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Motriz: Revista de Educação Física, Volume: 27, Published: 2021
  • How to prepare a systematic review and meta-analysis: the methodological approach Review: Mini-Review Or Systematic Review

    Martimbianco, Ana Luiza C

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This article aimed to provide to the authors a summary of the methodological approach to prepare a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: The instructions were established to support authors in preparing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, according to the required recommendations. Conclusion: The researchers should keep in mind that conduct a systematic review involves rigorous methodological criteria to identify and synthesize all relevant studies on a given topic defined a priori.
  • Relationship between physical exercise and the most varied forms of dyskinesia Review: Mini-Review Or Systematic Review

    Speck, Ana Elisa; Aguiar Jr., Aderbal S

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: Dyskinesia is a hyperkinetic abnormal involuntary movement (AIM), like chorea, dystonia, athetosis, and ballism. AIM can occur in Levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD), tardive dyskinesia (TD) schizophrenia, and paroxysmal dyskinesias (PxDs). This review describes the effects of physical activity and exercise adaptation (e.g., rehabilitation) in the most varied forms of dyskinesias in an attempt to provide a comprehensive understanding of the role of physical exercise on this disorder. Methods: English-language articles available in the database PubMed electronics were examined. The following indexes were adopted with different combinations: LID and exercise; TD and exercise PED and exercise. Manual searches were performed in the references of the articles related to the chosen topic. Results. The relationship between many types of dyskinesia and exercise is poorly explored. The practice of physical activity showed antidyskinetic effects in Parkinson's LID, with well-described the biological mechanisms. Conclusion: Acute exercise does not modify the abnormal respiratory patterns in TD, and it reveals a normal response to progressive training and inspiratory time. Sustained walking or running may induce a type of paroxysmal dyskinesia in the healthy subjects, which was explored by us in this review.
  • Physical, psychological and demographic factors associated with military discharge: a systematic review Mini-Review Or Systematic Review

    Fidelis, Gabriel Luis Moreira; Miranda, Maria Elisa Koppke; Bunn, Priscila dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: The present study is a review focused on analyzing the physical, psychological, and demographic factors that lead recruits to be dismissed or to request their dismissal during basic military training periods. Methods: This study is a systematic review of cohort studies. The following databases were searched in June 2019 and updated in July 2020: Embase, LILACS, CINAHL, Cochrane, MEDLINE, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and Science Direct databases. The MeSH descriptors military personnel, risk factors, and discharge were used to elaborate the search equations. Reference lists were explored to find studies that examined the association between physical, psychological, and demographic factors that lead recruits to be discharged. The following data were extracted from the studies: profile of the participants, sample size, type of risk factors, the duration of follow-up, and the results of the statistical analysis carried out in the studies included. The risk of bias was analyzed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale for cohort studies. Results: A total of 531 titles were retrieved from the databases, and eight articles met the eligibility criteria. The results showed the factors associated with discharge, in descending order: musculoskeletal injuries and other medical questions, depressive and behavioural disorders, performance in physical fitness tests, and others. Factors such as educational level, alcohol use, history of suicide attempt, and imprisonments were not associated with an increased risk of being discharged. Conclusion: Musculoskeletal injuries, depression, running performance, previous physical exercise practice, and demographic factors were associated with an increased risk of being discharged.
  • Resistance training with blood flow restriction and cognition in elderly women (project “forte-mente-ativa”): study protocol Acute And Chronic Effects Of Exercise In Health

    Araújo, Joamira Pereira de; Brasiliano, Marlon Madeiro; Pereira-Neto, Elísio Alves; Donato, Micheline Freire; Batista, Gilmário Ricarte; Sousa, Maria do Socorro Cirilo de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: In the process of aging, there is a decrease on muscle strength and cognitive function. Resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (BFRRT) has been shown capable of maintaining or improve aspects of physical health. However, the effects of BFRRT the cognitive function of the elderly are not clear. This study aimed to describe the design of a randomized controlled clinical trial, that will investigate the effects of BFRRT on cognitive function, physical performance and physiological and morphological aspects in elderly women. Methods: Forty participants will be randomized into one of the following groups: low load resistance training, blood flow restriction resistance training, moderate load resistance training or Control. All intervention groups will complete 16 weeks of resistance training, three times week (45 minutes each), with training consisting of four exercises for the upper and lower body, including three sets of ten repetitions each. No exercise will be performed by the Control group. Cognitive function will be the primary outcome of the study. Secondary outcomes will include body composition, muscle strength, functional capacity, double-task, level of physical activity, static and dynamic balance, brain activity, BDNF neurotrophic factor, anxiety, depression and sleep state). Conclusion: This project will contribute to the existing knowledge and will have a social impact regarding the use of physical exercise as a non-pharmacological tool for the mental and physical health older individuals. Trial Registration: Brazilian Registry of Clinical Trials number RBR-7BC8ZP.
  • Muscle function, physical function, and gait in older women with and without knee osteoarthritis Acute And Chronic Effects Of Exercise In Health

    Wolf, Renata; Pereira, Gleber; Mattos, Fernanda de; Lodovico, Angélica; Bento, Paulo Cesar Barauce

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: To compare muscle function of knee extensors, gait parameters, and physical function in older women with and without knee osteoarthritis (KOA) and to associate these parameters to the KOA incidence in this population. Methods: Sixteen older women with KOA (66.9 ± 5.5 years; 74.9 ± 10.0 kg; 157.9 ± 0.9 cm; 30.2 ± 5.0 kg/m2) and fourteen healthy counterparts (control group: CG; 68.8 ± 5.8 years; 68.9 ± 10.5 kg; 158 ± 0.06 cm; 27.4 ± 4.0 kg/m2) participated in this study. Muscle function, physical function, and gait parameters were evaluated in both groups. The Western Ontario and McMaster Index (WOMAC) questionnaire was answered only by the KOA group. A correlation was performed to verify if KOA incidence was associated with muscle function, physical function, and gait parameters. Results: KOA group showed lower peak torque at 60°/s (30%; p = 0.003) and 180°/s (37%; p < 0.001), greater acceleration time at 60°/s (382%; p < 0.001), lower cadence (12.2%; p = 0.002), slower gait speed (19.5%; p < 0.001) and greater stride time (12.5%; p = 0.001) than CG group. However, there was no difference between groups in physical function (p < 0.0045). The KOA incidence presented a negative correlation with peak torque (rho = −0.602; p < 0.001), cadence (rho = −0.533; p = 0.002), gait speed (rho = −0.633; p < 0.001), stride length (rho = −0.517; p = 0.003) and a positive correlation with stride time (rho = 0.533; p = 0.002) and acceleration time (rho = 0.655; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that knee osteoarthritis may impair the function of the knee extensors muscles and gait parameters. An association between the ability to produce force rapidly and gait speed with the KOA incidence in older women was also observed.
  • Can exergames be used as an alternative to conventional exercises? Acute And Chronic Effects Of Exercise In Health

    Silva, Leonardo Machado da; Flôres, Fábio Saraiva; Matheus, Silvana Correa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The present study aimed to analyze if the exergaming exercise produces the same acute effects as conventional training. Methods: The Nintendo® Wii was chosen as the stimulus for this study. Participants should conduct a physical training session under Exergames Training (ET) and Conventional Training (CT). Both training conditions use two aerobic exercises and six strength exercises, which were always performed in the same sequence. The study group was composed of 30 young adults (16 men and 14 women, mean age of 23.7 ± 3.7 years). Results: Our findings showed significant results between pre and post-tests: the heart rate (HR) and the double product (DP) were higher in the post-exercise period, while the systolic blood pressure (SBP) was lower. Further analysis revealed that ET and CT conditions had no significant differences. ET condition showed to present similar results as CT condition to women (regarding HR, diastolic blood pressure - DBP, and DP), and to men (HR, SBP, and DBP). Conclusion: The present research showed that exergaming provides the same acute effects in physiological variables as conventional exercises. Thus, this kind of exercise can be a reliable way to improve the lifestyle of young adults.
  • Effect of combined exercise training on heart rate variability in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal women Acute And Chronic Effects Of Exercise In Health

