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Chilean sport sciences scientific production indexed in the Web of Science (1981-2016)

Abstract

AIM

To carry out a bibliometric analysis of the Chilean Sport Sciences scientific production indexed in the Web of Science until 2016.

METHODS

Chilean Sport Sciences articles and reviews included in the Web of Science Core Collection indexes until 2016 were analyzed. Data was collected and filtered in Endnote X6 programme and then exported to Excel 2013, Bibexcel and Histcite for analysis. Bibliometrics was focused on productivity, subjects and collaboration patterns.

RESULTS

A total of 152 documents published from 1981 to 2016 were found. Life Sciences was the main research area (104), while Physiology (36) and Sports Training Theory (30) were the most represented subjects. The mean of authors per article was 5.26 and the percentage of collaboration was mainly between 94% and 100%. Ramirez-Campillo was the most prolific author (24) and Caniuqueo achieved the highest collaboration index (10.83). Two networks, with 20 and 10 scholars respectively and representing 19 different institutions, were discovered. A cluster of 53 different journals has disseminated Chilean Sport Sciences publications, but 12 of them collected 60.53% of total production.

CONCLUSION

Chilean Sport Sciences scientific production indexed in the Web of Science shows the progressive development and strengthening of this field of knowledge, clearly oriented to Life Sciences, teamwork and international collaboration. The establishment of a network including scholars from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile and Spain, which is propelling Sport Sciences research in this country, should be also highlighted.

Keyword
bibliometrics; collaboration; scientific production; chile; sport sciences

INTRODUCTION

The development of science in Chile was officially strengthened in 1967 with the establishment of the Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica [National Commission for Scientific and Technological Research] and its promotion and support of science and technology for contributing to the economic, social and cultural development of the country(11 Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. Historia 2017. Available from: http://www.conicyt.cl/sobre-conicyt/historia/ [ Accessed 18th December 2017].
http://www.conicyt.cl/sobre-conicyt/hist...
). In 1982 the Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico [National Fund for Scientific and Technological Development] was also created for funding individual research, supporting more than 16.000 projects until present day(22 Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica. ¿Qué es FONDECYT? 2017. Available from: http://www.conicyt.cl/fondecyt/sobre-fondecyt/que-es-fondecyt/ [Accessed 18th December 2017].
http://www.conicyt.cl/fondecyt/sobre-fon...
).

On the other hand, the constant, progressive and exponential rise of research information worldwide(33 Larsen PO, von Ins M. The rate of growth in scientific publication and the decline in coverage provided by Science Citation Index. Scientometrics. 2010;84(3):575-603.,44 Price DJdS. Little Science, Big Science... and Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press; 1986.) has caused the appearance of new techniques for analyzing this information. Bibliometrics has proven to be “the main tool of science, quantitative analysis”(55 Thomson Reuters. Using bibliometrics: A guide to evaluating research performance with citation data 2008. Available from: http://ips.clarivate.com/m/pdfs/325133_thomson.pdf [Accessed 12th Novemeber 2014].
http://ips.clarivate.com/m/pdfs/325133_t...
) and it is a growing field whose procedures have been applied to Chilean scientific output(66 Moya-Anegón Fd. Principales indicadores cienciométricos de la actividad científica chilena 2013. Informe 2015. Santiago - Madrid - Viña del Mar: Altazor Ediciones; 2015.). Thus, the last report indicated Chile had grown an average of 8.2% every year during the period 2009-2013 while in the rest of world was at 2.4%. In 2013, 9.178 documents were published and the amount of researchers rose to 5.943(66 Moya-Anegón Fd. Principales indicadores cienciométricos de la actividad científica chilena 2013. Informe 2015. Santiago - Madrid - Viña del Mar: Altazor Ediciones; 2015.). This report also stated a 49.93% of international collaboration, being the United States of America, Spain, Germany, France and England the most collaborative countries. Regarding research area, Social Sciences and Arts and Humanities presented a significant rise of researchers from 2003 to 2012 due to the increase of international collaborators.

