Abstract in English:Brazil was the first Latin American country to introduce universal group A rotavirus (RV-A) vaccination in March 2006, resulting in a unique epidemiological scenario. Since RV-A first identification in Brazil, 2,691 RV-A-positive stool samples, collected between 1982- 2007, were typed by independent research groups throughout the country. In the pre-vaccination era, 2,492 RV-A-positive samples collected from 1982-2005 were successfully typed, while 199 samples were analyzed from 2006-2007. According to the reviewed studies, there were two important times in the pre-vaccination era: (i) the period from 1982-1995, during which the detection of G5P RV-A, in addition to the classical genotypes G1-4, challenged vaccine development programs; and (ii) the period from 1996-2005, during which genotype G9P emerged, following a global trend. The rate of G2P RV-A detection decreased from 26% (173/653) during 1982-1995 to 2% (43/1,839) during 1996-2005. The overall detection rate of RV-A genotypes from 1982-2005 was as follows: 43% (n = 1,079) G1P/G1P[not typed (NT)]; 20% (n = 488) G9P/G9P[NT]; 9% (n = 216) G2P/G2P[NT]; 6% (n = 151) G3P/G3P[NT]; 4% (n = 103) G4P/G4P[NT]; and 4% (n = 94) G5P/G5P[NT]. Mixed infections accounted for 189 (7%) of the positive samples, while atypical G/P combinations or other genotypes, including G6, G8, G10 and G12, were identified in 172 (7%) samples. The initial surveillance studies carried out in several Brazilian states with RV-A-positive samples collected in 2006 and 2007 show a predominance of G2P strains (148/199 or 74%). Herein, we review RV-A typing studies carried out since the 1980s in Brazil, highlighting the dynamics of RV-A strain circulation profiles before and early after universal use of RV-A vaccine in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Characteristics of primary and recrudescent Plasmodium falciparum infections were evaluated in 25 children who did not recover after amodiaquine (AQ) treatment. Recrudescence was detected by a thick blood smear and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. Over half of recrudescent events occurred after 14 days of initiation of treatment and were associated with relatively low asexual parasitaemia. We examined the gametocyte sex ratio (GSR) in these children and in age and gender-matched controls that had AQ-sensitive (AQ-S) infections (n = 50). In both AQ-S and AQ-resistant (AQ-R) infections, the GSR was female-biased pre-treatment and became male-biased by the third day after treatment initiation. However, gametocyte males persisted after this period in children with AQ-R infections. AQ-recrudescent infections are relatively low (25 of 612.4%) in children from this endemic area.
Abstract in English:Studies were undertaken on the phlebotomines in the municipalities of Bujari, Xapuri and Rio Branco in the state of Acre. The abundance of species on the ground and in the tree canopy was estimated by Standardized Index of Species Abundance. Of the 52 species identified, Lutzomyia (N.) antunesi, Lutzomyia (N.) whitmani, Lutzomyia (P.) davisi, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia (N.) umbratilis, Lutzomyia (N.) flaviscutellata, Lutzomyia (T.) ubiqui-talis, Lutzomyia (P.) hirsuta hirsuta, Lutzomyia (P.) paraensis and Lutzomyia (P.) ayrozai are known to be vectors of Leishmania, the causative agent of American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Lutzomyia (T.) auraensis, Lu. (N.) antunesi, Lu. (N.) whitmani and Lu. (P.) davisi accounted for 66.95% of the specimens collected. Lu. (N.) whitmani was the most abundant species, followed by Lu. (N.) antunesi and Lu. (P.) davisi. Lu. (N.) antunesi was the most abundant species in the soil as well as in the canopy. Lu. (N.) umbratilis occurred in all three municipalities and was the fifth most abundant species in the Chico Mendes Municipal Park in Rio Branco. It was collected on both the ground level as well as in the canopy; however, it was more frequently collected in the tree canopy. The present study suggests the existence of three transmission cycles of Leishmania in Acre, including the transmission of Leishmania (V.) guyanensis by Lu. (N.) umbratilis south of the Amazon River.
Abstract in English:In this work, the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Zeyheria montana Mart. ethanol leaf extract were investigated at doses of 75, 150 and 300 mg/kg body weight. In the analgesic assay, against a chemical stimulus in mice, acetic acid-induced writhes were significantly inhibited by the extract at doses of 75 mg/kg (67.27%), 150 mg/kg (49.38%) and 300 mg/kg (82.87%). Also, a vigorous decrease in hyperalgesia was observed when measured after 2 h and 6 h of lipopolysaccharide stimulation of rats for all doses of extract tested. Z. montana extract, at doses of 75 and 300 mg/kg, caused very slight central analgesia in rats submitted to thermal stimulus, particularly noticeable at 30 min following treatment. The anti-inflammatory activity of Z. montana extract on carrageenan-induced oedema in rats was evaluated. The oedema development, measured at 180 min following carrageenan intraplantar injection, was significantly reduced by all tested doses: 75 mg/kg (33.30%), 150 mg/kg (45.80%) and 300 mg/kg (75.00%). The LD50 value was greater than 2000 mg/kg. These results demonstrated that the ethanol extract from Z. montana leaf possesses anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities, which could be of relevance for the pharmacological control of pain and inflammatory processes.