    Mariano, Igor M.; Freitas, Victor Hugo de; Batista, Jaqueline P.; Souza, Tállita C.F. de; Amaral, Ana Luiza; Dechichi, Juliene G.C.; Rodrigues, Mateus L.; Carrijo, Victor Hugo V.; Puga, Guilherme M.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to verify and compare the effects of 10 weeks of combined exercise training on the heart rate variability of normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) postmenopausal women. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental controlled clinical trial. Therefore, 14 HT and 12 NT postmenopausal women completed 10 weeks of combined exercise training. The exercise protocol consisted of 45 min of exercise, performed 3 times a week, consisting of 5 min of warm-up, 20 min of resistance exercise, and 20 min of aerobic exercise. Heart rate variability assessments were performed before and after the end of physical training. Results: Heart rate variability was assessed pre- and post-training periods. Mean RR (δNT = 95 ± 88; δHT = 38 ± 127), SDNN (δNT = 9 ± 13; δHT = 3 ± 14), RMSSD (δNT = 10 ± 12; δHT = 2 ± 18), SD1 (δNT = 7 ± 8; δHT = 1 ± 13), and SD2 (δNT = 10 ± 18; δHT = 4 ± 17) showed improvements after the intervention (time effects p < 0.05). No parameters presented group or interaction effects (p ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: In summary, 10 weeks of combined exercise training improved heart rate variability parameters similarly in both NT and HT postmenopausal women. Therefore, combined exercise training may be used to improve autonomic modulation of the heart rate of postmenopausal women, regardless of the presence of hypertension.
  • Assessment of the upper limbs maximum power and the locomotion speed in amputee football players Adaptive Sports

    Nowak, Agnieszka M.; Kwapis, Angela; Kosmol, Andrzej

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The purpose of the study was to assess upper limbs’ maximum power and locomotion speed among amputee football (amputee soccer) players. Methods: The 30-s Wingate Anaerobic test and the 20-m sprint test were performed. Anthropometric measurements and body composition (Body mass index (BMI), percentage of body fat (% BF), and lean body mass (LBM)) were examined. Results: BMI significantly differentiated forwards and defenders (p < 0.05). Peak power (PP) and mean power (MP) were related to LBM (p < 0.05), thus defenders reached higher values of PP, in comparison to forwards. % BF and BMI were related to relative mean power (rMP) (p < 0.05). Field position differentiated players in terms of upper limbs’ relative peak power (rPP) in favour of forwards (p < 0.05). Age was a significant factor for speed velocity on 10 m and 20 m (p < 0.05). There was no relationship between upper limbs’ power and locomotion speed. Conclusion: Body composition, especially % BF may influence on the anaerobic performance of amputee football players.
  • Psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) in a sample of young and adult athletes Epidemiology

    Sousa, Vinicius da Cruz; Freire, Gabriel Lucas Morais; Granja, Carla Thamires Laranjeira; Moraes, José Fernando Vila Nova de; Fortes, Leonardo de Sousa; Junior, José Roberto de Andrade do Nascimento

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). Methods: Participants were five hundred and nineteen young and adult athletes who responded to the ABQ and Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2R. Data analysis was conducted through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), Cronbach’s alpha, Composite reliability, average variance extracted, multigroup analysis, and Pearson’s correlation (p<0.05). Results: The results of the CFA confirmed the structure with three dimensions (Physical and emotional exhaustion (PEE), reduced sense of sports accomplishment (RSSA), and sports devaluation (SD) [χ²/gl=2.92; CFI=.92; TLI=.91; RMSEA=.06]. Internal consistency was satisfactory (>.70). External validity revealed a positive correlation between PEE (r=.14) and RSSA (r=.23) with somatic anxiety and a positive correlation of PEE (r=.15), RSSA (r=.30), and SD (r=.14) with cognitive anxiety. Further, all dimensions of burnout had negative correlations with the self-confidence (r=.17-.23). In the factor invariance analysis, satisfactory data were found in the model’s fit, establishing good factor loadings, variance/covariance, and residuals in both age groups (up to 18 years and over 18 years) and genders (men and women). Conclusion: It was concluded that the Brazilian version of the ABQ is satisfactory for the application of possible studies involving burnout syndrome in the Brazilian sports context in different group extracts.
  • Physical activity, TV viewing, and human development index in Brazilian adolescents: Results from the National School Health Survey Epidemiology

    Araujo, Raphael Henrique de Oliveira; Silva, Danilo Rodrigues Pereira da; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Queiroz Ferreira; Sampaio, Ricardo Aurélio Carvalho; Santos, Antônio Evaldo dos; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to examine the association between physical activity (PA) indicators and TV viewing as a function of the Human Development Index (HDI). Method: This cross-sectional study was based on data from the National School Health Survey, which was composed of 102,072 students (14.28±1.03; 51.3% girls). Total PA, active commuting to school (ACS) and TV viewing were assessed by questionnaires and classified through a gradual scale ranging from “F” (low) to “A+” (high). The correlation between total PA, ACS, TV viewing and HDI was verified by Spearman’s Correlation and presented in rs. Results: HDI was positively associated with total PA [girls: rs = 0.572 (p < 0.001); boys: rs = 0.843 (p < 0.001)] and ACS [girls: rs = 0.433 (p < 0.001); boys: rs = 0.554 (p < 0.001)]; while a negative correlation was found between HDI and TV viewing [girls: rs = -0.330 (p < 0.001); boys: rs = -0.348 (p < 0.001)]. Conclusions: Brazilian adolescents from states with higher HDI were more active and spent more time watching TV than their counterparts from states with lower HDI.
  • What are the challenges of epidemiological research during the COVID-19 pandemic? Epidemiology

    Caputo, Eduardo L; Feter, Natan; Rombaldi, Airton J; Silva, Marcelo C da; Reichert, Felipe F

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic had an impact in several areas, and in scientific research was not different. Researchers are working from their homes since research facilities and universities were closed, and face-to-face interaction where limited to stop the virus spread. This brought a lot of changes in observational studies, especially in epidemiology research. Since most studies are being conducted through internet-based assessments, researchers are facing different challenges regarding data collection and participants recruitment, for example. In this paper, we share some of the challenges faced in a population-based study conducted in Southern Brazil, as well as possible alternatives to help researchers to overcome these issues.
  • Understanding food choices and eating practices of Brazilian and Spanish athletes in aesthetics and weight class sports Epidemiology

