Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This systematic review aimed to evaluate various Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) receivers, based on the frequency applied, the number of satellites available, and the dilution of precision (DOP) presented to measure football player load control. Method: The systematic review followed the PRISMA recommendations. Four hundred and eighty-five articles were selected from two online databases (Scopus and ISI Web of Science) over five years, with 21 studies selected for this review. In these studies, the GNSS frequency ranged from 5 to 18 Hz, with 10 Hz as the most commonly used frequency. Results: Of the 21 selected studies, 20 presented the ideal horizontal dilution of precision (HDOP), and the number of satellites available varied from 5 to 20. There was no consensus on defining speed, acceleration, or deceleration zones. Conclusion: There was no uniformity in data collected from the devices. Most GNSS receivers do not adopt the international system of units (SI).
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: To investigate the effect of moderate-intensity swimming training on bone mineral density under a 20% food restriction (FR) schedule for 12 weeks in female rats. Methods: Forty female Wistar rats were distributed into four groups: control (CG), exercised (EG), food restriction (FRG), and food restriction/exercised (FREG). At 95 days, the animals were subjected to aquatic adaptation and then performed the critical load test to individually determine the critical load intensity (CLi, % of body mass). Exercised groups swam 5 days a week, 30 minutes daily with weekly adjustment of the load equivalent to 80% of the CLi. The FR schedule was 20% in relation to CG and started concomitantly with physical training (PT). After 12 weeks, visceral fat weight was recorded and the femur was collected for biophysical and biomechanical analysis. Results: FR and exercise training promoted visceral fat reduction (p<0.01). FR reduced bone mineral density (p<0.01), while exercise training prevented such reduction. On the other hand, FR and exercise training did not promote significant changes in biomechanical parameters of the femur. Conclusion: Exercise training at moderate intensity was efficient in preserving bone mineral density despite long term of FR at 20%.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: To investigate the factors associated with shoulder rotational range of motion and its correlation with the self-reported function scale and functional assessment of the shoulder (closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability, peak torque of shoulder rotators, glenohumeral internal rotation deficit - GIRD, and pectoralis minor length index) in competitive water polo players. Methods: Thirty-four competitive water polo players (age: 15 +/- 1.6 years) participated in this study. The shoulder rotational range of motion, closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability, pectoralis minor length index, isokinetic torque of shoulder internal and external rotations, and self-reported upper limb function were assessed. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used to test the linear correlation before the multiple linear regressions, that were used to predict the variables associated with the external rotation and internal rotation range of motion ratio (ER/IR ratio) of the throwing limb. Results: A significant association was identified between the throwing limb ER/IR ratio and GIRD, and this observation allows us to infer that GIRD was responsible for 18.4% (p=0.01) of the variation. No associations between ER/IR ratio and the variables closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability, peak torque of shoulder internal rotation, and pectoralis minor length index were identified. Conclusion: Anatomical GIRD was the only factor associated with the ER/IR ratio in asymptomatic competitive water polo players from high school, indicating the beginning of the typical adaptations to increase performance without significantly altering the self-perception and functionality of their upper limbs.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: This study investigated the existence of Relative Age Effect (RAE) in the selection process of male and female athletes in the Brazilian national handball teams according to age categories (U-18, U-21, and senior) and playing position (wings, backs, pivots, and goalkeepers). Methods: In order to determine RAE, athletes were divided based on their months of birth; quarters Q1 (January-March), Q2 (April-June), Q3 (July-September), and Q4 (October-December). Data were collected from the official Brazilian Handball Confederation (CBHb) website and included the athletes that participated in training and/or competitions composing the Brazilian national teams from 2014 to 2018. To determine the RAE on playing positions, age categories of male and female groups were pooled. Chi-squared tests were performed to investigate the RAE. Results: An over-representation of players born in Q1 and Q2 in the U-18, U-20, and senior categories of male teams and the U-20, and senior female teams were found. In the male teams, as the age category increased, RAE decreased, but still existed. Such distribution was reversed in the female athletes, with a higher RAE magnitude in the senior category as compared to U-18 and U-21. Additionally, it seems that RAE is dependent on the playing position only for male athletes (wings and backs) whereas RAE was found for all playing positions in female athletes. Conclusion: Overall, RAE was found in Brazilian national handball teams, but its magnitude and form of manifestation seem to be influenced by sex, category, and playing position.