Abstract in English:A series of seven limonene β-amino alcohol derivatives has been regioselectively synthesised in moderate to good yields. Two of these compounds were found to be significantly effective against in vitro cultures of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis promastigote form in the micromolar range. The activities found for 3b and 3f were about 100-fold more potent than the standard drug, Pentamidine, in the same test, while limonene did not display any activity. This is the first report of antileishmanial activity by limonene β-amino alcohol derivatives.
Abstract in English:A series of ring substituted 3-phenyl-1-(1,4-di-N-oxide quinoxalin-2-yl)-2-propen-1-one derivatives were synthesized and tested for in vitro leishmanicidal activity against amastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis in axenical cultures and murine infected macrophages. Structure-activity relationships demonstrated the importance of a radical methoxy at position R3', R4' and R5'. (2E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-1-(3,6,7-trimethyl-1,4-dioxy-quinoxalin-2-yl)-propenone was the most active. Cytotoxicity on macrophages revealed that this product was almost six times more active than toxic.
Abstract in English:The antischistosomal activity of clonazepam, when administered alone or in association with oxamniquine and praziquantel, was experimentally evaluated in mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni. The animals were treated 45 days post-infection with a single dose, by oral route, according to three treatment schedules: clonazepam 25 mg/kg and sacrificed 15 min, 1h or 4 h after treatment; clonazepam 1.0, 2.5 or 10.0 mg/kg and sacrificed 15 days post-treatment or with the dose of 10 mg/kg in association with oxamniquine 50 mg/kg or praziquantel 200 mg/kg, single dose, orally, every schedule with a control group. The efficacy of the drugs in vivo was assessed by means of worm counts and their distribution in mesentery and liver, mortality and oogram changes. In the chemotherapeutic schedules used, clonazepam did not present antischistosomal activity and the result of the association of this drug with oxamniquine or praziquantel was not significantly different from the one obtained when these two last drugs were administered alone. In the in vitro experiments, the worms exposed to 0.6 mg/mL clonazepam remained motionless throughout the 8-day-period of observation, without egg-laying, whereas the worms of the control group showed normal movements, egg-laying and hatching of miracidia on the last day of observation. The results obtained in the present study confirm the action of clonazepam on S. mansoni adult worm, in vitro, causing total paralysis of males and females. However, no additive or synergistic effects were observed when clonazepam were used in association with oxamniquine or praziquantel.
Abstract in English:The Trichosporon genus is constituted by many species, of which Trichosporon ovoides and Trichosporon inkin are the causative agents of white piedra. They can cause nodules in genital hair or on the scalp. At present, Brazilian laboratory routines generally do not include the identification of the species of Trichosporon genus, which, although morphologically and physiologically distinct, present many similarities, making the identification difficult. The aim of this study was to identify the aetiological agents at the species level of white piedra from clinical specimens. Therefore, both the macro and micro morphology were studied, and physiological tests were performed. Trichosporon spp. was isolated from 10 clinical samples; T. ovoides was predominant, as it was found in seven samples, while T. inkin was identified just in two samples. One isolate could not be identified at the species level. T. inkin was identified for the first time as a white piedra agent in the hair shaft on child under the age of 10.
Abstract in English:Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA and partial sequences of the cytochrome coxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA and white gene nDNA were obtained from specimens of Anopheles nuneztovari A collected in Macapá (state of Amapá), Óbidos, Prainha and Almeirim (state of Pará), Itacoatiara and Parintins (state of Amazonas), Brazil, and compared with previously published sequences of A. nuneztovari s.l. Results of the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses performed using either COI or combined ITS2, COI and white gene sequences suggest that An. nuneztovari B/C is distinct from specimens obtained in the Amazonas/Solimões River basin. Anopheles goeldii, currently in synonymy with An. nuneztovari, was described from individuals collected in Belterra (= Fordlândia) in the Tapajós River, state of Pará, Southern Amazonas River. Morphological comparisons of the characteristics of the male genitalia indicated that An. nuneztovari A and An. goeldii are similar but distinct from An. nuneztovariB/C by the apex of the aedeagus. In considering the results of the phylogenetic analyses and morphological comparisons, An. goeldii is resurrected from synonymy with An. nuneztovari. Additionally, Anopheles dunhamiis reported for the first time in Parintins. This species can be distinguished from An. goeldiiby characters of the male genitalia and molecular data.