    Juzwiak, Claudia Ridel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed at understanding determinants of food choices and eating practices of aesthetics and weight class athletes from two countries. Methods: In this qualitative study, through recorded in-depth individual and focal group interviews, gymnasts (n = 16) and martial arts (n = 18) athletes from Brazil and Spain reported their eating practices. Transcripts were analyzed through the Content Analysis method. Results: The main determinants of athletes’ eating practices were the quest for a specific body in line with each sports’ discipline and cultural food aspects. The everyday eating practices respected the country of origin's food culture; however, some practices, especially aiming at weight loss were similar in both countries and related to the sports discipline. Female Brazilian aesthetics athletes were particularly worried about achieving a thinner body. Martial arts athletes from both countries reported adopting fast weight loss strategies presently or at some point in their sports trajectory. Internal and external pressure to lose weight was a constant factor, especially amongst Brazilians. Conclusions: There is a specific body culture in each sport discipline, which extends beyond country borders. The idealized bodies athletes seek are constructed socially according to their sports. This confers them an identity and promotes beliefs and meanings to foodways. The sports-related eating practices which superimposed national foodways were similar in both countries, suggesting a group identity process, and the existence of a “sports discipline's food culture”. Understanding athletes’ determinants of food choices and eating practices provide insights to address the gap between nutritional recommendations and eating practices.
  • Functional outcomes and oncological fatigue among older cancer patients: a cross-sectional study Epidemiology

    Lorca, Luz Alejandra; Sacomori, Cinara; Vidal-Labra, Rodrigo; Cavieres, Nathalie Paloma; Zomkowski, Kamilla

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: To characterize functional outcomes and oncological fatigue in older cancer patients, and verify the relation of these outcomes with age, number of hospitalizations, and falls within 12-months. Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 116 older adults with cancer undergoing treatment in a hospital in Santiago de Chile. Participants were assessed for independence on the activity of daily living (Barthel index), functional mobility with “timed up and go” (TUG) test, handgrip strength with a Baseline® Hydraulic Hand Dynamometer, and fatigue with Brief Fatigue Inventory. Information about the number of falls and hospitalizations from the previous 12-months was also collected. Results: 21.6% had experienced at least one fall during the previous 12-months, and 52% had been hospitalized over the same period. Handgrip strength was below the cut-off thresholds for older adults and 78.4% were classified with the risk of falls according to the TUG test. Forty-nine percent of participants experienced moderate fatigue, and 58% were dependent to perform activities of daily living. There was a correlation of TUG results with age (r = 0.204; p = 0.028). Conclusions: Older adults with cancer in our study experienced moderate fatigue, a high dependence to perform activities of daily living, especially those associated with mobility, dressing, and bladder or bowel function. Older adults with cancer are more likely to develop functional decline which leads to increased dependency or death. The data suggests they present functional impairment. Physical activity interventions would benefit this population.
  • Electronic tools for physical activity and quality of life of medical students during COVID-19 pandemic social isolation Epidemiology

    Barreto, Filipe Silva; Carvalho, Gabriela Oliveira de; Silva, Laura Cristina Neves da; Santos, Vinicios Ribas dos; Osório, Renêe Dominik Carvalho Pereira; Nascimento, Luana; Feitosa, Ankilma do Nascimento Andrade; Assis, Elisangela Vilar de; Silva, José Bruno Nunes Ferreira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study investigates the impact of social isolation, weight changes, and physical activity (PA) by the electronic tools (eTools) on the quality of life (QoL) of Brazilian medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this observational longitudinal study, one hundred eighty-nine medical students completed an e-questionnaire, which used the WHOQOL-Bref instrument to report QoL and sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, and lifestyles related to PA. Cronbach's alpha and Friedman/Dunn and Spearman's correlation tests were performed. Based on descriptive and inferential statistics, a multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the potential predictors of QoL. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic particularly affected the psychological and social domains. Time spent indoors and a non-ideal BMI had a negative impact on QoL. Being female and sexual minority-group membership were associated with lower QoL scores in the psychological and physical domains, respectively. Access to PA eTools was positively associated with QoL. Being monitored by a physical education teacher contributes to satisfactory PA levels during online classes. Conclusion: This study provides novel insights into the access of PA eTools on QoL during the COVID-19 pandemic. During periods of social distancing, people should pay extra attention to self-care strategies to protect mental health and promote positive lifestyle patterns. In addition, using online PA resources monitored by physical education teachers could be a strategy to maintain satisfactory levels of exercise.
  • Light-intensity physical activity patterns and associated factors in adolescents Epidemiology

    Volpato, Leonardo Alex; Fernandes, Daniel Zanardini; Correa, Renan Camargo; Weber, Vinícius Muller Reis; Romanzini, Catiana Leila Possamai; Ronque, Enio Ricardo Vaz; Romanzini, Marcelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: This study aimed to measure light-intensity physical activity (LPA) patterns in adolescents according to weekdays and school period and investigated associations between LPA patterns and associated factors. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study with 388 students of both genders, selected from public schools from Londrina city, Parana state. LPA was measured using accelerometry for seven consecutive days and was analyzed by the time spent in very short (15 to 30 s), short (30 to 60 s), intermediate (1 to 3 min), and long bouts (≥ 3 min). Results: Approximately 22% of the total daily time was spent in LPA. The time in LPA accumulated in short or intermediate bouts was higher than the time accumulated in very short or long bouts (P < 0.05). Gender was associated with short (β = 2.180; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.357 to 4.003) and intermediate bouts (β = 2.822; 95% CI, 0.681 to 4.964), girls presented higher daily time. Age was inversely associated with very short (β = −0.925; 95% CI, −1.676 to −0.175) and intermediate bouts (β = −1.985; 95% CI, −3.579 to −0.390). The total time in LPA and time accumulated in very short, short, and intermediate bouts was higher in the school period when compared to the non-school period (P < 0.05). Conclusion: It could be concluded that the LPA patterns are predominantly composed of time spent in bouts between 30 seconds and three minutes. Gender, age, and school period appear to influence the LPA pattern in adolescents.
  • Normative values of handgrip strength in adolescents according to chronological age and sexual maturation Epidemiology

    Bim, Mateus Augusto; Pinto, André de Araújo; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Rodrigues, Anna Mestriner; Pelegrini, Andreia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: Handgrip strength is considered an important health indicator. It is extremely important to establish normative values so that the handgrip strength is correctly interpreted in adolescents. The present study aims to establish normative values of handgrip strength (HGS) for adolescents, according to chronological age and sexual maturation. Methods: Data from three large projects carried out in Florianopolis and São José, Santa Catarina were used, corresponding to a sample of 2,637 adolescents aged 14 to 19 years old of both sexes (1,428 girls). The HGS of the right and left hands was measured by a manual dynamometer, and total HGS being defined by the sum of the left hand and the right-hand strength. Sexual maturation was determined by the development of pubic hair. The percentiles 3, 10, 15, 25, 50, 75, 85, 90, and 97 were calculated for the right, left, and total HGS. The percentile ranges < p15 (low), p15-p85 (normal) and > p85 (high) were used. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were applied. Results: In boys, the mean total HGS ranged from 67.5 ± 16.5 to 86.9 ± 21.8 (p < 0.001) and 74.3 ± 17.5 to 82.2 ± 17.8 (p < 0.001) for age and sexual maturation, respectively, while in girls the mean HGS total ranged from 48.8 ± 11.3 to 56.4 ± 16.0 (p = 0.127) and 47.8 ± 10.6 to 54.3 ± 12.3 (p < 0.001). Conclusion: Reference values established by the percentile score, can be used to identify adolescents with better athletic condition and can be useful for prescribing exercises.
  • Public spaces leisure in Rio Claro - SP (Brazil): quality, distribution, and social vulnerability Epidemiology

    Dopp, Erik Vinicius de Orlando; Nascimento, Wedson Guimarães; Goulardins, Guilherme Stefano; Kokubun, Eduardo; Nakamura, Priscila Missaki