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of the mat Pilates method, an exercise program, on postural alignment in the sagittal plane among children aged between 8 and 12 years. Method: This study used a blind randomized controlled clinical trial, with a Pilates group (PG) and control group (CG) at the Early Childhood Education Institute. A total of 40 children were randomized, who have no prior knowledge of the Pilates method and no exercise training in the last six months. Mat Pilates exercises were administered twice a week for four months in 50-minute sessions. Postural alignment in the sagittal plane was assessed using photogrammetry. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups post-intervention A significant difference was found in the following outcomes that represent an improvement in intragroup postural alignment: among the children in PG, in the right sagittal view in the vertical body alignment (p=0.019; effect size, ES = 0.70; standardize response mean, SRM = 0.57) and in the sagittal head angle (p=0.035; ES = 0.41; SRM = 0.51). Among the children in the CG, in the vertical alignment of the trunk in the left sagittal view (p= 0.016; ES = 0.50; SRM = 0.44). Conclusion: The effectiveness of Pilates on postural alignment in the sagittal plane among children aged between 8 and 12 years was not confirmed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: To verify the acute effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation on performance during CrossFit® workout. Methods: Nine experienced males (30.8 ± 3.5 years; 84.4 ± 9.5 kg; 177.5 ± 4.03 cm; 2.2 ± 1.0 years) in CrossFit® participated in this study. They were allocated to two conditions: a) supplementation with 0.3 g.kg-1 of body weight of NaHCO3 and b) supplementation with 0.045 g.kg-1 of body weight of sodium chloride (NaCl). Blood lactate was analyzed at two different moments: before (lac-pre) and after the training protocol (lac-post). The heart rate (HR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were also collected every two minutes during the execution of the training protocol, and the RPE was also collected after it was finished. At the end of the training protocol, a questionnaire to measure gastrointestinal side effects (GSE) was answered by the participants. Repetitions performed in the training protocol was computed to evaluate the performance during the workout. Results: The results showed that there were no differences found when comparing the conditions for all parameters. HR and RPE were different in the first few minutes (< 4-6 minutes) when compared to the final minutes (> 14 minutes) of the workout. The area under the curve of HR and RPE was significantly lower in the NaHCO3 condition. Conclusion: Acute NaHCO3 supplementation did not improve performance during workout ‘Cindy’ in experienced men. Supplementation also did not alter hemodynamic and perceptual parameters, nor did it cause any GSE. However, responses as a function of time were reduced with NaHCO3 supplementation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This study investigated whether the difference anthropometric of swimmers pre- and post-menarche influence the motor performance of a 100-m freestyle swimming test. Methods: Twenty-five female swimmers participated in this study, nine swimmers have not had menarche (age 11.7 ± 0.63), and sixteen swimmers already have had it (age 15.17 ± 1.36). Body composition (skinfold thickness), anthropometrical parameters (height and weight), and biological age (Tanner self-assessment) were measured. A univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis was run to assess which personal or anthropometric variable predicts the motor performance (time trial) on a 100-m freestyle swimming test in pre- and post-menarche participants. As well, it was performed a Pearson’s correlation test between the maturational status on Tanner self-assessment and the motor performance. Results: Post-menarche swimmers demonstrated better motor performance than pre-menarche swimmers. Anthropometric characteristics did not predict the motor performance of pre-menarche swimmers. Age, height, and weight predicted 47.8% of the motor performance of post-menarche swimmers. The Tanner classification demonstrated a strong negative correlation with swimming performance. Conclusion: Anthropometric characteristics only impacted the motor performance of post-menarche swimmers.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This study aims to comprehend the reasons for women’s approach and permanence in Zumba. Method: In this descriptive study, we interviewed 20 female interviewees 31-66 years-old (M=46.14; SD=10,07). Inclusion criteria were: have been training Zumba for at least one year and with a minimum frequency of once a week. We excluded women who practice other activities simultaneously to Zumba. For data collection, we applied a semi-structured interview covering the following aspects: how they approached Zumba and the reasons why they kept training it. Data analysis was performed using non-aprioristic categories. Results: The interviewees reported approaching Zumba by friends, family, personal initiative, media, and medical advice. The permanence in the modality was related to therapeutic aspects, pleasure, sociability, being good for health, and engagement in a body practice. Conclusion: We concluded that women approach and keep training Zumba for reasons that surpass the physical benefits provided by body practices; rather, it is deemed as a useful and social practice.