Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Volume: 110, Issue: 2, Published: 2015
  • Accuracy of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis using polymerase chain reaction: systematic literature review and meta-analysis Articles

    Gomes, Ciro Martins; Mazin, Suleimy Cristina; Santos, Elisa Raphael dos; Cesetti, Mariana Vicente; Bächtold, Guilherme Albergaria Brízida; Cordeiro, João Henrique de Freitas; Theodoro, Fabrício Claudino Estrela Terra; Damasco, Fabiana dos Santos; Carranza, Sebastián Andrés Vernal; Santos, Adriana de Oliveira; Roselino, Ana Maria; Sampaio, Raimunda Nonata Ribeiro

    Abstract in English:

    The diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is hampered by the absence of a gold standard. An accurate diagnosis is essential because of the high toxicity of the medications for the disease. This study aimed to assess the ability of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify MCL and to compare these results with clinical research recently published by the authors. A systematic literature review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: the PRISMA Statement was performed using comprehensive search criteria and communication with the authors. A meta-analysis considering the estimates of the univariate and bivariate models was performed. Specificity near 100% was common among the papers. The primary reason for accuracy differences was sensitivity. The meta-analysis, which was only possible for PCR samples of lesion fragments, revealed a sensitivity of 71% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.59; 0.81] and a specificity of 93% (95% CI = 0.83; 0.98) in the bivariate model. The search for measures that could increase the sensitivity of PCR should be encouraged. The quality of the collected material and the optimisation of the amplification of genetic material should be prioritised.
  • The efficacy of 2-nitrovinylfuran derivatives againstLeishmania in vitro and in vivo Articles

    Sifontes-Rodríguez, Sergio; Monzote-Fidalgo, Lianet; Castañedo-Cancio, Nilo; Montalvo-Álvarez, Ana Margarita; López-Hernández, Yamilé; Diogo, Niurka Mollineda; Infante-Bourzac, Juan Francisco; Pérez-Martín, Oliver; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; García-Trevijano, José Antonio Escario; Cabrera-Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    Abstract in English:

    Despite recent advances in the treatment of some forms of leishmaniasis, the available drugs are still far from ideal due to inefficacy, parasite resistance, toxicity and cost. The wide-spectrum antimicrobial activity of 2-nitrovinylfuran compounds has been described, as has their activity against Trichomonas vaginalis and other protozoa. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the antileishmanial activities of six 2-nitrovinylfurans in vitro and in a murine model of leishmaniasis. Minimum parasiticide concentration (MPC) and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values for these compounds against the promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania braziliensis were determined, as were the efficacies of two selected compounds in an experimental model of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) caused by L. amazonensis in BALB/c mice. All of the compounds were active against the promastigotes of the three Leishmania species tested. IC50 and MPC values were in the ranges of 0.8-4.7 µM and 1.7-32 µM, respectively. The compounds 2-bromo-5-(2-bromo-2-nitrovinyl)-furan (furvina) and 2-bromo-5-(2-methyl-2-nitrovinyl)-furan (UC245) also reduced lesion growth in vivo at a magnitude comparable to or higher than that achieved by amphotericin B treatment. The results demonstrate the potential of this class of compounds as antileishmanial agents and support the clinical testing of Dermofural(r) (a furvina-containing antifungal ointment) for the treatment of CL.
  • Sandfly species diversity in association with human activities in the Kani tribe settlements of the Western Ghats, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India Articles

    Ranganathan, Srinivasan; Swaminathan, Subramanian

    Abstract in English:

    Sandfly prevalence in the Kani tribe settlements of Western Ghats in India was investigated. A total of 1,279 sandflies comprising 17 species was obtained. Sandfly abundance showed a negative correlation (r = -0.97, p = 0.003) with increase in altitudinal ranges from 0-1,000 m. When sandfly samples were grouped according to landscape characteristics of the location, the estimated Shannon-Weiner index (H) and species richness index (S) were high and species evenness index (J) was low in settlements located at 0-300 m altitudinal range. On the contrary, the values of H and J were high, while S was low at 301-600 m altitudinal range. With further increase in altitude, species diversity, S and J were low. Though the relative abundance of sandflies decreased with increase in altitude, the influence of altitudinal variation could not be attributed to determine sandfly diversity, since the number of sampling units were not uniform at all the altitudinal gradients due to nonavailability of suitable resting shelters. Sandfly species showed great aggregation at 0-300 m altitude interval, where not only the number of settlements were maximum (n = 19), but also the environmental conditions favoured sandfly abundance due to the concentration of tribal settlements, human dwellings and his activities.
  • Role of cyclooxygenase-2 in Trypanosoma cruzisurvival in the early stages of parasite host-cell interaction Articles