Regarding the development of Sport Sciences in Chile, its history dates back to 1906 with the establishment of the Instituto de Educación Física y Manual [Physical Education and Manual Institute] at the University of Chile(77 Cofré Iluffi M. El DEFDER y sus 80 años: el Instituto Superior de Educación Física y Técnica, hoy Departamento de Educación Física, Deportes y Recreación. Educación Física-Chile. 1986;LVII(208):12-5.

8 Cofré Iluffi M. El Instituto de Educación Física y Manual: ocho décadas. Educación Física-Chile. 1989;LXI(219):9-19.

9 Guarda Etcheverry S. Historia del Instituto de Educación Física. Educación física Chile. 2006 (265):13-24.
-1010 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Gutiérrez-García C. Historia de la revista Educación Física-Chile: aproximación bibliométrica (1929-2013). Movimento. 2015;21(3):603-16.). From that time onwards, the spread of Sport Sciences field of knowledge is represented by the progressive growth of institutions and universities(1111 Consejo Nacional de Educación. Elige carrera 2017. Available from: http://www.eligecarrera.cl/aspx/index.aspx [Accessed 20th September 2017].
http://www.eligecarrera.cl/aspx/index.as...
,1212 Ministerio de Educación. Buscador de instituciones 2017. Available from: http://www.mifuturo.cl/index.php/donde-y-que-estudiar/buscador-de-instituciones [Accessed 20th September 2017].
http://www.mifuturo.cl/index.php/donde-y...
), academics and scholars(1313 Andrade DC, López BA, Ramírez-Campillo R, Beltrán AR, Rodríguez RP. Bibliometric analysis of South American research in sports science from 1970 to 2012. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2013;19(4):783-91.) and consequently, the amount of courses and programmes(1111 Consejo Nacional de Educación. Elige carrera 2017. Available from: http://www.eligecarrera.cl/aspx/index.aspx [Accessed 20th September 2017].
http://www.eligecarrera.cl/aspx/index.as...
,1414 Ministerio de Educación. Buscador de carreras 2017. Available from: http://www.mifuturo.cl/index.php/donde-y-que-estudiar/buscador-de-carreras [Accessed 20th September 2017].
http://www.mifuturo.cl/index.php/donde-y...
), journals(1515 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI. Sport Sciences scientific journals in Chile (1929-2014): bibliography, characteristics, quality. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2015;21(4):442-51.) as well as research output(1313 Andrade DC, López BA, Ramírez-Campillo R, Beltrán AR, Rodríguez RP. Bibliometric analysis of South American research in sports science from 1970 to 2012. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2013;19(4):783-91.,1616 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI, Izquierdo-Macón E. Sport Sciences' scientific production published in Chile (1912-2014): a bibliometric approach. Movimento. 2016;22(4):1121-36.), influenced by the different social, economic, political and cultural events happened(1616 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI, Izquierdo-Macón E. Sport Sciences' scientific production published in Chile (1912-2014): a bibliometric approach. Movimento. 2016;22(4):1121-36.

17 Collier S, Sater WF. Historia de Chile, 1808-1994. Madrid: Cambridge University Press; 1999.

18 Silva Galdames O. Breve historia contemporánea de Chile. México D.F.: Fondo de Cultura Económica; 1995.
-1919 Garretón MA, Martínez J. Universidades chilenas: historia, reforma e intervención. Santiago: SUR; 1985.). For instance, there are currently more than 30 universities, some of them with several campuses along the country and evening programmess, offering Sport Sciences-related degrees in Chile(1414 Ministerio de Educación. Buscador de carreras 2017. Available from: http://www.mifuturo.cl/index.php/donde-y-que-estudiar/buscador-de-carreras [Accessed 20th September 2017].
http://www.mifuturo.cl/index.php/donde-y...
,2020 Consejo Académico Nacional de Educación Física. Universidades del Consejo 2017. Available from: https://www.canef.cl/consejo [Accessed 20th September 2017].
https://www.canef.cl/consejo...
), nine Master and one Doctoral programmes(2121 Universia Chile. Buscador 2017. Available from: http://www.universia.cl/estudios/busqueda-avanzada/magisters/pedagogia/dg/166/ka/649 [Accessed 20th September 2017].
http://www.universia.cl/estudios/busqued...
).