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: Describe public leisure spaces in a city in the state of São Paulo, associating distribution, quantity, and quality of attributes to the São Paulo Index of Social Vulnerability (IPVS). Methods: Descriptive observational study in Rio Claro (Brazil), evaluating aspects of comfort, aesthetic accessibility, and fitness for physical activity through the Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA) instrument in squares, parks, and habitable beds in the urban area of the municipality, using the IPVS 2010, as a basic instrument for social vulnerability. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was adopted to verify the difference in the number of attributes and the Kruskal-Wallis test for the quality of attributes in each location evaluated according to the IPVS. Results: One hundred thirty-two squares, 2 parks, and 10 flower beds were evaluated. The ANOVA results showed that attributes related to comfort, cleanliness, aesthetics, and safety, and accessibility proved to be significant in squares and parks, while cleanliness, aesthetics, and safety showed significance in construction sites, both before the IPVS 2 - Very low vulnerability. For quality, Kruskal test Wallis identified significance in places for the practice of PA and comfort structures in parks and squares and places for the practice of PA and cleaning, aesthetics, and safety in construction sites. 92.4% of spaces are in places of low social vulnerability, with only 2.1% in places of high vulnerability. Conclusion: Our findings show poor quality of the structures, considering the attributes of comfort, cleanliness, aesthetics, and safety, and accessibility structure. In addition, most of the structures were distributed in the central areas with less social vulnerability.
  • Cheerleader injuries: a Brazilian cross-sectional study Epidemiology

    Marolde, Isabela Bianchini; Carvalho, Cristiano; Serrão, Paula Regina Mendes da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to characterize the types, frequency, body locations, and activities related to cheerleading injuries. Methods: This was an Internet-based survey among Brazilian cheerleaders at the competitive national level. Data collected from participants included information about previous injuries (number, location, anatomical structure), age, sex, height, weight, occupation, cheerleading position, number of years of experience, and frequency and hours of training per week. The significance level was set at α = 0.05. Results: In total, 113 cheerleaders answered the online questionnaire, and 230 injuries were reported. The most affected anatomical site was the wrist with 14.8% of the injuries, followed by the ankle (11.3%), and the hand and fingers (9.1%). There is a direct association between the occurrence of injuries and experience cheerleading practice (p = 0.002). Conclusions: There is a considerable number of injuries in cheerleading, mostly occurring in the upper limbs. Specific preventative education or training could be directed at these athletes, with an emphasis on reducing upper limb injuries.
  • Outdoor Fitness Zone: utilization pattern, and environmental and individual characteristics associated with the volume of utilization Epidemiology

    Silva, Debora Bernardo da; Sebastião, Emerson; Sousa, Thiago Ferreira de; Tribess, Sheilla; Papini, Camila Bosquiero

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: To examine the association between environmental and individual characteristics and utilization pattern of Outdoor Fitness Zones (OFZ) with the volume of utilization of these public spaces in Uberaba, Brazil. Methods: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Data collection was conducted using “in loco” interviews (three different days and times) and direct observation of nine OFZ. Poisson regression analysis was used to estimate prevalence ratios using the volume of utilization higher than 90 min per week as the dependent variable and a collection of socio-demographic, environmental, utilization pattern, and OFZ characteristics as independent variables. Results: Adjusted analysis revealed that volume of utilization higher than 90 min per week of OFZ was associated with a higher prevalence ratio among users utilizing such spaces to meet friends sometimes (PR = 2.43; 1.21-4.90) and always (PR = 3.43; 1.61-7.34) compared to not meeting friends. A lower prevalence ratio was found in users who attend the OFZ only during the week or only weekend days (PR = 0.52; 0.37-0.73) compared to a user who attends both (week and weekends days). OFZ not providing a space for walking or jogging (PR = 0.48; 0.23-0.99) were also associated with a lower prevalence ratio of utilization higher than 90 min per week. Conclusions: The findings demonstrated that most individual and environmental characteristics and utilization patterns of the OFZ in the city of Uberaba, MG, Brazil, were not associated with the volume of utilization. Users who meet friends and attend both week and weekend days OFZ that features walking or running trails were associated with a higher volume of utilization.
  • Physical training attenuates right ventricular dysfunction in rats exposed to cigarette smoke Exercise Physiology

    Sant’Ana, Paula G.; Maia, Adriano F.; Castardeli, Carmen; Mill, José Geraldo; Baker, Julien S.; Bocalini, Danilo S.; Castardeli, Edson

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: To evaluate the functional and morphological cardiac variables of rats exposed to chronic cigarette smoke (ECS) and to analyze the influence of exercise training on any cardiac remodeling. Methods: Male Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: control animals (C, n=10); control trained rats (CT, n=10), that underwent swimming physical training; ECS rats (E, n=10), that received the smoke of 40 cigarettes/day; and ECS plus trained rats (TE, n=10), that received the cigarette smoke plus the swimming training protocol, for 15 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the animals underwent hemodynamic measurements of the right ventricle (RV) and morphological examination. Results: There was a decrease in the body weight of E, TE and CT groups (p<0.05). RV pressure (maximum systolic, diastolic initial and end-diastolic) was increased in the E and ET groups (p <0.05), while there was a decrease in RV maximum derivative pressure, RV minimum derivative pressure (+dP/dt and -dP/dt) and systolic duration in the TE group (p <0.05). Heart rate increased in the E group (p<0.05). The lung weight/body weight ratio was higher in the TE group (p=0.008). Fluid retention was increased in the RV, left ventricle (LV) and lung of the E group (p<0.001). Conclusion: ECS caused right ventricular dysfunction, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac remodeling. Physical training attenuated the effects of ECS for heart rate responses and the morphological variables of the RV, LV, and the lung.
  • Physically active routine during COVID-19 pandemic: do not fail to comply with the recommendations for cardiovascular health Exercise Physiology

    Ferreira, Maycon Junior; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Angelis, Kátia De
  • Biomarker responses of cardiac oxidative stress to high intensity interval training in rats Exercise Physiology

    Vieira-Souza, Lúcio Marques; Santos, Jymmys Lopes dos; Marçal, Anderson Carlos; Voltarelli, Fabrício Azevedo; Aidar, Felipe José; Miguel-dos-Santos, Rodrigo; Costa, Roas de Araújo; Matos, Dihogo Gama de; Santos, Sandra Lauton; Araújo, Silvan Silva de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The present study aimed to verify the cardiac oxidative stress biomarker responses to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rats. Methods: Sixteen male Wistar rats weighing 250 to 300 g were equally divided into two groups (8 animals/group): sedentary control (SC) and trained group (HIIT). The exercise protocol consisted of high-intensity swimming (14% of body weight, 20 s of activity with 10 s of pause performed 14 times) which was performed for 12 consecutive days. Results: The cardiac tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde and carbonylated proteins showed no significant changes; on the other hand, hydroperoxide levels were higher in the HIIT group than in the SC group. The activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes and the levels of reduced glutathione and sulfhydryl remained unchanged. Conclusion: It is possible to conclude that short-term high-intensity interval training induces changes in the cardiac oxidative stress biomarker but with no effect on the antioxidant enzymes.
  • Effect of combined physical exercise program on improving the functional capacity and the cardiac autonomic modulation of Chagas cardiomyopathy Exercise Physiology

