Abstract in English:Abstract Aim This review aimed to provide an overview of the publications using metabolomics in research with physical exercises and to demonstrate how researchers have been applying this approach. Methods A systematic search in the databases Web of Science, SCOPUS and PubMed was performed, with the key words: "metabolomics" OR "metabonomics" and with "metabolomics" OR "metabonomics" AND "exercise" in the title or abstract of the articles. The search period was from 2000 to 2016. Forty-four original articles were selected. The studies found were separated into four categories: metabolic responses to physical exercise, supplementation and physical exercise, sports performance, and physical exercise related to diseases. Results It was possible to observe the exponential growth of the use of this approach in Sports and Health Sciences, and the four sub-fields towards which these researches involving exercise are directed, enabling a more comprehensive characterization of different metabolic profiles, as well as their study for identifying new biomarkers related to physical exercise. Conclusions The possibilities of using metabolomics approach are increasing in the fields of Health Sciences, Sports, and Physical Activity. The experimental design of the study is essential to take advantage of this tool and be able to answer questions in the metabolism comprehension.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim To evaluate if the application of infrared low-level laser therapy (LLLT) alters proprioception in young women. Methods 26 female volunteers were evaluated statically and dynamically by means of electronic baropodometry in the variables: distance from the foot center, maximum and medium pressure, and surface. Proprioception was also functionally assessed by the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). The intervention occurred in two distinct periods, separated by one week apart, as this was a crossover study, so volunteers were submitted to placebo or LLLT (830 nm, 8 J/cm2), on the muscles: gastrocnemius, soleus, tibialis previous and long and short fibular. Results the analysis of baropodometry for both dynamic and static found no significant differences for the intervention group and the control group. Similar results were observed for SEBT. Conclusion The application of the LLLT, in the proposed parameters, did not influence the proprioception in young women.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims the aim of this study was to verify the effects of different intensities of locomotor exercise on corticospinal excitability. Methods 18 healthy subjects (27.6 ± 6.5 years,) participated in a design study of three different exercise protocols on a cycle ergometer: (i) 10 min at 75% Wmax (high intensity); (ii) 15min at 60% Wmax (moderate intensity) or (iii) 30 min at 45% Wmax (low intensity). The protocols of lower body cycling were assigned in random order in separate sessions. A control session was done with subjects at rest. Corticospinal excitability was assessed before (baseline) and every 5 min for 15min after the end of exercise/rest (time: 0, 5, 10 and 15) by measurement of the motor evoked potential (MEP) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation in the relaxed first-dorsal interosseus muscle. Results Compared to the resting session, a significant decrease (64%) in the motor evoked potential amplitudes was found only in the session of exercise of high intensity. This result seems depend on the level of physical activity of subject. No change was found after rest, low and moderate exercises. Conclusions These findings suggest that changes in the corticospinal excitability depend on exercise intensity and level of physical activity of subjects.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: Cross-training is the process whereby training of one limb gives rise to enhancements in the performance of the opposite, untrained limb and may be dependent on type of muscle contractions performed. The aim of this study was to investigate whether unilateral resistance training using eccentric contraction is more effective than concentric resistance training to improve time to task failure in the contralateral untrained limb. Methods:Subjects completed 12 weeks of resistance training consisting of 36 sessions, using unilateral leg exercise. Sustained isometric knee extension performed at 50% of maxmal force until task failure for the contralateral untrained leg. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were simultaneously recorded from contralateral untrained quadriceps (vastusmedialis, rectus femoris, and vastuslateralis). Results: Time to task failure of the contralateraluntrained leg and associated EMG activitiessignificantly increased after 12 weeks ofunilateral resistance training(p<0.05). However, percent increase in time to task failure and EMG amplitude after eccentric resistance training was significantly higher than concentric resistance training (p<0.05). Conclusion: This study concluded that unilateral eccentric resistancetraining is superior to concentric resistance training to increase time to task failure in the contralateral untrained limb.
Abstract in English:Abstract AIMS This study aimed to verify th erelation ship between of anthropometric and physical performance variables with game-related statistics in professional elite basketball players during a competition. METHODS Eleven male basketball players were evaluated during 10 weeks in two distinct moments (regular season and playoffs). Overall, 11 variables of physical fitness and 13 variables of game-related statistics were analysed. RESULTS The following significant Pearson’scorrelations were found in regular season: percentage of fat mass with assists (r = -0.62) and steals (r = -0.63); height (r = 0.68), lean mass (r = 0.64), and maximum strength (r = 0.67) with blocks; squat jump with steals (r = 0.63); and time in the T-test with success ful two-point field-goals (r = -0.65), success ful free-throws (r = -0.61), and steals (r = -0.62). However, in playoffs, only stature and lean mass maintained these correlations (p ≤ 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The anthropometric and physical characteristics of the players showed few correlations with the game-related statistics in regular season, and these correlations are even lower in the playoff games of a professional elite Champion ship, wherefore, not being good predictors of technical performance.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: Cardiovascular disease risk factors occur more frequently in children with obesity. Project PANK is a multidisciplinary school-based intervention lasting 6 months to improve BMI z-score, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), blood pressure (BP), nutrition, physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), glucose, cholesterol, and triglycerides (TG). Methods/DesignA total of 77 children (7-10 years) were recruited from an urban school. The protocol includes PA and SB individual meetings for children/parents; increasing school exercise; PA and SB lessons for children; A goal in the number of steps/day to accomplish in and after school. In nutrition, the protocol includes three individual meetings for children/parents and six lessons for children. ResultsPositive associations were found between the BMI Z-score, WC, and WHtR with TG; the BMI Z-score and WHtR with glucose; the light PA time and HDL-C; the vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous PA with CRF; the caloric intake and lipids with LDL-C, BMI z-score, WC, and WHtR. A negative association was found between CRF and TG. ConclusionBaseline results stress the importance of multidisciplinary school-based interventions. We hypothesized that PANK will improve blood variables, anthropometric measures, and BP, by changing food intake, enhancing PA and CRF, and decreasing SB.
Abstract in English:Abstract AIMS To verify differences in screen time (ST) (hours watching TV, using computer and/or video game) and to compare the percentage of meeting ST recommendation between Portuguese and Brazilian children. METHODS The sample comprised 369 children aged 9 year-old from Portugal (n=95) and Brazil (n=274). ST average (h/day), physical activity (PA) and socioeconomic status (SES) were estimated by parental-report questionnaire. The Student t test or the Mann-Whitney U test and binary logistic regression analysis were used to verify differences and associations on ST (<2h/day) between cities. All analyses were stratified by gender and adjusted for age, BMI, PA and SES. RESULTS The prevalence of meet ST recommendation was 66.7% and 55.3% between Portuguese girls and boys and 25.0% and 16.4%between Brazilian girls and boys. Portuguese girls (1.58±0.84vs3.40 ± 1.76h/day, p<0.05) and boys (1.74 ± 1.18 vs 4.20 ± 2.30 h/day, p<0.05) had significantly less ST than their Brazilian counterparts. Brazilian girls (OR=7.593; p=0.0001) as well as Brazilian boys (OR=6.564; p=0.0001) were more likely to do not meet ST recommendation, compared with their Portuguese counterparts. CONCLUSIONS Portuguese children were approximately seven times more likely to meet ST recommendation than Brazilian children. Differences between countries should be considered in public policy strategies to reduce ST.
Abstract in English:Abstract AIMS This study aimed to analyze the relationship between disordered eating (DE) and dissatisfaction with body fat and the drive for muscularity in male surfing athletes. METHODS The research included a sample of 175 surfers. The Eating Attitudes Test was used to assess DE. It was used the Body Shape Questionnaire to assess body dissatisfaction based on body fat. It was used the Drive for Muscularity Scale to evaluate the drive for muscularity. RESULTS The multinomial regression model showed a statistically significant association between DE and both body dissatisfaction based on body fat (Wald = 22.97, OR = 3.86) and the drive for muscularity (Wald = 12.38, OR = 1.84). CONCLUSION It was concluded that there is relationship between body dissatisfaction based on body fat and DE. Likewise, there is relationship between drive for muscularity and DE in male surfers.
Abstract in English:Abstract AIMS to investigate how the professional socialization happens through teacher education. METHODS a qualitative research, descriptive, was developed using exploratory interview and narrative interview to clarify and deepen the collected information. Two Physical Education teachers with different stories of personal and professional development participated in this study. Through content analysis the data was organized in themes: the cultural capital and the learning of teaching, as a social, spatial and temporal process; a cognitive, plural and heterogenic process and a human, moral and relational process. RESULTS life settings can be viewed as the building scaffoldings of a professional socialization with the aim of understanding teachers and their practices in the knowledge of their lives, as influenced by social interactions. In this process of successive socializations, teachers build their professional identity, valuing social interactions in the environments they inhabit. In this study, practice was viewed as a site for training, the production of knowledge, and professional socialization in the acquisition of cultural capital. The knowledge of teachers was conceived as having a social nature, bringing underlying sources of acquisition associated with the family, school, and university because they decisively contribute to the structure of the educational practice. CONCLUSION the professional socialization is a dynamic process which involves not only the learning, but the acquisition of a professional ethos and, mainly, a teacher's identity and a base of knowledge that support the social interaction and the teaching culture in the activities and individual socialization in the habitus perspective.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim Evaluate and compare the proportion of PI and associated factors by IPAQ questionnaire, triaxial accelerometry and the combination of both. Adults aged ( 18 years were enrolled (n = 250). Methods We considered PI as < 600 MET-min/wk in the IPAQ total score, < 150 min/wk of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity in 7 days accelerometry, and the combination of both criteria. Clinical assessment, spirometry, cardiopulmonary exercise test, bioelectrical impedance, isokinetic dynamometry, postural balance, and six-minute walk test were also performed. For participants practicing aquatic, martial arts or cycling, only the IPAQ criterion was considered. Results Proportions of PI were significantly different among methods (IPAQ, 10%; accelerometry, 20%; combination, 25%). After multivariate logistic regressions, PI was determined by age, sex, educational level, risk factors for cardiovascular disease, lean body mass, cardiorespiratory fitness, and postural balance. Conclusion Thus, the combined method for determining PI and associated factors in adults showed great validity, indicating that questionnaires and accelerometers are complementary and should be utilized in combination in epidemiological studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Very little is known about the influence training programmes that combine land-based and water-based exercises might have on the cognitive function of healthy older people. Aim to analyze the combined effect of two physical exercise programs (water-based and land-based) on fitness level and cognitive function. Method 15 senior citizens carried out a water and land-based exercise program (EF group), while 22 senior citizens followed the same program with the addition of cognitive training performed in water (EC group). The effects of both programs were assessed by means of the Symbol Digit Modalities, the Two-minute step and the Timed-up-and-go tests. Results The data obtained showed that both programs had significant effects on the participants' fitness level and cognitive function, although only those in the EC group showed a significantly higher improvement. Conclusion The combination of water-based and land-based exercise may lead to improvements in cognitive functions and fitness levels in healthy older adults. The inclusion of cognitive exercises performed in water seems to maximise these effects.