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of various forms of physical activity (PA) among female students in physical education (PE) programs offered by universities in Poland, Hungary, and the United Kingdom. Methods: Two hundred full-time female university students (mean age: 19.93±0.82) enrolled in various PA programs. The participants’ anthropometric traits were measured, and their body composition parameters were determined with the InBody analyzer. Based on the students’ physiological parameters, the effectiveness of various types of PA was measured with Suunto Ambit3 peak heart rate monitors during 60 minutes of physical exertion. Results: The average values of body mass index (BMI), body fat mass (BFM), percent body fat (PBF), waist-hip ratio (WHR), visceral fat level (VFL), and obesity degree were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who participated in jogging followed by sauna (JFBS), performed martial arts and attended general physical education (PE) classes. Physiological parameters were the highest in the martial art group, followed by JFBS and swimming groups, and they were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the values recorded in other PA groups (golf, aerobics, general PE classes, cycling, and individual training). Physiological parameters were significantly (p<0.05) lower among students who played golf and trained individually. Conclusions: Martial arts, JFBS, and swimming were the most effective types of PA among female university students. Students performing martial arts and JFBS had relatively lower body fat levels, whereas students who practiced swimming had the highest body fat levels in the population sample.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: Animal disease model studies are widely used to show the effectiveness of physical exercise to improve cognitive function. Thus far, few studies are investigating the effects of exercise training on memory performance in fructose feed animals. Method: The present study investigated the effects of physical exercise protocol carried out with three weekly sessions, on the short and long-term memory performance of animals fed with fructose. Male Wistar rats were divided into sedentary (SD); sedentary+fructose (SDF); trained (TR); trained+fructose (TRF). Treadmill running sessions consisted of a five-minute warm-up at 20% maximum speed (MS) followed by 40 minutes at 40% MS and a 5-minute cool-down at 20% MS. Sessions were carried out three days a week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) for six weeks. Object Recognition Test was used to evaluate short and long-term memory. Results: The access to fructose altered food intake and drinking volume, as fructose-fed animals had lower food intake (SDF: -27% and TRF: -24%) and higher drinking volume (SDF: +49% and TRF: +45%) than an animal which drank water. Trained groups had lower epididymal fat pad compared to their sedentary counterparts (TR: -30% and TRF: -11%). In addition, TR and TRF had an improvement in glucose tolerance. Regarding memory performance, neither fructose intake nor exercise training influenced short-term memory. On the other hand, long-term memory was enhanced by exercise training. An improvement of about 39% was observed for TR and the largest effect was seen for TRF, which improved long-term memory in 76%. Conclusion: In conclusion, moderate-intensity exercise training, carried out three days a week, for six weeks was effective to improve long-term memory in fructose-fed rats. This result was related neither to the visceral fat amount nor to the glucose metabolism. Further studies should considerer the investigation regarding cerebral areas, associated with memory that might be adapted facing physical exercise.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: To investigate the inter-and intra-rater agreement of the Dynamic Movement Assessment (DMA™) risk classification. Method: In this study, after the anthropometric measurements were made, 17 female soccer athletes were filmed performing the six DMA™ tests (full squat, step-up, single-leg squat, jump test, test plank, and side plank). Both, major and secondary deviations, were observed during the tests. Two experienced health professionals performed video analysis using Kinovea 8.15.0 (inter-rater agreement). To assess the intra-rater agreement, the same video analysis was performed two months later. Participants were rated from 0 to 21 points and at low, medium, moderate, and high risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries. To assess the reliability of the assessment of movement patterns of DMA, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was performed with a 2-way random-effects model with an absolute agreement (inter-rater) and a 2-way mixed-effects model and consistency (intra-rater). Weighted Kappa Agreement Analysis (kw) was performed with linear weights to assess the level of agreement related to the risk classification of DMA (high, moderate, medium, or minimum). The Analysis was performed with StatsDirect v.3 and SPSS (23.0). Results: Comparing the number of points between the inter-and intra-rater, the ICC was 0.91 (95% CI = 0.74-0.97) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.59-0.94), respectively, with kw = 0.46 (P = 0.02) intra -rater and kw = 0.46 (P = 0.006) inter-rater (Table 9). Conclusion: DMA has excellent inter-and intra-rater reliability to evaluate movement patterns and classify the risk of musculoskeletal injuries.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: Exercise elicits adaptations in several physiological systems, such as the gastrointestinal tract. We evaluated the effects of an acute strength exercise (acute-SE) on gastric satiety and its correlation with creatinine kinase (CK), lactate, and plasma cytokine levels in humans. Methods: Anthropometric parameters, body composition, muscular strength, and satiety (drink test protocol) at rest and exercise were assessed. Results: In the squat, bench press, and T-bar row exercises, we observed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in muscular strength in the second, third, and fourth sets compared with that in the first set. Compared with rest, we observed a significant increase (p<0.05) in CK and lactate levels after acute-SE. In the drink test, acute-SE significantly increased (p <0.05) the total intake, calories ingested, and a total time of ingestion. Concerning cytokines, there was a significant increase (p<0.05) after acute-SE of IL-1β and IL-6 levels at the beginning of the test and a decrease in IL-6, -10, -13, and TNF-α levels after acute-SE at the end of the test (p<0.05). There was a correlation between CK, lactate, and total intake after acute-SE (p<0.05) as well as between IL-6, 13, TNF-α, and volume ingested in the last score of the drink test after acute-SE (p<0.05). Conclusion: Acute-SE decreases satiety associated with changes in lactate, CK, and plasma cytokine levels in healthy humans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: Recently, high-intensity training methods have become popular, integrating the cardiovascular and neuromuscular training in a single training session, among these methods is CrossFit®. The objective of this study was to analyze the superficial thermal response to CrossFit® exercise in men and women, in order to use this knowledge to prevent overuse injuries. Methods: Nineteen volunteers involved in CrossFit® exercise for more than 6-month (12 males and 7 females) were recruited. The acquisition of the thermal images was performed in a climatized room in two moments, at rest (before exercise), and after one CrossFit® training session. The training session lasted 45min, comprising warm-up (10-min), accessory work (15-20min), and workout of the day (15-20-min). Before the first image acquisition, volunteers were acclimated for 15 min. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the skin temperature between pre- and post-exercise. Results: Temperatures rose significantly pre- to post-exercise in the forearm and anterior thigh regions, while it decreased in the anterior thorax and dorsal lower back regions. These results were found both, in the overall sample, and the male volunteers, but not when the female results were isolated. Conclusion: It can be concluded that superficial thermal response to one CrossFit® training session was characterized and was different for men and women. The superficial thermal responses were aligned with the physiological alterations promoted by other modalities, such as resistance training, cycling, and running.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: to identify and describe the clustering of characteristics related to running amongst Brazilian runners using latent class analysis and to verify if there is a profile associated with better performance. Material and Methods: a sample of 1149 Brazilian runners answered an online questionnaire, that provided information about biological (sex, age, height, weight), training (running pace, frequency and volume/week, motivation), and socioeconomic factors, as well as a multidimensional questionnaire of fear of failure. Latent Class Analysis was used to identify subgroups of Brazilian runners, based on BMI, training volume and frequency/week, motivation, socioeconomic factors, and the fear of failure. Further, a χ2 test was computed to verify statistical differences in the frequency of the descriptive variables between classes. Finally, binary logistic regression analysis estimated factors associated with running performance, with running pace as the dependent variable. Results: It was possible to identify two different classes among Brazilian runners, which were called “amateur runners” and “recreational runners”. Variables that highlighted classes’ differences were: volume and frequency training/week, motivation for the practice, and BMI. Regarding the running performance, logistic regression analysis showed that men (OR=5.39; 95%CI=4.00-7.25), young runners (OR=0.38; 95%CI=0.28-0.51), and “amateur runners” (OR=4.19; 95%CI=2.95-5.94) were more prone to have higher performance. Conclusion: Two distinct classes were found among Brazilian runners that were linked to their performance, highlighting that even among non-professional runners, differences can be observed regarding their classification. Hence, future studies should consider using these classes to properly stratify or identify non-professional runners.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aims: This study aimed to analyze the influences of social isolation on the professional performance of Brazilian handball coaches and their expectations for the return of training sessions. Methods: Fifty-two handball coaches participated in this study (Mage=37.4 years; SDage=8.4), who coach U-8 to adult teams, and answered an online survey divided into two main sections: a) coaches’ actions with athletes and/or teams throughout social isolation; b) professional learning during social isolation. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data analysis and Thematic Analysis for qualitative data analysis. Results: The coaches mentioned that the contact with the teams has been made mostly with WhatsApp (94.2%) and Google Meet or Zoom (75.0%), in which coaches mainly emphasize physical fitness (69.2%) and tactical knowledge (67.3%). For professional learning, coaches are participating in online lectures (96.2%), and virtual meetings (92.3%). Coaches also seek content mainly related to teaching approaches (82.7%), and specific handball exercises (75.0%). Regarding expectations after the social isolation, coaches reported concern about uncertainties for sports practice (restriction of physical contact, decreased incentives for teams, and competitions) and possible psychological benefits (motivation to practice, overcoming difficulties, and learning new resources). Conclusion: The coaches revealed the concern about maintaining the athletes’ performance during the social isolation, the uncertainties for the future of the teams, and the difficulties to use different resources for training. We suggested that the courses for coaches emphasize aspects that enable the learning of new technologies (e.g. social networks, video edition, and research platforms).
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: Several programs using total body weight exercise methods have been applied in several populations especially using HIIT. The present study assessed the oxygen consumption, heart rate, and energy expenditure of a HIIT body work® session. Methods: Twelve male participants performed 20 minutes of a HIIT body work, consisting of 20 sets of 30 seconds of stimulation in all-out intensity, followed by 30 seconds of passive recovery. Five cycles were performed for each exercise (jumping jack, burpee, mountain climb, and squat jump). Results: The mean VO2 of the session was 34 ± 7 ml.kg.min-1 (80.35% of the VO2 peak obtained in the session). The energy expenditure of the session was 251±27 kcal (13±1 kcal.min-1) and 39 ± 8 kcal (75±1 kcal.min-1) during the recovery time. The heart rate values were 160±18 bpm (91% of the peak HR of the session) and 125±22 bpm (71%) in recovery. In addition, significant differences (p<0.05) in maximal VO2 were found between jumping jack, mountain climber, burpee and squat jump. Conclusion: Based on the present data, a HIIT bodywork® session presented energy expenditure as a typical high-intensity exercise profile.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This study aimed to describe an experimental protocol to evaluate how a structured exercise program can impact on the health of people with epilepsy. Methods: For this purpose, a randomized control trial will be conducted in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Participants will be randomized into two groups: 1) Control- maintain usual activities, and 2) Exercise- a structured exercise program, with two 60-minute sessions per week, for 12 weeks. The intervention will be composed by warm-up (5-minutes), moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (15-20 minutes, performed on a treadmill), resistance training (2-3 sets, 10-15 repetitions), and 5-minutes of stretching exercises. Sociodemographic characteristics, clinical information, cognitive function, anthropometric measurements (weight, height, hip and waist circumferences), cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max), and strength (dynamometer) will be measured at baseline and 12-week post-intervention. Participants will receive a diary to record their seizures throughout the study. Results: A structured exercise program is expected to generate beneficial health effects, and the results can assist in health professionals’ clinical practice for people with epilepsy.
Abstract in English:Abstract COVID-19 pandemic has required social isolation to prevent the virus from spreading. Initially, the elderly were the most affected by the novel coronavirus. However, the virus spread out worldwide, affecting all age groups. The elderly are commonly affected by several chronic diseases, and as a consequence of social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, the community-based exercise programs, which usually provide health and well-being to the elderly, have stopped their activities to avoid the virus to spread out; so, the elderly kept taking medicines but stopped exercising, which must impair their health and increase demand from the public health system. In this sense, the physical education professional is essential to providing safe approaches to the elderly who are not able to enroll in community-based exercise programs but need to exercise to improve their health. This article aims to discuss the consequences of not exercising in older adults’ health during the social isolation caused by the COVID-19 pandemic; still, we intend to present adjunct strategies to allow the elderly to exercise even socially isolated.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: to investigate through a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) the effects of interactive media on the cognitive, language, and motor development of children and adolescents. Methods: Searches were performed with the Medline, AMED, Embase, PEDro, Cochrane, Psychinfo, and ERIC databases in May 2017 with updated in July 2020. For the search strategy, we used descriptors related to “randomized controlled trial”, “interactive media” and “children and adolescents up to 18 years old”. RCTs that investigated the effectiveness of interactive media in cognitive, motor, and language development of children and adolescents up to 18 years of age with typical development were included. When appropriate, meta-analyses were conducted using a random-effects model. Pooled data were presented using standardized mean difference and 95% confidence interval. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE methodology and the methodological quality using the PEDro scale. Results: of the trials found, 14 references were eligible for this study. The GRADE methodology was used in 13 RCTs. Estimates showed a low level of evidence of a small effect of media use on cognitive development compared to that in the control group and another intervention. No effect on motor and language development. Conclusion: The results of this systematic review do not support claims about the advantages or disadvantages of interactive media in child development. High-quality evidence was found that interactive media is not superior to other interventions for cognitive and language development outcomes and quality of moderate evidence for motor and language development.