    Bavel, Diogo Van; Souza, Wallace Machado Magalhães de; Nery, Yan de Britto; Amorin, Juliana Nascimento; Pedrosa, Roberto Coury; Reis, Michel Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: Patients with Chagas cardiomyopathy (ChC) could have a significant reduction in functional capacity (FC). This study aimed to report the effect of a 24-week combined physical exercise program on the FC of a patient with ChC. Methods: A woman, 44 years old, with positive serology for ChC in stage B2 has submitted the following assessments: i) Physical assessment: ii) Cardiopulmonary exercise test; iii) Test of 1-maximum Repetition, iv) Evaluation of cardiac autonomic modulation by heart rate variability (HRV). Results: The results obtained revealed a reduction in the anthropometric parameters and the SBP after training. Additionally, we observed an improvement in FC (aerobic and strength condiction) and cardiac autonomic modulation after 24 weeks of combined training. Conclusion: Our findings show that of a 24-week combined physical exercise program improved either FC or HRVof the patient with ChC.
  • Performance, metabolic, hemodynamic, and perceived exertion in the six-minute step test at different heights in a healthy population of different age groups Exercise Physiology

    Oliveira, Túlio Medina Dutra de; Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Albuquerque, Vanessa Salles; Santos, Marissa Rocha; Fonseca, Diogo Simões; José, Anderson; Malaguti, Carla

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to compare the performance, metabolic, hemodynamic, and perceived exertion during the 6-minute step test (6MST) conducted with different step heights in healthy subjects and also to compare the performance between different age groups for each step height. The association between age, body mass index, level of physical activity, and lower limb measurements with performance were also evaluated. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measures, physical performance, and cardiovascular stress were evaluated during a self-paced 6MST with different step heights in healthy subjects in the age group of 18-59. All the participants underwent three-step tests (15 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm) on the same day, in a randomized order. Results: Forty participants (20 men and 20 women) performed the tests. The performance in the test for the highest step was significantly lower compared to the step with the lowest height (152 ± 24 vs. 173 ± 27 and 184 ± 33; p < 0,05). The estimated peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) increased by ∼2.5 mL.kg−1·min−1 with the increase in step height. Hemodynamic variables, such as percent of maximum heart rate (%HRmáx), and systolic blood pressure increased as the step height increased. There was a fair correlation between performance and the level of physical activity in the test with a step height of 15 cm and 20 cm. Conclusion: A higher step height caused greater cardiovascular stress, without exceeding the submaximal levels of the test, indicating that the 6MST can be used as an accurate instrument for evaluating aerobic capacity in healthy individuals.
  • Effect of high-intensity interval training on the skeletal muscle of spontaneously hypertensive rats Exercise Physiology

    Aleixo, Paulo Henrique; Castoldi, Robson Chacon; Souza, Francilene Lima Agostinho De; Mariano, Thaoan Bruno; Ozaki, Guilherme Akio Tamura; Garcia, Thiago Alves; Santos, Lucas Silva; Pacagnelli, Francis Lopes; Camargo, Regina Celi Trindade; Camargo Filho, José Carlos Silva

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of High-Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) on the skeletal muscle of Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats (SHR). Method: In total, 20 male rats, SHR, 12 months old, were used, distributed into 2 groups: Control Group (C) and Training Group (HIIT). The training lasted approximately 50 minutes/day, 5 days/week, for 8 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (BP) was measured at the beginning and end of the study. Analysis: The medial gastrocnemius muscle was used to measure the smallest fiber diameter, after which the Shapiro-Wilk normality test was performed, followed by the Mann Whitney test to compare the medians and interquartile intervals (IQI) of the muscle fibers and Student t-test for performance. For analysis of BP, Analysis of Variance - ANOVA was used, followed by Tukey's post-test. All procedures adopted a significance value of 5% (p < 0.05). Results: The median values for the variable “smallest diameter” of muscle fibers were 29.48 (IQI: 9.96) µm in the C group and 33.45 (IQI: 9.44) µm in the HIIT group (p < 0.05). Also, the performance was increased in the trained animal group and blood pressure values decreased significantly at the end of the experiment (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The HIIT intensity promoted an increase in the median values of the muscle fibers and performance. Finally, a significant decrease was observed in blood pressure variation values.
  • Intrarater reliability of different methods of heart rate variability threshold analysis and postexercise parasympathetic reactivation in young women Exercise Physiology

    Ribeiro, Bruno Guilhen; Pereira, Raiane Maiara dos Santos; Mazzoccante, Rafaello Pinheiro; Pereira, Leonardo; Drummond, Adriano; Kobayashi, Lúcia; Molina, Guilherme Eckhardt; Cruz, Carlos Janssen Gomes da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the reliability of HRVT and postexercise parasympathetic reactivation analysis after a submaximal exercise test in young women. Methods: Twenty-four young women [21.1 (20.1, 24.7) years; 21.4 (20.1, 23.1) kg/m2] underwent three incremental exercise tests on a treadmill on occasions separated by 48 h. R-R intervals were continuously recorded during the incremental tests and throughout 5 min of post-exercise active recovery for HRVT and parasympathetic reactivation analysis, respectively. HRVT was identified using two methods: a) the intensity where no significant reduction of SD1 HRV index was identified by visual inspection of the graphic (HRVTvisual), b) the first stage to present SD1 value < 3ms (HRVT3ms). Postexercise parasympathetic reactivation was assessed at each minute during five minutes of recovery using SD1 and r-MSSD indexes. Absolute and relative reliability were assessed using the coefficient of variation (CV) and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively. Results: Good (ICC = 0.81, CV = 17.3) and excellent (ICC = 0.90, CV = 4.6) reliability were observed for HRVT3ms and HRVTvisual, respectively. On the postexercise period, good reliability was observed for both SD1 (ICC = 0.82-89, CV = 22.1-28.9) and r-MSSD (ICC = 0.82-89, CV = 21.1-28.6), with a high correlation between indexes in all-time points of analysis (r = 0.96-0.99). Conclusions: HRVT may be reproducibly assessed in women, mainly when HRVTvisual is used for analysis. In addition, SD1 and r-MSSD provide reliable and redundant measures of postexercise parasympathetic reactivation.
  • Intra- and inter-rater reliability in the assessment and classification of the longitudinal plantar arch of children 6 to 10 years of age Neural Control Of Movement

    Beliche, Thiago Weyk de Oliveira; Hamu, Tânia Cristina Dias da Silva; Santos, Rafaela Noleto dos; Toledo, Roberta Carneiro de; Bizinotto, Thailyne; Porto, Celmo Celeno; Formiga, Cibelle Kayenne Martins Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: This study aimed to analyze the intra- and inter-rater reliability in the assessment and classification of the longitudinal plantar arch of children from 6 to 10 years old in the eyes-open (EO) testing condition. Methods: A total of two-hundred and seventy-eight Brazilian children (556 feet), boys and girls, from 6 to 10 years of age participated in the study. The children’s feet were examined on a baropodometric platform, and the Staheli index was used for calculating the plantar arch index. Footprint analyses were performed at two different times, with an interval of 7 to 10 days, by three physical therapists in a single testing condition, resulting in 3,336 footprints. To determine the reliability of the continuous measurements, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), Standard error of the mean (SEM), absolute value and percentage, and the Minimum Detectable Change (MDC) were calculated. To determine the reliability of the longitudinal arch classification, inter-rater reliability was evaluated by Weighted Fleiss Kappa Coefficient and the test-retest reliability was estimated by Weighted Cohen Kappa Coefficient. Results: Regarding inter-rater reliability, we observed values of ICC ranging from 0.79 to 0.96; thus, the results were classified as substantial to excellent reliability), being the lowest ICC values occur for line B, mainly in the first assessments. SEM ranges from 0.08 to 0.21 (percentage: 3.74 to 28.7), being the best, the lowest SEM values occur for Plantar Arch Index assessments and the MDC varies between 0.22 and 0.59. Regarding intra-rater reliability, the results indicated excellent reliability: values of ICC range from 0.92 to 0.99, being the lowest ICC values also occurs for line B analysis. SEM ranges from 0.03 to 0.20 (percentage: 2.32 to 26.6), being the lowest SEM values occur for Plantar Arch Index assessments and MDC varies between 0.09 and 0.54. Analyzing the inter-rater reliability for the longitudinal arch classifications, we observed values of Weighted Fleiss Kappa Coefficient ranging from 0.83 to 0.87, expressing almost perfect agreement among the raters before and after evaluations. The test-retest reliability of the longitudinal arch classification resulted in values of Weighted Cohen Kappa Coefficient ranging from 0.80 to 0.996, expressing substantial to almost perfect agreement intra-rater. Conclusion: The study showed high reliability in the clinical assessment of the longitudinal plantar arch index of children from 6 to 10 years of age indicating that the Staheli method is applicable to pressure platform assessments with intra- and inter-rate reliability.
  • Do motor performance and specific-skill tests discriminate technical efficiency in small-sided games? Neural Control Of Movement