Abstract in English:As in many areas of Brazil, the AIDS epidemic in Curitiba is relatively stable, but surveillance is important to support public policy. The molecular characteristics of HIV may be instrumental for monitoring epidemic trends. We evaluated plasma HIV-1 RNA (n = 37) from 38 cases presenting with positive serology, who were among 820 consenting volunteers visiting the downtown counselling and serology testing centre. Seroprevalence was 4.6% (CI 95% 3.2-6.3) and the estimated HIV incidence, as defined by the BED assay, was 2.86 persons/years (CI 95% 1.04-4.68). An additional set of contemporaneous, anonymous samples from a local laboratory was also analysed (n = 20). Regions of the HIV-1 polymerase (n = 57) and envelope (n = 34) were evaluated for subtyping, determination of mosaic structure, primary drug resistance mutations (pDRM), envelope V3 loop motifs and amino acid signatures related to viral tropism. HIV-1 clade B was observed in 53% of cases; HIV-1C in 30% and BC mosaics in 14%, with one F genome and one CF mosaic. Clade C infection was associated with recent infections among males (p < 0.03). Stanford surveillance pDRM was observed in 8.8% of sequences, with 7% showing high level resistance to at least one antiretroviral drug. Tropism for CXCR4 co-receptor was predicted in 18% of envelope sequences, which were exclusively among clade B genomes and cases with serological reactivity to chronic infection.
Abstract in English:This study was performed with the purpose of testing the hypothesis that the high prevalence of hepatitis C among former athletes is associated with their past use of injectable stimulants. The study involved the participation of 208 former professional and amateur soccer and basketball players from the region of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, who answered a questionnaire regarding their exposure to risk factors, including the use of injectable stimulants in the time they were engaged in sporting activities. ELISA tests were used to detect infection by the hepatitis C virus, and confirmed with PCR and genotyping for the positive cases. It was observed that the former use of injectable stimulants was a practice disseminated among the participants (24.5%), reaching 50.8% in the professionals. The overall prevalence for hepatitis C was 7.2%, with values of 11% among professionals and 5.5% among amateurs. In both categories, the presence of infection was markedly higher among those who admitted past use of injectable stimulants when compared to those who denied such practice (36% and 0.8% among amateurs; 21.9% and 0% among professionals, respectively). Multivariate analysis showed that the use of those substances was the only variable associated with the risk of hepatitis C. This confirms previous observations, performed with reduced sample sizes and without comparison groups, which indicated that the use of injectable vitamins was a risk factor of hepatitis C among former athletes.
Abstract in English:In order to study the infectious agents causing human disseminated cryptococcosis in the state of Pará, North Brazil, 56 isolates of Cryptococcusspp. (54 isolated from cerebral spinal fluid and two from blood cultures) from 43 cases diagnosed between 2003-2007 were analysed. The species were determined through morphological and physiological tests and genotypes were determined by URA5-RFLP and PCR-fingerprinting (wild-type phage M13). The following species and genotypes were identified: Cryptococcus neoformans VNI (28/56, 50%), Cryptococcus gattii VGII (25/56, 44.64%) and C. gattii VGI (3/56, 5.26%). The genotype VNI occurred in 12 out of 14 HIV-positive adults, whereas the genotype VGII occurred in 11 out of 21 HIV-negative adults (p < 0.02, OR = 6.6 IC95% 0.98-56.0). All patients less than 12 years old were HIV negative and six cases were caused by the VGII genotype, one by the VGI and one by VNI. Therefore, endemic primary mycosis in HIV-negative individuals, including an unexpectedly high number of children, caused by the VGII genotype deserves further study and suggests the need for surveillance on cryptococcal infection in the state of Pará, Eastern Amazon.
Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and dissemination of human astroviruses (HAstV) in the environment by analyzing urban sewage samples from a wastewater treatment plant in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A one-year study was performed with a total of 48 raw and treated sewage composite samples, which were collected biweekly from an activated sludge plant. Virus particles were concentrated by the adsorption-elution method using negatively charged membranes associated to a Centriprep Concentrator® 50 (Nihon Millipore). HAstV were detected in 16.7% of the samples in raw and treated sewage by using both qualitative and quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR and qPCR, respectively). Positive untreated sewage sample exhibited mean values of 1.1 x 10(4) gEq/mL. The qPCR sensitivity was 18 gEq/reaction. Through utilization of qPCR, a HAstV recovery efficiency of 4.2% and 4.3% was demonstrated for raw and treated sewage samples, respectively. The presence of HAstV in both the raw and treated sewage samples demonstrated the dissemination of these viruses in the environment as well as viral permanence after sewage treatment. There was a reduction in the total and faecal coliform levels, indicating efficiency of the wastewater treatment plant.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work is to present aspects related to the ecology of Rhodnius nasutus Stål, 1859 in palms from Chapada do Araripe in Ceará, Brazil. The following five species of palms were investigated: babaçu (Attalea speciosa), buriti (Mauritia flexuosa), carnaúba (Copernicia prunifera), catolé (Syagrus oleracea) and macaúba-barriguda (Acrocomia intumescens). Fifth palms were dissected (10 specimens for each species). The overall infestation index was 86%, with a total of 521 triatomines collected. The Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 Index was 16.8% and two insects presented mixed infection with Trypanosoma rangeli Tejera, 1920. A precipitin test showed that R. nasutus from palms of Chapada do Araripe are associated with opossum and bird although other possible bloodmeals were observed. Our results showing a high index of infestation of the palms as well as T. cruzi infection, the association of R. nasutus with the most diverse species of palms and proximity of these palms to houses demonstrate the importance of this area for sylvatic T. cruzi transmission and suggest the need for epidemiological surveillance in the region of the Chapada do Araripe.
Abstract in English:Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is a public health problem worldwide and the virus has been classified into six genotypes. In Brazil, the only genotype that has been found is genotype I, predominately from subgenotype IA. Here, the HAV genotypes were analyzed of 18 isolates circulating between 1996-2001 in Goiânia, state of Goiás, Brazil. Viral RNA was extracted from 18 serum samples and amplified (RT-PCR/nested-PCR), followed by the genomic sequencing of the VP1/2A junction region of the HAV genome. Sequences of 168 nucleotides were compared and analyzed using the BLAST N, Clustal X and PAUP v. 4.10b programs. All samples were classified as genotype I, with 10 belonging to subgenotype IA and eight to subgenotype IB. The subgenotype IA isolates showed greater diversity than the subgenotype IB isolates at the nucleotide level. Elevated identity values were found between isolates obtained in this study and those from other regions of the world, including Brazil, highlighting the high conservation among different isolates of this virus. However, changes in the HAV subgenotype circulation could also be observed during the evaluated period.
Abstract in English:The genus Listeria is composed of six species of which Listeria monocytogenes is considered the single pathogenic species that causes listeriosis in humans. Of the 13 serovars of L. monocytogenes, 1/2a, 1/2b and 4b are responsible for the majority of clinical cases. The aim of this work was to detect L. monocytogenes in the cerebrospinal fluid sample of premature newborns and to characterize this sample using biotyping, serotyping and molecular typing. The results indicated the presence of L. monocytogenesin the clinical sample studied. Moreover, the isolate was identified as the 4b serovar that was characterized by the presence of a unique 691 bp band after analysis using the Multiplex-PCR technique. The results of repeated Multiplex-PCR and sequencing have indicated that the L. monocytogenes isolate was an atypical 4b serovar, which is the first time this finding has been reported.
Abstract in English:Studies were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of the growth regulator, triflumuron (TFM) (Starycide® sc 480 Bayer), for disrupting the development of Rhodnius prolixus fifth-instar nymph by oral, topical or continuous treatment. All treatments were able to induce high levels of mortality, delay development and molt inhibition. Oral treatment induced molt inhibition in all insects that survived at doses of 0.25, 0.50 and 5.0 mg/mL of a blood meal. The highest levels of both mortality in 24 h and molt inhibition were always observed after topical treatment. The lowest doses needed to obtain considerable biological effects were always observed after continuous treatment. In this way, the highest levels of mortality within 30 days were detected after continuous treatment, which also induced an extended inter-molting period, a lower number of over-aged nymphs and the highest level of molting in nymphs that survived. Moreover, the effects of TFM on insects were often displayed in a dose response manner. These results indicate that TFM acts as a potent growth inhibitor of R. prolixus nymphs and has the potential to be used in integrated vector control programs against hematophagous triatomine species.
Abstract in English:Leishmaniases are endemic to several Brazilian states, including Minas Gerais. As many cases of these diseases are diagnosed in Minas Gerais every year, this paper aimed to determine the diversity of the species of sandflies vector of leishmaniases, in Lassance and Corinto on the banks of the Velhas River. Over two years, 21,014 specimens of sandflies, belonging to 19 species were captured with light traps. Of these specimens, Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926) (84.18%), Nyssomyia intermedia (Lutz & Neiva 1912) (13.41%), Evandromyia lenti(Mangabeira 1938) (0.99%) and Evandromyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho 1939) (0.48%) were the most represented. The former two species could be involved in the epidemiological chain of leishmaniasis in this region. No significant difference was found between the species compositions on the two river banks.