    Moraes, Karen CM; Diniz, Lívia F; Bahia, Maria Terezinha

    Abstract in English:

    Chagas disease, caused by the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is a serious health problem in Latin America. During this parasitic infection, the heart is one of the major organs affected. The pathogenesis of tissue remodelling, particularly regarding cardiomyocyte behaviour after parasite infection and the molecular mechanisms that occur immediately following parasite entry into host cells are not yet completely understood. When cells are infected with T. cruzi, they develop an inflammatory response, in which cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyses rate-limiting steps in the arachidonic acid pathway. However, how the parasite interaction modulates COX-2 activity is poorly understood. In this study, the H9c2 cell line was used as our model and we investigated cellular and biochemical aspects during the initial 48 h of parasitic infection. Oscillatory activity of COX-2 was observed, which correlated with the control of the pro-inflammatory environment in infected cells. Interestingly, subcellular trafficking was also verified, correlated with the control of Cox-2 mRNA or the activated COX-2 protein in cells, which is directly connected with the assemble of stress granules structures. Our collective findings suggest that in the very early stage of the T. cruzi-host cell interaction, the parasite is able to modulate the cellular metabolism in order to survives.
  • Factors associated with the occurrence of Triatoma sordida (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in rural localities of Central-West Brazil Articles

    Rossi, Juliana Chedid Nogared; Duarte, Elisabeth C; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    Abstract in English:

    This study estimates the factors of artificial environments (houses and peridomestic areas) associated with Triatoma sordida occurrence. Manual searches for triatomines were performed in 136 domiciliary units (DUs) in two rural localities of Central-West Brazil. For each DU, 32 structural, 23 biotic and 28 management variables were obtained. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed in order to identify statistically significant variables associated with occurrence of T. sordida in the study areas. A total of 1,057 specimens (99% in peridomiciles, mainly chicken coops) of T. sordida were collected from 63 DUs (infestation: 47%; density: ~8 specimens/DU; crowding: ~17 specimens/infested DU; colonisation: 81%). Only six (0.6%) out of 945 specimens examined were infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. The final adjusted logistic regression model indicated that the probability of T. sordida occurrence was higher in DU with wooden chicken coops, presence of > 30 animals in wooden corrals, presence of wood piles and presence of food storeroom. The results show the persistence of T. sordida in peridomestic habitats in rural localities of Central-West Brazil. However, the observed low intradomestic colonisation and minimal triatomine infection rates indicate that T. sordida has low potential to sustain high rates of T. cruzi transmission to residents of these localities.
  • Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis inTrichomonas vaginalis Articles

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares de; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio De; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    Abstract in English:

    Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustainedT. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.
  • Evaluation of parasitological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and assessment of cure of schistosomiasis mansoni in a low transmission area Articles

    Siqueira, Liliane Maria Vidal; Gomes, Luciana Inácia; Oliveira, Edward; Oliveira, Eduardo Ribeiro de; Oliveira, Áureo Almeida de; Enk, Martin Johannes; Carneiro, Nídia Figueiredo; Rabello, Ana; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated parasitological and molecular techniques for the diagnosis and assessment of cure of schistosomiasis mansoni. A population-based study was performed in 201 inhabitants from a low transmission locality named Pedra Preta, municipality of Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Four stool samples were analysed using two techniques, the Kato-Katz® (KK) technique (18 slides) and the TF-Test®, to establish the infection rate. The positivity rate of 18 KK slides of four stool samples was 28.9% (58/201) and the combined parasitological techniques (KK+TF-Test®) produced a 35.8% positivity rate (72/201). Furthermore, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-ELISA assay produced a positivity rate of 23.4% (47/201) using the first sample. All 72 patients with positive parasitological exams were treated with a single dose of Praziquantel® and these patients were followed-up 30, 90 and 180 days after treatment to establish the cure rate. Cure rates obtained by the analysis of 12 KK slides were 100%, 100% and 98.4% at 30, 90 and 180 days after treatment, respectively. PCR-ELISA revealed cure rates of 98.5%, 95.5% and 96.5%, respectively. The diagnostic and assessment of cure for schistosomiasis may require an increased number of KK slides or a test with higher sensitivity, such as PCR-ELISA, in situations of very low parasite load, such as after therapeutic interventions.
  • The prevalence of norovirus, astrovirus and adenovirus infections among hospitalised children with acute gastroenteritis in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, western Brazilian Amazon Articles

    Amaral, Maria Sandra Costa; Estevam, Grecy Kelli; Penatti, Marilene; Lafontaine, Roger; Lima, Ian Carlos Gomes; Spada, Paula Katharine Pontes; Gabbay, Yvone Benchimol; Matos, Najla Benevides

    Abstract in English:

    Although viruses are well-established causes of acute gastroenteritis, few data on the circulation of these pathogens in Porto Velho, state of Rondônia, Brazil, are available. Thus, faecal samples from hospitalised diarrhoeic children, under six years of age, were collected and tested for the presence of norovirus (NoV), adenovirus (AdV) and astrovirus (AstV) from February 2010-February 2012. Specimens were screened by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and viruses were found in 10.7% (63/591) of the cases. NoV, AdV and AstV were detected in 7.8%, 2% and 0.8% of the samples, respectively. NoV infection was observed at all ages and was most prevalent in zero-18-month-old children (84.7%; p = 0.002). A higher incidence of NoV was detected from February-April 2010, when it was found in 52.2% of the cases. Co-infections involving these viruses, rotavirus and enteropathogenic bacteria were detected in 44.4% (28/63) of the children with viral diarrhoea. Nosocomial infections were demonstrated in 28.6% (18/63) of the cases in which viruses were detected. The present paper reports, for the first time, the circulation of NoV and AstV among the paediatric population of Porto Velho and it contributes to our understanding of the roles of these pathogens in gastrointestinal infections.
  • Lactotransferrin gene functional polymorphisms do not influence susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus-1 mother-to-child transmission in different ethnic groups Articles

    Zupin, Luisa; Polesello, Vania; Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; Boniotto, Michele; Arraes, Luiz Claudio; Segat/, Ludovica; Crovella, Sergio

    Abstract in English:

    Lactotransferrin, also known as lactoferrin, is an iron binding glycoprotein that displays antiviral activity against many different infectious agents, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1. Lactotransferrin is present in the breast milk and in the female genitourinary mucosa and it has been hypothesised as a possible candidate to prevent mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission. To verify if two functional polymorphisms, Thr29Ala and Arg47Lys, in the lactotransferrin encoding gene (LTF) could affect HIV-1 infection and vertical transmission, a preliminary association study was performed in 238 HIV-1 positive and 99 HIV-1 negative children from Brazil, Italy, Africa and India. No statistically significant association for the Thr29Ala and Arg47Lys LTF polymorphisms and HIV-1 susceptibility in the studied populations was found. Additionally LTF polymorphisms frequencies were compared between the four different ethnic groups.
  • A public health risk assessment for yellow fever vaccination: a model exemplified by an outbreak in the state of São Paulo, Brazil Articles

    Ribeiro, Ana Freitas; Tengan, Ciléa; Sato, Helena Keico; Spinola, Roberta; Mascheretti, Melissa; França, Ana Cecilia Costa; Port-Carvalho, Marcio; Pereira, Mariza; Souza, Renato Pereira de; Amaku, Marcos; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; Massad, Eduardo

    Abstract in English:

    We propose a method to analyse the 2009 outbreak in the region of Botucatu in the state of São Paulo (SP), Brazil, when 28 yellow fever (YF) cases were confirmed, including 11 deaths. At the time of the outbreak, the Secretary of Health of the State of São Paulo vaccinated one million people, causing the death of five individuals, an unprecedented number of YF vaccine-induced fatalities. We apply a mathematical model described previously to optimise the proportion of people who should be vaccinated to minimise the total number of deaths. The model was used to calculate the optimum proportion that should be vaccinated in the remaining, vaccine-free regions of SP, considering the risk of vaccine-induced fatalities and the risk of YF outbreaks in these regions.
  • Clinical and epidemiological profiles of individuals with drug-resistant tuberculosis Articles

    Pedro, Heloisa da Silveira Paro; Nardi, Susilene Maria Tonelli; Pereira, Maria Izabel Ferreira; Oliveira, Rosângela Siqueira; Suffys, Philip Noel; Gomes, Harrison Magdinier; Finardi, Amanda Juliane; Moraes, Eloise Brasil de; Baptista, Ida Maria Foschiani Dias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Castiglioni, Lilian

    Abstract in English:

    Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) is a growing global threat. Approximately 450,000 people developed multidrug-resistant TB worldwide in 2012 and an estimated 170,000 people died from the disease. This paper describes the sociodemographic, clinical-epidemiological and bacteriological aspects of TB and correlates these features with the distribution of anti-TB drug resistance. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) cultures and drug susceptibility testing were performed according to the BACTEC MGIT 960 method. The results demonstrated that MT strains from individuals who received treatment for TB and people who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus were more resistant to TB drugs compared to other individuals (p < 0.05). Approximately half of the individuals received supervised treatment, but most drug-resistant cases were positive for pulmonary TB and exhibited positive acid-fast bacilli smears, which are complicating factors for TB control programs. Primary healthcare is the ideal level for early disease detection, but tertiary healthcare is the most common entry point for patients into the system. These factors require special attention from healthcare managers and professionals to effectively control and monitor the spread of TB drug-resistant cases.
  • Biofilm production by multiresistant Corynebacterium striatumassociated with nosocomial outbreak Articles

    Souza, Cassius de; Faria, Yuri Vieira; Sant’Anna, Lincoln de Oliveira; Viana, Vanilda Gonçalves; Seabra, Sérgio Henrique; Souza, Mônica Cristina de; Vieira, Verônica Viana; Hirata Júnior, Raphael; Moreira, Lílian de Oliveira; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza de

    Abstract in English:

    Corynebacterium striatum is a potentially pathogenic microorganism that causes nosocomial outbreaks. However, little is known about its virulence factors that may contribute to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We investigated the biofilm production on abiotic surfaces of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and multidrug-susceptible (MDS) strains of C. striatum of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis types I-MDR, II-MDR, III-MDS and IV-MDS isolated during a nosocomial outbreak in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The results showed that C. striatum was able to adhere to hydrophilic and hydrophobic abiotic surfaces. The C. striatum1987/I-MDR strain, predominantly isolated from patients undergoing endotracheal intubation procedures, showed the greatest ability to adhere to all surfaces. C. striatum bound fibrinogen to its surface, which contributed to biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy showed the production of mature biofilms on polyurethane catheters by all pulsotypes. In conclusion, biofilm production may contribute to the establishment of HAIs caused by C. striatum.
  • Widespread distribution of CTX-M and plasmid-mediated AmpC β-lactamases in Escherichia coli from Brazilian chicken meat Articles

    Botelho, Larissa Alvarenga Batista; Kraychete, Gabriela Bergiante; Costa e Silva, Jacqueline Lapa; Regis, Douglas Viller Vieira; Picão, Renata Cristina; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Bonelli, Raquel Regina

    Abstract in English:

    The dissemination of plasmid-mediated antimicrobial resistance genes may pose a substantial public health risk. In the present work, the occurrences ofblaCTX-M and plasmid-mediated ampC and qnrgenes were investigated in Escherichia coli from 16 chicken carcasses produced by four commercial brands in Brazil. Of the brands tested, three were exporters, including one of organic chicken. Our study assessed 136 E. coli isolates that were grouped into 77 distinct biotypes defined by their origin, resistance profiling, the presence of β-lactamase and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polimerase chain reaction typing. TheblaCTX-M-15, blaCTX-M-2 andblaCTX-M-8 genes were detected in one, 17 and eight different biotypes, respectively (45 isolates). Twenty-one biotypes (46 isolates) harboured blaCMY-2.Additionally, blaCMY-2 was identified in isolates that also carried either blaCTX-M-2 orblaCTX-M-8. The qnrB and/orqnrS genes occurred in isolates carrying each of the four types of β-lactamase determinants detected and also in oxyimino-cephalosporin-susceptible strains. Plasmid-mediated extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) and AmpC determinants were identified in carcasses from the four brands tested. Notably, this is the first description ofblaCTX-M-15 genes in meat or food-producing animals from South America. The blaCTX-M-8, blaCTX-M-15 andblaCMY-2 genes were transferable in conjugation experiments. The findings of the present study indicate that plasmid-mediated ESBL and AmpC-encoding genes are widely distributed in Brazilian chicken meat.
  • Structure-based drug design studies of the interactions ofent-kaurane diterpenes derived from Wedelia paludosa with the Plasmodium falciparumsarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase PfATP6 Articles

    Guimarães, Daniel Silqueira Martins; Fonseca, Amanda Luisa da; Batista, Ronan; Comar Junior, Moacyr; Oliveira, Alaíde Braga de; Taranto, Alex Gutterres; Varotti, Fernando de Pilla

    Abstract in English:

    Malaria is responsible for more deaths around the world than any other parasitic disease. Due to the emergence of strains that are resistant to the current chemotherapeutic antimalarial arsenal, the search for new antimalarial drugs remains urgent though hampered by a lack of knowledge regarding the molecular mechanisms of artemisinin resistance. Semisynthetic compounds derived from diterpenes from the medicinal plant Wedelia paludosa were tested in silico against the Plasmodium falciparumCa2+-ATPase, PfATP6. This protein was constructed by comparative modelling using the three-dimensional structure of a homologous protein, 1IWO, as a scaffold. Compound 21 showed the best docking scores, indicating a better interaction with PfATP6 than that of thapsigargin, the natural inhibitor. Inhibition of PfATP6 by diterpene compounds could promote a change in calcium homeostasis, leading to parasite death. These data suggest PfATP6 as a potential target for the antimalarial ent-kaurane diterpenes.
  • Waiting for chikungunya fever in Argentina: spatio-temporal risk maps Short Communication

    Carbajo, Aníbal E; Vezzani, Darío

    Abstract in English:

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) transmission has been detected in America in 2013 and recently reached south up to Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, bordering countries of Argentina. The presence of the mosquito Aedes aegypti in half of the country together with the regional context drove us to make a rapid assessment of transmission risk. Temperature thresholds for vector breeding and for virus transmission, together with adult activity from the literature, were mapped on a monthly basis to estimate risk. Transmission of chikungunya byAe. aegypti in the world was seen at monthly mean temperatures from 21-34ºC, with the majority occurring between 26-28ºC. In Argentina temperatures above 21ºC are observed since September in the northeast, expanding south until January and retreating back to the northeast in April. The maximum area under risk encompasses more than half the country and around 32 million inhabitants. Vector adult activity was registered where monthly means temperatures exceeded 13ºC, in the northeast all over the year and in the northern half from September-May. The models herein proposed show that conditions for transmission are already present. Considering the regional context and the historic inability to control dengue in the region, chikungunya fever illness seems unavoidable.
  • T-helper 17-related cytokines and IgE antibodies during hepatitis A virus infection in children Short Communication

    Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge L; Corral-Jara, Karla F; Escobedo-Meléndez, Griselda; Realpe, Mauricio; Panduro, Arturo; Roman, Sonia; Fierro, Nora A

    Abstract in English:

    We determined the serum IgE levels and T-helper (Th)17-related cytokines during distinct hepatitis A virus (HAV)-induced clinical courses in children. A significantly higher concentration of macrophage inflammatory protein 3α, interleukin (IL)-17E and IL-17F in HAV-infected children with intermediate liver injury compared with those with minor liver damage was found. A reduction in the IgE levels in those patients who showed the highest levels of IL-17F in the group of intermediate liver injury was found. The data suggested that the Th17-related profile is associated with the severity of HAV infection and might play a role on the modulation achieved by HAV during allergies.
  • Spontaneous hepatitis C viral clearance and hepatitis C chronic infection are associated with distinct cytokine profiles in Mexican patients Short Communication

    Fierro, Nora A; González-Aldaco, Karina; Torres-Valadez, Rafael; Trujillo-Trujillo, Maria E; Roman, Sonia; Trujillo-Ochoa, Jorge L; Panduro/, Arturo

    Abstract in English:

    The mechanisms related to the spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV) have been primarily studied in regions where the infection is endemic. Results of prior studies have been extrapolated to populations with low endemicity, such as Mexico. Herein, we determined the cytokine profiles in serum samples from Mexican patients who spontaneously cleared HCV and patients chronically infected with HCV genotype 1a. Chronic HCV-infected patients displayed increased interleukin (IL)-8 and regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted (CCL-5) secretion, whereas patients who spontaneously cleared HCV showed augmented levels of IL-1 alpha, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, transforming growth factor-beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-2 (CCL-8), IL-13 and IL-15. Our study suggeststhat cytokine profiles may predict disease outcome during HCV infection.
  • Molecular diagnosis of strongyloidiasis in tropical areas: a comparison of conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction with parasitological methods Technical Note

    Paula, Fabiana Martins de; Malta, Fernanda de Mello; Marques, Priscilla Duarte; Sitta, Renata Barnabé; Pinho, João Renato Rebello; Gryschek, Ronaldo César Borges; Chieffi, Pedro Paulo

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed to evaluate the use of conventional polymerase chain reaction (cPCR) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) in the diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis from stool samples in tropical areas. Stool samples were collected from individuals and were determined to be positive for Strongyloides stercoralis (group I), negative for S. stercoralis (group II) and positive for other enteroparasite species (group III). DNA specific to S. stercoralis was found in 76.7% of group I samples by cPCR and in 90% of group I samples by qPCR. The results show that molecular methods can be used as alternative tools for detecting S. stercoralis in human stool samples in tropical areas.
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