    Costa, Julio Cesar da; Borges, Paulo Henrique; Ramos-Silva, Luiz Fernando; Weber, Vinícius Muller Reis; Moura, Felipe Arruda; Moreira, Alexandre; Ronque, Enio Ricardo Vaz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The aim was to compare performance in specific-skill tests and motor coordination between groups with different technical efficiency and verify possible variables related to specific skills and motor coordination that contribute to discriminate players into high- and low-technical efficiency. Methods: The sample consisted of 82 young soccer players (12-15 years). Body size, bone age, motor performance tests, soccer-specific skill tests, and frequency of technical actions in SSG were analyzed. Statistic cluster-derived ANOVA F was used to identify which variables related to technical action most contributed to classifying subjects with similar performance. Discriminant analysis (Stepwise Method) was used to verify which predictor variables discriminated players into groups of low- and high-frequency technical actions in SSG. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: The group of high technical efficiency presented better performance in motor tests, shuttle run (P = 0.04; ES = −0.55), jumping laterally (P = 0.02; ES = 0.58), kicking speed (P = 0.03; ES = 0.60), soccer-specific skill tests, leading the ball in a straight line (LBSL) (P = 0.01; ES = −0.75), and zig-zag ball control (ZZBC) (P = 0.04; ES = −0.55); variable leading the ball in a straight line correctly discriminated 60% of players into high- and low-frequency groups. Conclusion: The frequency of technical actions in SSG was poorly influenced by motor performance and specific skill tests, and only the LBSL test correctly classified players of different frequencies of technical actions in SSG.
  • Single session of action observation in choice reaction time in healthy children Neural Control Of Movement

    Vieira, Isabella Franco Silva; Moura Neto, Eduardo de; Caires, Tamise Aguiar; Jablonski, Gabriel; Andrade, Adriano Oliveira; Luvizutto, Gustavo José; Souza, Luciane Aparecida Pascucci Sande de

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: Learning by action observation (AO) is a fundamental cognitive ability existing from birth either in live or in the video. However, the specific AO training, in live or in the video, can influence decision making and motor planning in healthy children? This study aimed to evaluate if a single session of both practices (live and video) modifies the choice reaction time during reaching tasks in healthy children. Methods: This is a cross-sectional and randomized study with 22 children aged 6 to 8 years. We measured the choice reaction time (CRT) by electromyography at baseline and after both practices. Data were analyzed using Friedman and posthoc Dunn non-parametric tests for each age group individually as well as all ages combined. Kurtosis analysis was performed to assess data variability. Results: Significant decrease in CRT was observed after action observation in the video in 8-year-olds. Also, we observed choice reaction time variability reduction in 8-year-olds after both practices compared to that at baseline. Conclusion: A decrease in CRT was observed after the single session of action observation in the video in 8-year-olds. Additionally, there was a reduced variability in CRT after performing both practices in the same age group.
  • The relation between gross motor coordination and health-related physical fitness through raw and standardized measures from the KTK and Fitnessgram tests Neural Control Of Movement

    Godoi Filho, José Roberto de Maio; Pacheco, Matheus Maia; Santos, Fernando Garbeloto; Bastos, Flavio Henrique; Walter, Cinthia; Basso, Luciano; Tani, Go

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of considering single/ combined and raw/ standardized measures from the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) and Fitnessgram tests on the relation between GMC and HRPF in four age-groups. Method: Participated five-hundred thirty-one children and adolescents (279 boys). The individuals were divided into four groups: 4 to 7, 7 to 9.5, 9.5 to 12, 12 to 15 years of age. We utilized the KTK and Fitnessgram tests to measure, respectively, GMC and HRPF. Bootstrap correlations and χ2 tests were performed for all individuals, and each group controlling for sex. Results: For the raw scores, correlations were around (absolute) r = 0.37, except body composition, with large decreases when controlling for age and sex. For standardized tests, considering either the GMC quotient or GMC categories, correlations were all significant (around r = 0.34). Finally, considering broad categories (apt/non-apt and coordinated/non-coordinated), the association was 0.16. Conclusions: We found clear influences of the measure utilized on the association between GMC and HRPF measures.
  • Validity of the Polar V800 heart rate monitor for assessing cardiac autonomic control in individuals with spinal cord injury Neural Control Of Movement

    Castro, Patrícia; Ferreira, Arthur de Sá; Lopes, Agnaldo José; Paula, Tainah de; Costa, Roberto Miranda Ramos; Cunha, Felipe A.; Vigário, Patrícia dos Santos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with changes in cardiac autonomic control, that can be evaluated by heart rate variability (HRV), for which the electrocardiogram (ECG) is the gold standard. However, the use of ECG is limited to laboratory environments, and new tools are needed for this purpose and that can be applied in the routine monitoring of individuals with SCI. The present study aimed to investigate the validity of the Polar V800 heart rate monitor in assessing the cardiac autonomic control of individuals with SCI. Methods: Nineteen adult men with SCI (paraplegia n = 10; 44.5 ± 8.5 years and tetraplegia n = 9; 34.4 ± 7.5 years) participated in this cross-sectional study. The participants remained in the sitting position at rest for 10 min for the acquisition of the ECG and Polar V800 signals. The last 5-min window was used to count the beat-by-beat R-R interval series and then calculate the HRV indices (linear methods in the time and frequency domains). The study subgroups were compared, and the validity of the measurements generated with a heart rate monitor was determined using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC2,1) and Bland-Altman graphs. Results: Agreement analyses for the R-R intervals, SDNN, rMSSD, PNN50, SD1, LF, HF, and LF: HF ratio tended to show reliability ranging from acceptable to excellent (ICC = 0.579-0.990; P = 0.043-0.001) and acceptably narrow limits of agreement within both the group with tetraplegia and the group with paraplegia. Conclusion: The Polar V800 heart rate monitor is a valid instrument for assessing HRV in individuals with paraplegia and tetraplegia.
  • Environmental and personal factors that explain functional abilities and caregiver assistance on children aged 6 to 18 months: a cross-sectional study Pediatrics

    Pereira, Daniel G; Santos, Juliana N; Tsopanoglou, Sabrina P; Lima, Mylena FR; Costa, Lucas B da; Morais, Rosane LS; Gomes, Wellington F; Oliveira, Vinícius C