From a bibliometric approach, several works have been developed in Chile in Sport Sciences field. These works have offered a comparison of the Sports Sciences scientific development of Chile within its South American context(1313 Andrade DC, López BA, Ramírez-Campillo R, Beltrán AR, Rodríguez RP. Bibliometric analysis of South American research in sports science from 1970 to 2012. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2013;19(4):783-91.), the history and contribution of its journals(1010 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Gutiérrez-García C. Historia de la revista Educación Física-Chile: aproximación bibliométrica (1929-2013). Movimento. 2015;21(3):603-16.,1515 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI. Sport Sciences scientific journals in Chile (1929-2014): bibliography, characteristics, quality. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2015;21(4):442-51.,2222 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI. Análisis bibliométrico de los artículos publicados en la revista del Instituto Nacional de Deportes: 2004-2014. Rev. cienc. act. fís. Inst. Nac. Deportes. 2015;10 7-18.) as well as its evolution along time in Chile(1616 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI, Izquierdo-Macón E. Sport Sciences' scientific production published in Chile (1912-2014): a bibliometric approach. Movimento. 2016;22(4):1121-36.,2323 Rubilar Bernal CA, Pérez-Gutiérrez M. Análisis bibliométrico de los artículos científicos de las Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte publicados en Chile durante el gobierno militar (1973-1990). Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Esporte. In press.). Nevertheless, the contribution of Chilean scholars to the development of Sport Sciences at the international level has not been studied yet. Thus, the aim of the present study was to carry out a bibliometric analysis focused on productivity, subjects and collaboration patterns of the Chilean Sport Sciences scientific production indexed in the Web of Science until 2016. This analysis could complement previous works, provide academics an international overview of this field along history and allow a national-international data comparison.

METHOD

Chilean Sport Sciences articles and reviews included in the Web of Science Core Collection indexes such as Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) as well as Arts & Humanities Citation Index (A&HCI) and published from 1900 to 2016 were included in the present study. Those works classified as articles and reviews by the Web of Science were selected as the current main documents for the dissemination of knowledge. Web of Science indexes and time span were set following the methodology proposed by Andrade, López, Ramírez-Campillo, Beltrán, Rodríguez(1313 Andrade DC, López BA, Ramírez-Campillo R, Beltrán AR, Rodríguez RP. Bibliometric analysis of South American research in sports science from 1970 to 2012. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2013;19(4):783-91.) and the recommendations offered by Thomson Reuters(2424 Thomson Reuters. Web of Science 8.0 Workshop: Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, Arts & Humanities Citation Index. Available from: http://www.google.es/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDcQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fip-science.thomsonreuters.com%2Fm%2Fpdfs%2Fmgr%2Fws-wos-8-0-0807.pdf&ei=rII8U9yWD6P00gH6zYGIBQ&usg=AFQjCNFX1MLYmsq61O6FyrkoNm6ef9ZJnw&bvm=bv.63934634,d.cWc&cad=rja [Accessed 20th September 2017].
http://www.google.es/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&e...
), respectively.

Then, a search string was created for data mining including Chile as the country of affiliation of authors as well as Web of Science categories related with Sport Sciences. These were Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism; Psychology, Applied; Sport Sciences; Education & Educational Research; and Education, Special. These categories were selected due to the multidisciplinary approach of Sport Sciences(2525 Devís-Devís J, Valenciano Valcárcel J, Villamón M, Pérez-Samaniego V. Disciplinas y temas de estudio en las ciencias de la actividad física y el deporte. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte. 2010;10(37):150-66.). In this way, search string was the following:

CU=Chile AND WC=(Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism OR Psychology, Applied OR Sport Sciences OR Education & Educational Research OR Education, Special)

It should be highlighted Chilean Sport Sciences scientific production does not represent the scientific output of Chilean academics and/or scholars since foreign authors are also working in Chilean universities and/or institutions. The advanced search tool included in the Web of Science presents the affiliation of authors but not their nationality. Moreover, authors affiliated to non-Chilean institutions are also included in the present study because they have collaborated and signed papers with authors working in Chilean organizations.

Results were then filtered by document type for including only articles and reviews. Full record of results was exported to the Endnote X6 reference manager and title, abstract and keywords were checked for considering article’s final inclusion regarding its topic.

Obtained results were classified according to their subject and research area, following the criteria used by Devís-Devís, Valenciano Valcárcel, Villamón, Pérez-Samaniego(2525 Devís-Devís J, Valenciano Valcárcel J, Villamón M, Pérez-Samaniego V. Disciplinas y temas de estudio en las ciencias de la actividad física y el deporte. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte. 2010;10(37):150-66.) and the Web of Science(2626 Thomson Reuters. Web of Science Core Collection Help. Research Areas (Categories / Classification) 2017. Available from: https://images.webofknowledge.com/images/help/WOS/hp_research_areas_easca.html [Accessed 19th July 2017]
https://images.webofknowledge.com/images...
) respectively, and then exported to Excel 2013 for developing the bibliometric analysis focused on productivity(2727 López López P. Introducción a la bibliometría. Valencia: Promolibro; 1996.). The analysis included the following variables: distribution of articles per year, subject and research area, single-authored articles (SA), multi-authored articles (MA), mean of authors per article and percentage of collaboration. Percentage of collaboration (%C) was calculated following the methodology used by Valenciano Valcárcel, Devís-Devís, Villamón, Peiró-Velert(2828 Valenciano Valcárcel J, Devís-Devís J, Villamón M, Peiró-Velert C. La colaboración científica en el campo de las Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte en España. Rev Esp Doc Cient. 2010;33(1):90-105.), being: %C = MA/SA+MA. Moreover, number of articles, signatures, collaborators and collaboration index were also calculated for those authors with six or more articles.

Then, Bibexcel and Histcite were selected for analysing the source journals and preparing the co-authorship network within Chilean Sport Sciences scientific production, following the methodology used by similar works(2929 Peset F, Ferrer-Sapena A, Villamón M, González LM, Toca-Herrera JL, Aleixandre-Benavent R. Scientific literature analysis of Judo in Web of Science. Archives of Budo. 2013;9(2):81-91.,3030 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Valdés-Badilla P, Gutiérrez-García C, Herrera-Valenzuela T. Taekwondo scientific production published in the Web of Science (1988-2016): collaboration and topics. Movimento. In press.). Thus, number of published documents, number of citations in the collection to the journal (Total Local Citation Score; TLCS), total citations in the Web of Science to papers in the journal in the collection (Total Global Citation Score; TGCS) and co-authorship structure was determined. Finally, the map of collaboration for clusters of researchers with more than three members was depicted using Pajek software.

RESULTS

A total of 152 documents (145 articles and 7 reviews) were found. They were published between 1981 and 2016, first irregularly and constantly from 2008 onwards and appearing a significant rise from 2013 onwards (260% in relation to the amount of documents published in 2012). Documents have been classified in 3 different research areas and 15 subjects as shown in Table 1. Life Sciences was the main research area, collecting 104 documents, while Physiology and Sports Training Theory were the most important subject with 36 and 30 documents respectively. Within Social Sciences, the second most represented research area (42 documents), Psychology and Sociology achieved the highest figures with 14 and 12 documents respectively. On the other hand, some subjects such as Documentation or Management were only represented in one document.

Table 1
Frequency distribution of published articles by year of publication, research area and subject.

The first published article in each subject is shown in Table 2, depicting two different periods for the inclusion of Chilean Sport Sciences scientific subjects within the Web of Science. While the first published physiological and biomechanical articles were indexed during the 1980s, the rest of subjects have appeared from 2008 onwards.

Table 2
Reference of the first published article in each subject.

Regarding the collaboration patterns, Table 3 shows the predominance of multi-authored articles. The mean of authors per article was 5.26, ranging from one to 10. The percentage of collaboration was between 94% and 100% with the exception of 2008, when a single-authored article was only published, and 2009, with a 66.67% of collaboration.

Table 3
Distribution of the amount of single-authored articles, multi-authored articles, mean of authors per article and percentage of collaboration per year.

A group of 15 authors has published six or more documents, being Ramirez-Campillo the most prolific with 24 articles, followed by Izquierdo with 15 publications. The collaboration index fluctuated from 4.83 to 10.83; achieving Caniuqueo the highest score (Table 4). On the other hand, the most productive authors have collaborated at least with 23 scholars, representing the extent of the collaboration network surrounding the Chilean Sport Sciences publications included in the Web of Science. Ramirez-Campillo was the most collaborative author, working with 166 scholars. Moreover, six foreign scholars from Brazil (Nakamura and Loturco) and Spain (Izquierdo, Mujika, Colado and Flandez) are included within this group of most productive authors, depicting they are working closely together with scholars affiliated to Chilean institutions for developing research in this field.

Table 4
List of most productive authors (≥6 papers), with institutional affiliations and collaboration patterns.

Regarding the map of the collaboration patterns, two networks were discovered with 20 and 10 scholars respectively and representing 19 different institutions (Figure 1). The first network almost collects as many institutions as authors. There is a strong relationship between most of them, although some scholars such as Mujika, Pereira or Zbinden-Foncea collaborate to a lesser extent. Moreover, this network shows the international collaboration of Chilean institutions with countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada or Spain. The second network presents two clusters of scholars collaborating, being Colado and Flandez the most productive authors, and four different institutions from Chile and Spain are working together.

Source: prepared
by authors.

Finally, a cluster of 53 different journals has disseminated the selected Chilean Sport Sciences documents. As shown in Table 5, twelve journals have published five or more articles collecting 92 articles, representing 60.53% of total production. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research published 16 articles while Movimento included 11 publications. On the other hand, 29 journals have only published one article. Regarding the citation scores of these journals, there is no direct relationship between TLCS and TGCS, although the Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, European Journal of Applied Physiology and Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise have exhibited the highest scores in both. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research was the most cited journal within the Web of Science collection (155), while the European Journal of Applied Physiology achieved the highest citation score within the articles included in the collection (5). Some journals, such as the Journal of Sports Science and Medicine or Journal of Sports Sciences, have scored in TGCS but no in TLCS.

Table 5
Source journals for the articles and citations.

DISCUSSION

The present study has shown the existence of 152 documents related to Chilean Sport Sciences scientific production published in the Web of Science Core Collection indexes from 1981 to 2016. After the indexation of the first Chilean Sport Sciences article in the Web of Science in 1981, there was an approximately 30-years period with a scarce scientific output. Then, up to 132 documents were published from 2013 onwards, drawing a progressive rise, and being Life Sciences the most represented research area. These results show the evolution of Chilean Sport Sciences scientific output, the orientation of Chilean Sport Sciences higher education and research institutions and the specialization and/or research focus of scholars in this country.

These results differ from those obtained by Andrade, López, Ramírez-Campillo, Beltrán, Rodríguez(1313 Andrade DC, López BA, Ramírez-Campillo R, Beltrán AR, Rodríguez RP. Bibliometric analysis of South American research in sports science from 1970 to 2012. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2013;19(4):783-91.) despite a similar methodology was used and after considering the time span was 4 years longer in the present study. These authors studied the South American research output indexed in the Web of Science from 1970 to 2012, focusing on the analysis of the amount of articles, scholars, subjects, institutions, impact factor, citations and journals involved, including data from Chile and depicted a different amount and distribution along time of the Chilean Sport Sciences articles indexed in the Web of Science. For example, they found four and 11 documents in 1978-1982 and 1998-2002 periods respectively while the present study only reported one document published in each period, that is, 1981 and 1999. The constant update of journals, and consequently of articles, indexed in the Web of Science may explain this situation. However, Andrade, López, Ramírez-Campillo, Beltrán, Rodríguez(1313 Andrade DC, López BA, Ramírez-Campillo R, Beltrán AR, Rodríguez RP. Bibliometric analysis of South American research in sports science from 1970 to 2012. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2013;19(4):783-91.) depicted a similar development of Chilean Sport Sciences with a rise from 1998 onwards and particularly during the 2008-2012 period. They also discovered the orientation of Sport Sciences scientific production to Life Sciences, being Physiology (44% of total articles) the most-studied topic in the Sport Sciences within South American countries. In the same way, Pérez-Gutiérrez, Lagos-Hernández, Izquierdo-Macón(1616 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI, Izquierdo-Macón E. Sport Sciences' scientific production published in Chile (1912-2014): a bibliometric approach. Movimento. 2016;22(4):1121-36.) carried out a bibliometric analysis of Sport Sciences scientific production published in Chile from 1912 to 2014, determining the distribution of articles, authors, institutions and countries per decade, the distribution of articles per decade, subject, research area and journal and the collaboration patterns. They found Physiology as the second most important subject (16.18%) while in the present study it achieved 36 publications (23.68% of total articles), confirming the orientation of Chilean Sport Sciences scholars to Life Sciences. As they stated, the focus of scholars on subjects associated to Life Sciences, such as Physiology or Sports Medicine, was triggered to the biological approach fostered in the physical education institutions from 1930s onwards or the establishment of the Chilean Society of Sports Medicine in 1955(88 Cofré Iluffi M. El Instituto de Educación Física y Manual: ocho décadas. Educación Física-Chile. 1989;LXI(219):9-19.,99 Guarda Etcheverry S. Historia del Instituto de Educación Física. Educación física Chile. 2006 (265):13-24.,1616 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI, Izquierdo-Macón E. Sport Sciences' scientific production published in Chile (1912-2014): a bibliometric approach. Movimento. 2016;22(4):1121-36.,3131 Bisquertt Susarte L. El Instituto de Educación Física y Técnica en su medio siglo. Revista Chilena de Educación Física. 1957;XXII(91-92):3-26.).

Social Sciences collected 42 documents, 27.63% of total Sport Sciences production, becoming the second most represented research area and widening the orientation of Sport Sciences studies developed in Chile. The appearance of certain subjects during the last years, such as Biomechanics, Didactics, Mathematical Methods, Nutrition or Scientometrics, with three or more articles, also shows the growth of this field and its multidisciplinary character(1616 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI, Izquierdo-Macón E. Sport Sciences' scientific production published in Chile (1912-2014): a bibliometric approach. Movimento. 2016;22(4):1121-36.,2525 Devís-Devís J, Valenciano Valcárcel J, Villamón M, Pérez-Samaniego V. Disciplinas y temas de estudio en las ciencias de la actividad física y el deporte. Revista Internacional de Medicina y Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte. 2010;10(37):150-66.,3232 Vicente Pedraz M. Definición del objeto de estudio en las Ciencias de la Actividad Física. A Coruña, Congreso Galego de Educación Física; 1998. p. 73-5.,3333 Valenciano Valcárcel J, Devís Devís J, Beltrán Carrillo VJ. La investigación y las revistas científicas de la actividad física y el deporte en España. Fuentes: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación. 2008 (8):209-18.), improving, widening and strengthening the knowledge about physical activity and sports from other approaches.

The analysis of the collaboration patterns presented a predominance of multi-authored articles. Pérez-Gutiérrez, Lagos-Hernández, Izquierdo-Macón(1616 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI, Izquierdo-Macón E. Sport Sciences' scientific production published in Chile (1912-2014): a bibliometric approach. Movimento. 2016;22(4):1121-36.) study, regarding the Sport Sciences scientific output published in Chile from 1912 to 2014, showed single-authored articles predominated until the decade of 2010 and a mean of 1.54 authors per article. During the last period these authors analyzed (2010-2014), the amount of multi-authored articles increased significantly achieving 75% of collaboration and a mean of 2.96 authors per article. As collaboration has been defined as a key element to improve quality in scientific production, these results should be understood in two different but complementary ways. First, there has been a trend towards collaborative research within Sport Sciences in Chile from 2010 onwards, both in national- and international-indexed production although single-authored papers dominated the scientific documents published in Chile for almost a century(1616 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI, Izquierdo-Macón E. Sport Sciences' scientific production published in Chile (1912-2014): a bibliometric approach. Movimento. 2016;22(4):1121-36.). And second, Chilean Sport Sciences scholars have usually participated in collaborative networks for those papers indexed in the Web of Science since it indexes the top international and regional journals in the world and these journals publish most of the significant scholar results(3434 Testa J. The Web of Science journal selection process 2016. Available from: http://wokinfo.com/essays/journal-selection-process/ [Accessed 14th September 2017]
http://wokinfo.com/essays/journal-select...
). Thus, the Web of Science demands foster teamwork among Sport Sciences scholars affiliated to Chilean institutions for publishing their papers. The best research works or projects, generally developed by a group of scholars, are published in top journals.

Regarding the collaboration of the most productive authors, a group of 15 scholars published six or more articles, being Ramirez-Campillo the most prolific author and Caniuqueo the most collaborative. Brazilian and Spanish scholars were also included within this collaboration network. These results show the importance of teamwork for getting published in journals indexed in the Web of Science but also for developing research since the three most productive authors have collaborated with at least 113 scholars. In the same way, Caniuqueo signed six papers but he achieved the highest score in the collaboration index, illustrating the extent of his collaboration network. This should be understood as a way for improving the quality of his research.

In the Spanish context, Valenciano Valcárcel, Devís-Devís, Villamón, Peiró-Velert(2828 Valenciano Valcárcel J, Devís-Devís J, Villamón M, Peiró-Velert C. La colaboración científica en el campo de las Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte en España. Rev Esp Doc Cient. 2010;33(1):90-105.) analyzed the collaboration among authors publishing in the 16 most important Sport Sciences journals published in Spain from 1999 to 2005. They discovered a mean of 2.50 authors per article in total and a group of 36 scholars publishing 10 or more articles with a mean of 3.89 authors per article. Despite the methodology, time span, context and results differences between both studies, it should be suggested collaboration benefits productivity and it is necessary for improving research quality.

The map of the collaboration patterns depicted two networks with 20 and 10 scholars respectively and representing 19 different institutions, including countries such as Australia, Brazil, Canada or Spain. Valenciano Valcárcel, Devís-Devís, Villamón, Peiró-Velert(2828 Valenciano Valcárcel J, Devís-Devís J, Villamón M, Peiró-Velert C. La colaboración científica en el campo de las Ciencias de la Actividad Física y el Deporte en España. Rev Esp Doc Cient. 2010;33(1):90-105.) also found a 16.39% of foreign authors, most of them from Brazil, Portugal and Argentina, participating in the 12.77% of total articles. Therefore, international collaboration is a widespread and frequent practice in Sport Sciences in Chile, corroborating previous results that showed the intensification of international collaboration in the last decade worldwide(66 Moya-Anegón Fd. Principales indicadores cienciométricos de la actividad científica chilena 2013. Informe 2015. Santiago - Madrid - Viña del Mar: Altazor Ediciones; 2015.). Thus, Switzerland and Ireland obtained the highest values regarding international collaboration, 70.3% and 67.4% respectively, in 2010-2011 period while Brazil, the only South American country included in the study, achieved a 40.7% (66 Moya-Anegón Fd. Principales indicadores cienciométricos de la actividad científica chilena 2013. Informe 2015. Santiago - Madrid - Viña del Mar: Altazor Ediciones; 2015.). In the case of the first network (Figure 1), most of the authors are collaborating among them although some scholars have participated to a lesser extent. This network should be highlighted due to the amount of institutions and the diversity of countries working together as well as the great number of interactions among authors. In the case of the second network, two clusters of Chilean and Spanish universities are shown, emphasizing the participation of four different institutions and the non-existence of relationship between scholars of the same country.

And regarding the dissemination of the Chilean Sport Sciences scientific output, 12 journals, mainly dedicated to Life Sciences, collected the 60.53% of total production. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research and the European Journal of Applied Physiology achieved the highest TGCS and TLCS, respectively. Similar results were obtained by Andrade, López, Ramírez-Campillo, Beltrán, Rodríguez(1313 Andrade DC, López BA, Ramírez-Campillo R, Beltrán AR, Rodríguez RP. Bibliometric analysis of South American research in sports science from 1970 to 2012. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2013;19(4):783-91.) when analyzing South American Sport Sciences scientific output. Four of the 19 most recurrent analyzed journals were only multi-disciplinary while the rest were oriented to Life-Sciences, particularly to Medicine and Physiology. However, Pérez-Gutiérrez and Lagos-Hernández(1515 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI. Sport Sciences scientific journals in Chile (1929-2014): bibliography, characteristics, quality. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2015;21(4):442-51.) prepared a bibliography of Sport Sciences journals published in Chile from 1929 to 2014, presenting their bibliographic and bibliometric characteristics and assessing their quality. These authors discovered 12 journals, all of them with a multidisciplinary approach with the exception of Archivos de la Sociedad Chilena de Medicina del Deporte [Archives of the Chilean Society of Sports Medicine]. And the same situation was evidenced in the Spanish journals dedicated to Sport Sciences, being the majority multi-disciplinary although some of them were specialized in subjects such as Medicine, Didactics and Psychology(3333 Valenciano Valcárcel J, Devís Devís J, Beltrán Carrillo VJ. La investigación y las revistas científicas de la actividad física y el deporte en España. Fuentes: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación. 2008 (8):209-18.). Therefore, the analysis of national contexts shows the existence and relevance of multi-disciplinary journals for the dissemination of Sport Sciences scientific production within a country(1515 Pérez-Gutiérrez M, Lagos-Hernández RI. Sport Sciences scientific journals in Chile (1929-2014): bibliography, characteristics, quality. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2015;21(4):442-51.,3333 Valenciano Valcárcel J, Devís Devís J, Beltrán Carrillo VJ. La investigación y las revistas científicas de la actividad física y el deporte en España. Fuentes: Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Educación. 2008 (8):209-18.), while the analysis of the literature indexed in international databases, such as the Web of Science, presents the predominance of Life-Sciences oriented journals for publishing Sport Sciences papers, probably as a consequence of the scholars’ interest and specialization(1313 Andrade DC, López BA, Ramírez-Campillo R, Beltrán AR, Rodríguez RP. Bibliometric analysis of South American research in sports science from 1970 to 2012. Motriz: J. Phys. Ed. 2013;19(4):783-91.).

Finally, the use of the Web of Science as the only source of information for data mining and the inclusion of article and review type of documents are the main limitations of the present study. In this way, future studies should analyze the Chilean Sport Sciences scientific output indexed in other international databases such as Scopus or Pubmed, the amount and characteristics of funded research projects of Chilean Sport Sciences scholars for complementing the present results, the development of Sport Sciences production in other South American countries for comparing results as well as periodically follow the development of this field of knowledge.

CONCLUSIONS

A total of 152 Sport Sciences documents affiliated to Chilean institutions have been published from 1981 to 2016 in the Web of Science Core Collection indexes (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI and A&HCI), with a significant rise from 2013 onwards and mainly dedicated to Life Sciences, particularly to Physiology and Sports Training Theory. Social Sciences and Technology research areas were also represented but to a lesser extent. Scholars have collaborated for developing Sport Sciences research, with a mean of 5.26 authors per article, including the participation of foreign authors from Australia, Brazil, Canada or Spain. Ramirez Campillo was the most important scholar regarding the number of papers, signatures and amount of collaborators while Caniuqueo achieved the highest collaboration index. Two networks were discovered, depicting different patterns of collaboration. In the first one, collaboration was established among most of the scholars including almost as many institutions as authors, while the second one involved four different institutions from Chile and Spain but there was no relationship between scholars of the same country. Finally, 60.53% of total Chilean Sport Sciences production has been disseminated in 12 journals, most of them Life Sciences-oriented.

In summary, Chilean Sport Sciences scientific production indexed in the Web of Science shows the progressive development and strengthening of this field of knowledge, clearly oriented to Life Sciences, teamwork and international collaboration. Also, it should be highlighted the establishment of an important network including scholars from Australia, Brazil, Canada, Chile and Spain which is propelling Sport Sciences research in this country. This study complements the results of the previous works developed at the national level in Chile, allowing comparison between them and providing a deeper viewpoint of the Sport Sciences scientific production history and development in this country. Data provided could be considered by academics, institutions and/or policymakers for making decisions in relation to the strengthening of the research areas and subjects less represented as well as the communication and collaboration patterns within Sport Sciences.

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Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2018

History

  • Received
    24 Oct 2017
  • Accepted
    17 Jan 2018
Universidade Estadual Paulista Universidade Estadual Paulista, Av. 24-A, 1515, 13506-900 Rio Claro, SP/Brasil, Tel.: (55 19) 3526-4330 - Rio Claro - SP - Brazil
E-mail: motriz.rc@unesp.br