Abstract in English:Abstract AIMS Physical activity levels could be related to chronic low back pain (LBP) in those who suffer from it; thus the purpose of this study was yo describe the physical activity levels in patients with chronic LBP, and to investigate whether physical activity levels are associated with LBP related disability and pain intensity in them. OBJECTIVES To describe the physical activity levels in patients with chronic LBP, and to investigate whether physical activity levels are associated with LBP related disability and pain intensity in them. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 36 patients with chronic LBP, both sexes, aged between 18 and 70 years. The main outcomes evaluated in this study were physical activity levels, LBP-related disability and pain intensity. RESULTS Participants were predominantly classified as active (53%) and irregularly active (42%). Mean pain intensity was 4.81 (± 2.72) points, while mean LBP-related disability was 13.19 (± 6.95). Physical activity and disability were negative and moderately correlated. CONCLUSION Physical activity and disability are inversely related, indicating that patients with chronic LBP that have lower physical activity levels had higher levels of disability.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims This study evaluated the possible barriers to the permanence of physical exercise (PE) of old women. Methods The study population comprised 61 old women participants for at least one year of a supervised PE program, who underwent anamnesis, and applied the Barriers Questionnaire to Physical Activity Practice in the Elderly (QBPAFI). Exploratory factorial analysis was used to evaluate QBPAFI data. The analysis of principal component was applied to the 22 questions through orthogonal rotation to analyze the correlation between the questions. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test was applied to evaluate the suitability of the sample size, and the Bartlett's test to assess whether the original matrix correlation is an identity matrix. Eigenvalues greater than 1 were considered for analysis. Results The motivational factor was the major determinant of perceived barriers (43.3%), followed by psychosocial (12.29%), facilities and appearance (8.75%), and exercise conditions (8.10%) factors. Conclusion Knowing the benefits of physical activity, and the main barriers that prevent the permanence of active old people to physical exercise programs, new strategies must be taken to increase the rate of adherence of this group.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims The aim of this study was to establish thermographic profiles of lower limbs and to correlate them with creatine kinase level in professional players. Method Thirty healthy male professional soccer players (25.4 ± 4.7 years; 179.5 ± 6.7 cm; 78.3kg ± 7.5 kg; body fat 10.2 ± 4.2 %) from a club of Brazilian first division soccer league volunteered. Thermal images sequences of lower limbs (thighs and legs) were acquired in an anteroposterior manner (i.e., frontal and dorsal views) by a digital infrared thermo-camera. Blood creatine kinase (CK) concentration was assessed by reflectance photometry. All thermographic images and CK were performed between 8:00 and 9:00 am. Results No significant difference (p>0.05) was found between left and right sides from both anterior and posterior measurements of thighs and legs for mean or maximal skin temperature. Low values of correlation (range r=0.14 to r=0.38) was found between skin temperature and CK levels while contralateral thermal symmetry in the lower limbs (regions of interest < 0.2°C) was found. Conclusion It was observed contralateral thermal symmetry in the lower limbs and low correlation between CK and temperature values in elite soccer players.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims This study aimed to identify Brazilian wheelchair tennis athletes' quality of life and to compare the perception scores between competitive and elite athletes. Methods Participants were wheelchair tennis athletes (N = 31) from Brazil (males = 25, females = 6) divided into two groups: competitive and elite. Data was collected using the Brazilian version of the WHOQOL-Bref. The WHOQOL-Bref asks two general questions, and is thereafter divided into four main domains: 1) physical, psychological, social, and environment, which give us an understanding of their overall quality of life perception. Results The results showed that overall, 29 out of the 31 athletes perceived their quality of life positively, regardless of the competitive level. However, statistically higher perceptions were found in the physical domain and the total score of quality of life of the elite group. Conclusion The findings of this study suggest that even though participation in high-performance adapted sports may offer a stressful and exhausting environment, elite wheelchair tennis athletes from Brazil perceive themselves as having a better QoL than competitive athletes.