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: This study investigated environmental and personal factors that explain functional skills and caregiver assistance in young infants/toddlers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted involving seventy-four children with typical development between 6 and 18 months of age. Functioning skills were evaluated using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and the home environment was evaluated using the Affordances in the Home Environment for Motor Development-Infant Scale. Statistical analyses were performed by regression models. Results: Child’s age explained 45% of self-care (β = 0.68); child’s age (β = 0.72), attending daycare (β = 0.33) explained 71% of mobility, and child’s age (β = 0.80) and breastfeeding duration (β = 0.17) explained 69% of social function. With regards to caregiver assistance, child’s age (β = 0.46), attending daycare (β = 0.20) and number of siblings (β = -0.22) explained 31% of self-care; child’s age (β = 0.62) and attending daycare (β = 0.34) explained 56% of mobility; and child’s age (β = 1.91) and total AHEMD-IS score (environment) (β = 2.63) explained 30% of social function. Conclusion: Daycare, breastfeeding duration, number of siblings, stimulation at home, and age explained functional skills and caregiver assistance to toddlers/infants.
  • Developmental coordination disorder and the COVID-19 pandemic: Some considerations Pediatrics

    Cavalcante Neto, Jorge Lopes; Draghi, Tatiane Targino Gomes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is a developmental disorder characterized by significant poor motor performance, interfering in children’s health, participation, and quality of life at home, school, or playground contexts. According to the literature, children with DCD are at greater risk of anxiety and depression symptoms compared to their typically developing peers. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, many children with DCD are isolated at home and diminishing their opportunity to participate in different types of activities. In addition, this scenario can increase the symptoms of anxiety and depression in these children, which warns us to state some important considerations in this brief communication. As well, some important recommendations about activities to perform at home with relatives, such as active video games or ball games, were made to help these children and their parents in this complex and challenging scenario worldwide. Therefore, this paper summarizes some considerations regarding DCD and the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Cross-cultural comparisons of motor competence in southern Brazilian and Portuguese schoolchildren Pediatrics

    Flôres, Fábio Saraiva; Rodrigues, Luis Paulo; Luz, Carlos; Cordovil, Rita

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to compare the MC levels of Brazilian and Portuguese schoolchildren from 4 to 11 years. Methods: One hundred and forty-eight Brazilian children were evaluated using the Motor Competence Assessment (MCA) instrument and were later compared to the existent normative values of Portuguese children for a similar age range. Results: Our findings showed that MC increased with age, and boys outperformed girls, especially in the older age group. The distribution of the Brazilian children showed that while Brazilian boys perform above Portuguese normative values in 4 of the 6 tasks of the MCA, Brazilian girls perform below those values in all tasks, except for the standing long jump. Conclusion: The differences found, especially in girls, may be related to differences in the Physical Education curricula and how school recess periods are used.
  • Gazeta do Norte newspaper and the great Sports Square as nation projects: ‘Mold for Tomorrow's Men!’ Sport Humanities

    Alves, Rogério Othon Teixeira; Silva, Luciano Pereira da; Pereira, Ester Liberato; Souza Neto, Georgino Jorge de; Cardoso, Fernanda de Souza; Ladislau, Carlos Rogério

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study contextualizes the establishment of Montes Claros Sports Square, in Minas Gerais, through the look of Gazeta do Norte newspaper, and its alignment with a nation project to be established by the government of Getúlio Vargas, who took office in 1930. He formulated actions for a ‘national reconstruction’ project, for which, from society, it was necessary to emerge both physically and morally healthy subjects, fundamental conditions for the construction of the aforementioned new nation, and which could reach the Brazilians in the hinterlands. Thus, this study aimed to narrate a history of the construction of Montes Claros Sports Square, from the end of the 1930s until 1945, during Getúlio Vargas’ first term as President of the Republic, with Benedito Valadares as Governor of Minas Gerais. Methods: The study was based on the extensive collection of data researched in Gazeta do Norte newspaper. Results: Symbol of a modern project for sports, the Sports Square was announced by the governor during his visit to the city, in January 1939, and established on the Oswaldo Cruz meadow. It is possible to verify that, notably, in the 15 years of Getúlio Vargas’ first term, the practice of sports is developed and consolidates itself as an ‘actor’ in the social space of Montes Claros. Conclusion: In this city, in addition to the construction of the Sports Square, it was necessary to educate and inform the individuals. It can be said that the newspaper Gazeta do Norte firmly contributed to Vargas’ nation project.
  • The experience of athletes with disabilities in mainstream sports: an interpretative phenomenological analysis Sport Humanities

    Cursiol, Jônatas Augusto; Barreira, Cristiano Roque Antunes

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: Through reports of the athletes with disabilities interviewed, this study aimed to understand how the experiences lived in mainstream sports occur among people without disabilities. Methods: Husserl's classic phenomenology was the methodological framework adopted. The phenomenological interview was carried out with an intentional sample that included six athletes with some type of physical disability and later its recording was transcribed for the procedures of phenomenological reduction and intentional crossing to explain the meaning of what is experienced by these athletes in mainstream sport. Results: Five categories essentially describe how these experiences occur: operational body barred in the world; shaping the movement; the invisibility of disability; determination stimulus; and normalization of social relations in mainstream sports. These experiences correspond to a dynamic process in which each part does not necessarily follow the other. Conclusion: The experience in mainstream sports allowed the interviewees to improve their experience of capacity, self-efficacy, and recognition through the mutuality between self-perception and the expectation of acceptance by society.
  • Effects of different verbal commands on perceptual, affective, and physiological responses during running Sport Humanities

    Ferreira, Sandro dos Santos; Bomfim Neto, Armando Luiz; Follador, Lucio; Garcia, Erick Doner Santos de Abreu; Andrade, Vinícius Ferreira dos Santos; Silva, Sergio Gregório da

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: To compare the effects of different verbal commands on the perceptual, affective, and physiological responses during running. Methods: Twenty men who regularly performed aerobic exercise and running (mean age: 30.7±10.1 years; mean VO2max: 55.3 ± 7.1 mL·kg−1·min−1). All subjects completed four exercise sessions: a familiarization trail; three running sessions consisting of a self-selected pace defined by one of the verbal commands: low, moderate, or high. These conditions were counterbalanced. Each running session lasted 20 min. Affective responses (measured by the Feeling Scale and the Felt Arousal Scale) and physiological (measured by the hate rate and treadmill speed) were evaluated during each exercise session. Session RPE (OMNI-RES) was measured 15 min after each exercise session. Results: The perceptual and physiological responses were different for all verbal commands, with the intensity increasing according to the verbal commands given during running (p < 0.01). Affective responses to low and moderate exercise were similar and more pleasant than at high intensities; however, the affective responses to all verbal commands were positive. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that verbal commands can be used in running prescriptions. A moderate verbal command can promote greater perceptual and physiological stimuli than a low verbal command, without significant changes in affective responses.
  • Managerial behavior of sports facilities managers: an approach with public and non-profit organizations in São Paulo Sports Humanities

    Amaral, Cacilda Mendes dos Santos; Mazzei, Leandro Carlos; Bastos, Flávia da Cunha; Alexandrino, Rosiane Raduan

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The sports facilities development and use optimization has been one of the main objectives of sports organizations. To understand how the management is performed, the knowledge about the manager and his function is crucial and may aid to improve facilities management and impact service quality. This study aimed to analyze the functional profile of sport facilities managers and verify their managerial behavior. Methods: A survey was conducted, 76 managers of public and non-profit sports facilities of São Paulo answering a questionnaire regarding their personal data and tasks performed in five related areas (Economic-Administrative Management, Human Resources Management, Maintenance, Supply and Exploration, and Marketing and Promotion). The data was analyzed through an Exploratory Factorial Analysis using the principal component method. Results: The low participation of managers in tasks related to the Economic-Administrative Management area was identified. The manager's other areas of activity had their tasks divided into the following factors: Human Resources (Work organization; Communication and Training); Maintenance (Maintenance and monitoring; Expansion, Construction, and Renovation); Supply and Exploration (Activities Organization; Activity Planning for Groups; Assignment and organization of use); Marketing (Communication, supply and demand analysis; Operation and occupation analysis). Conclusion: There is no standard managerial behavior of sport facilities managers since their performance is not focused on the proactive or non-proactive characteristic of the task, but rather on the field that the organization and/or manager deems necessary to be planned and developed.
  • Strategies adopted in the defensive return by handball coaches from teams U-12 to U-18 Sports Coaching

    Bento, Ana Laura; Gilio, João Paulo Torres di; Menezes, Rafael Pombo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: to analyze the choices of handball coaches for structuring the defensive return throughout the teaching-learning process (U-12 to U-18 teams). Methods: Nineteen coaches from teams U-12 to U-18 from two leagues in the state of São Paulo were interviewed. The speeches from the semi-structured interviews were analyzed through thematic analysis, which produced two themes and their respective subthemes. Results: Most coaches structure their defensive return and emphasize content to make it difficult for an opponent to counterattack. A higher percentage of directed play was observed in teams U-12 and U-14, which suggests a possible early specialization process. In the U-16 and U-18 teams, higher percentages of free play were observed when compared to the others. In older teams, a higher percentage of directed play would be expected, mainly because these are stages with an increase in player specialization. Conclusion: The findings suggest that the simultaneous training of different teams may be leading to sports specialization procedures in the younger teams and, simultaneously, underestimating the possibilities in the older teams.
  • Relative age effects in elite Brazilian track and field athletes are modulated by sex, age category, and event type Sports Coaching

    Figueiredo, Lucas Savassi; Silva, Drumond Gilo da; Oliveira, Bruno Henrique Góes; Ferreira, Arthur Gomes; Gantois, Petrus; Fonseca, Fabiano de Souza

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study investigated the Relative Age Effect (RAE) in Brazilian track and field athletes based on sex, age category (U-16, U-18, U-20, U-23 and senior), and event type (sprints/hurdles, middle distance, long-distance, jumps, throws). Methods: Data from 2.259 male and 1.776 female elite track and field athletes, ranked top-50 in events held by the Brazilian Track and Field Confederation in 2019 were analyzed. To determine RAE athletes were divided into four quarters based on their months of birth, considering January 1st the cut-off date. The influence of sex, age category, and event types in the pervasion of RAE in Brazilian track and field athletes was assessed through Chi-squared tests. Results: Athletes born closer to the cut-off date were more frequent than athletes born further from this date were in male youth categories. This effect reduced as categories increased, even reversing in the senior category. Finally, RAE was more frequent in events in which athletic performance relies more on strength, speed, and power, which is the case of sprints/hurdles, jumps, and throws. Conclusion: RAE is particularly prevalent in young male Brazilian track and field athletes, which indicates that many potentially talented athletes are overlooked in youth tryouts because they were born months away from the cut-off date. Policies that reduce the disadvantages faced by relatively younger athletes are warranted in order to avoid the loss of potential sports talents.
  • Monitoring of overtraining and motivation in elite soccer players Sports Coaching

    Fagundes, Leonardo Henrique Silva; Costa, Israel Teoldo da; Reis, Cleiton Pereira; Pinheiro, Guilherme de Sousa; Costa, Varley Teoldo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to monitor the behavior of the overtraining and motivations dimensions, as well as to verify whether these dimensions correlate in the preparatory and competitive periods over the season. Methods: Professional soccer players (n = 32) answered the Stress and Recovery Questionnaire for Athletes (RESTQ-Sport 76) and the Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) during the preparatory and competitive periods. Results: Intrinsic amotivation and sport-specific recovery were lower in the competitive period than in the preparatory period. In the preseason, motivation presented a strong and negative correlation with overall recovery (p = 0.001; r = −0.75; r2 = 0.56) and sport-specific recovery (p = 0.001; r = −0.72; r2 = 0.52). The amotivation explained in 56% the variance of the results of the overall recovery and 52% of the sport-specific recovery. During the competitive phase, amotivation showed a strong and positive correlation with overall stress (p = 0.001; r = 0.70; r2 = 0.49) and sport-specific stress (p = 0.001; r = 0.79; r2 = 0.62). The amotivation accounted for 49% of the variance in the results of the overall stress and 62% of sport-specific stress in soccer players. Conclusion: There are associations between overtraining and motivation during the investigated periods. Through longitudinal monitoring in professional soccer, it was verified that the dimensions of amotivation, overall recovery, and sport-specific stress could be related to the prevention symptoms of overtraining in a professional soccer team.
  • What is the effect of vigorous exercise on the brain? Sports Training

    Pereira, Daniel Carvalho; Fonseca, Fabiano de Souza; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: This study aimed to verify whether vigorous exercise is capable of generating mental fatigue. Methods: To do so, 16 young adult male (29.4 ± 5.2 years old) cyclists (5.4 ± 4.6 years of training) underwent three visits: 1) control session (rest); 2) session with cognitive demand (20 minutes of AX-CPT); 3) session with vigorous exercise (10km time trial). Mental fatigue was assessed using the visual analog scale of fatigue in the pre-and post-session moments. A two-way ANOVA of repeated measures followed by the Bonferroni posthoc was used to verify the effect of the condition (control, cognitive demand, and exercise) and time (pre and post) interaction. The paired “t” test was used to compare the delta of mental fatigue (post - pre) of the sessions. The partial eta squared was used to determine the effect size of the variance. The significance adopted was p < 0.05. Results: A condition x time interaction was observed (F (2.30) = 5.349, p = 0.010, partial η2 = 0.263). When comparing the deltas, a mean difference was found between the control and vigorous exercise (p = 0.033) conditions and cognitive demand and vigorous exercise (p = 0.017) conditions. Control and cognitive demand sessions showed no difference (p = 0.801). Conclusion: The findings suggest that intense physical exercise seems to cause mental fatigue after practice.
  • The sex differences in the 10,000 m race strategy Sports Training

    Borba, Diego A.; Rodrigues, Pablo S.; Oliveira, Guilherme F. F. de; Ferreira Júnior, João B.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to compare the running strategy between men and women in the 10,000 m race. Methods: Data from one-hundred and twenty-nine athletes who competed the 10,000 m final of the 2015, 2017 and 2019 world championship were grouped according to gender: 1) male group (n= 63; age= 25.9±4.4), and 2) female group (n= 66; age= 27.3±4.8). The running strategy was determined by assessing velocity over each kilometer. The velocity was calculated from the times available on the official website of the International Athletics Federation. Results: Men decreased running velocity after the first kilometer and kept the speed stable until km 9 and the kilometer 10 was greater when compared with 6-9 kilometer, while women increase running velocity until km 2 and kept the speed stable until km 9. The kilometer 10 velocity was greater when compared with 1-9 kilometer. (p< 0.001). In addition, women showed a greater average velocity variation when compared to men (p< 0.001). Conclusion: Our findings show a sex differences in the 10,000 m race strategy between world-class.
  • Development of the “interactivelab” platform for network analysis in soccer Sports Training

    Menuchi, Marcos Rodrigo Trindade Pinheiro; Anjos, Matheus Almeida Santos; Mendes, Claudia Thalita Andrade; