis Ortiz & Leon (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Articles

    Felippe-Bauer, Maria Luiza; Cáceres, Abraham G; Silva, Cristiane S; Valderrama-Bazan, William; Gonzales-Perez, Antero; Costa, Janira M

    Abstract in English:

    A new species of the Culicoides hylas species group, Culicoides pseudoheliconiae Felippe-Bauer is described and illustrated based on female specimens from Peruvian Amazon, and Culicoides contubernalis Ortiz & Leon from Ecuador is resurrected and redescribed as a valid species. A systematic key, table with numerical characters of females of species of the Culicoides hylas group are given.
  • A potent trypanocidal component from the fungus Lentinus strigosus inhibits trypanothione reductase and modulates PBMC proliferation Articles

    Cota, Betania Barros; Rosa, Luiz Henrique; Fagundes, Elaine Maria Souza; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Correa-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Romanha, Alvaro José; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Zani, Carlos Leomar

    Abstract in English:

    The fungus Lentinus strigosus (Pegler 1983) (Polyporaceae, basidiomycete) was selected in a screen for inhibitory activity on Trypanosoma cruzi trypanothione reductase (TR). The crude extract of L. strigosus was able to completely inhibit TR at 20 µg/ml. Two triquinane sesquiterpenoids (dihydrohypnophilin and hypnophilin), in addition to two panepoxydol derivatives (neopanepoxydol and panepoxydone), were isolated using a bioassay-guided fractionation protocol. Hypnophilin and panepoxydone displayed IC50 values of 0.8 and 38.9 µM in the TR assay, respectively, while the other two compounds were inactive. The activity of hypnophilin was confirmed in a secondary assay with the intracellular amastigote forms of T. cruzi, in which it presented an IC50 value of 2.5 µ M. Quantitative flow cytometry experiments demonstrated that hypnophilin at 4 µM also reduced the proliferation of human peripheral blood monocluear cells (PBMC) stimulated with phytohemaglutinin, without any apparent interference on the viability of lymphocytes and monocytes. As the host immune response plays a pivotal role in the adverse events triggered by antigen release during treatment with trypanocidal drugs, the ability of hypnophilin to kill the intracellular forms of T. cruzi while modulating human PBMC proliferation suggests that this terpenoid may be a promising prototype for the development of new chemotherapeutical agents for Chagas disease.
  • Purification and biochemical characterization of four iron superoxide dismutases in Trypanosoma cruzi Articles

    Mateo, Héctor; Marín, Clotilde; Pérez-Cordón, Gregorio; Sánchez-Moreno, Manuel

    Abstract in English:

    Four superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities (SOD I, II, III, and IV) have been characterized in the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi. The total extract was subjected to two successive ammonium sulphate additions between 35 and 85%, and the resulting fraction was purified using two continuous chromatography processes (ion exchange and filtration). Enzymes were insensitive to cyanide but sensitive to hydrogen peroxide, properties characteristic of iron-containing SODs. The molecular masses of the different SODs were 20 kDa (SOD I), 60 kDa (SOD II), 50 kDa (SOD III) and 25 kDa (SOD IV), whereas the isoelectric points were 6.9, 6.8, 5.2 and 3.8, respectively. Subcellular location and digitonin experiments have shown that these SODs are mainly cytosolic, with small amounts in the low-mass organelles (SOD II and SOD I) and the mitochondrion (SOD III), where these enzymes play an important role in minimizing oxidative damage.
  • Antimicrobial activity of Brazilian copaiba oils obtained from different species of the Copaifera genus Articles

    Santos, Adriana Oliveira dos; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Veiga Junior, Valdir F; Pinto, Angelo C; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    Abstract in English:

    The antimicrobial activity of copaiba oils was tested against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, yeast, and dermatophytes. Oils obtained from Copaifera martii, Copaifera officinalis, and Copaifera reticulata (collected in the state of Acre) were active against Gram-positive species (Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, and Enterococcus faecalis) with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 31.3-62.5 µg/ml. The oils showed bactericidal activity, decreasing the viability of these Gram-positive bacteria within 3 h. Moderate activity was observed against dermatophyte fungi (Trichophyton rubrum and Microsporum canis). The oils showed no activity against Gram-negative bacteria and yeast. Scannning electron microscopy of S. aureus treated with resin oil from C. martii revealed lysis of the bacteria, causing cellular agglomerates. Transmission electron microscopy revealed disruption and damage to the cell wall, resulting in the release of cytoplasmic compounds, alterations in morphology, and a decrease in cell volume, indicating that copaiba oil may affect the cell wall.
  • Urban distribution of Phlebotominae in a cutaneous leishmaniasis focus, Argentina Articles

    Salomón, Oscar D; Quintana, María G; Zaidenberg, Mario

    Abstract in English:

    Urbanization and vector domestication are currently proposed as factors that contributed to the recent increase of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL). Is likely also urban transmission? Oran is the main city in the Argentinean hyper-endemic area of ACL, and human cases in urban residences are usually reported. In order to assess the spatial distribution of risk, phlebotomine traps were located in different environments of Oran. A total of 7,787 sand flies were captured: Lutzomyia neivai (98.1%), Lutzomyia migonei (1.2%), Lutzomyia cortelezzii (0.7%), and one Lutzomyia shannoni. During the season of transmission (April-May) a single sand fly was obtained in one out of five urban sites, while a trap in a peri-urban pigsty captured up to 2,985 Lu. neivai/night. Captures performed in the other season of vector activity (September-October) revealed that small-scale changes in the pigsty environment resulted in noticeable changes in the abundance of Lu. neivai. In addition, in a new neighbourhood, on the fringe of the city, 1,073 Lu. neivai/site were captured in the forested edge but one in the yard of the houses. Therefore, in this urban ACL focus the human-vector effective contact risk is still associated with peri-urban vegetation and ecotone modifications despite the urban residence of the cases.
  • Molecular characterization of the NSP4 gene of human group A rotavirus samples from the West Central region of Brazil Articles

    Tavares, Talissa de Moraes; Brito, Wilia Marta Elsner Diederichsen de; Fiaccadori, Fabíola Souza; Freitas, Erika Regina Leal de; Parente, Juliana Alves; Costa, Paulo Sérgio Sucasas da; Giugliano, Loreny Gimenes; Andreasi, Márcia Sueli Assis; Soares, Célia Maria Almeida; Cardoso, Divina das Dôres de Paula

    Abstract in English:

    Nonstructural protein 4 (NSP4), encoded by group A rotavirus genome segment 10, is a multifunctional protein and the first recognized virus-encoded enterotoxin. The NSP4 gene has been sequenced, and five distinct genetic groups have been described: genotypes A-E. NSP4 genotypes A, B, and C have been detected in humans. In this study, the NSP4-encoding gene of human rotavirus strains of different G and P genotypes collected from children between 1987 and 2003 in three cities of West Central region of Brazil was characterized. NSP4 gene of 153 rotavirus-positive fecal samples was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and then sequenced. For phylogenetic analysis, NSP4 nucleotide sequences of these samples were compared to nucleotide sequences of reference strains available in GenBank. Two distinct NSP4 genotypes could be identified: 141 (92.2%) sequences clustered with NSP4 genotype B, and 12 sequences (7.8%) clustered with NSP4 genotype A. These results reinforce that further investigations are needed to assess the validity of NSP4 as a suitable target for epidemiologic surveillance of rotavirus infections and vaccine development.
  • Capillariid nematodes in Brazilian turkeys, Meleagris gallopavo (Galliformes, Phasianidae): pathology induced by Baruscapillaria obsignata and Eucoleus annulatus (Trichinelloidea, Capillariidae) Articles

    Pinto, Roberto Magalhães; Brener, Beatriz; Tortelly, Rogério; Menezes, Rodrigo Caldas; Muniz-Pereira, Luís Cláudio

    Abstract in English:

    The pathology induced in turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) by two capillariid nematodes, Baruscapillaria obsignata and Eucoleus annulatus is described together with data on prevalences, mean infection and range of worm burdens. B. obsignata occurred with a prevalence of 72.5% in the 40 examined hosts in a range of 2-461 nematodes and a mean intensity of 68.6, whereas E. annulatus was present in 2.5% of the animals, with a total amount of five recovered parasites. Gross lesions were not observed in the parasitized birds. Lesions due to B. obsignata mainly consisted of the thickening of intestinal villi with a mild mixed inflammatory infiltrate with the presence of mononuclear cells and heterophils. The lesions induced by E. annulatus were represented by foci of inflammatory infiltrate with heterophils in the crop epithelium and esophagus of a single infected female. These are the first pathological findings related to the presence of capillariid worms in turkeys to be reported in Brazil so far. Capillaria anatis, although present, was not pathogenic to the investigated turkeys.
  • New finding of Giardia intestinalis (Eukaryote, Metamonad) in Old World archaeological site using immunofluorescence and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays Articles

    Le Bailly, Matthieu; Gonçalves, Marcelo LC; Harter-Lailheugue, Stéphanie; Prodéo, Frédéric; Araujo, Adauto; Bouchet, Françoise

    Abstract in English:

    In this study, nine organic sediment samples from a medieval archaeological site at Pineuilh, France, were examined for Giardia intestinalis using two commercially available immunological kits [enzyme-linked immuno sorbent and immunofluorescence (IFA) assays]. Both techniques detected G. intestinalis in one sample, dated to 1,000 Anno Domini. This is the first time IFA was successfully used to detect protozoa in Old World archaeological samples. Such immunological techniques offer important perspectives concerning ancient protozoa detection and identification.
  • Molecular characterization of enterococci harboring genotype and phenotype incongruence related to glycopeptide resistance isolated in Brazilian hospitals Short Communications

    Henrique, Priscila Moraes; Palazzo, Izabel Cristina Vanzato; Zanella, Rosemeire Cobo; Darini, Ana Lucia da Costa

    Abstract in English:

    Three Enterococcus faecalis and one Enterococcus faecium strains were characterized by plasmid profile, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and determination of antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations. VanA elements were characterized by Long PCR, overlapping PCR and DNA sequencing. Enterococcal strains showed resistance to vancomycin and harbored the vanA gene, and three these were teicoplanin susceptible while one showed intermediate resistance to teicoplanin. Two E. faecalis strains showed indistinguishable PFGE profile while the third was unrelated. E. faecalis strains showed a deletion in the right terminal region of the Tn1546-like element. The E. faecium strain showed an insertion element in the vanXY intergenic region. Mutations in VanA elements were not found. Rearrangements in the VanA element could be responsible for incongruities in genotype and phenotype in these strains.
  • Genetic characterization of morphologically variant strains of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Short Communications

    Borba, Cintia de Moraes; Correia, Janaina; Vinhas, Ester; Martins, Albert; Alves, Beatriz Costa Aguiar; Unkles, Sheila; Kinghorn, James Robertson; Lucena-Silva, Norma

    Abstract in English:

    Molecular characterization of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis variant strains that had been preserved under mineral oil for decades was carried out by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis (RAPD). On P. brasiliensis variants in the transitional phase and strains with typical morphology, RAPD produced reproducible polymorphic amplification products that differentiated them. A dendrogram based on the generated RAPD patterns placed the 14 P. brasiliensis strains into five groups with similarity coefficients of 72%. A high correlation between the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics of the strains was observed. A 750 bp-RAPD fragment found only in the wild-type phenotype strains was cloned and sequenced. Genetic similarity analysis using BLASTx suggested that this RAPD marker represents a putative domain of a hypothetical flavin-binding monooxygenase (FMO)-like protein of Neurospora crassa.
  • Citation indexing and the development of academic journals in tropical medicine Reader's Opinion

    Smith, Derek R
Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Ministério da Saúde Av. Brasil, 4365 - Pavilhão Mourisco, Manguinhos, 21040-900 Rio de Janeiro RJ Brazil, Tel.: (55 21) 2562-1222, Fax: (55 21) 2562 1220 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil
E-mail: memorias@fiocruz.br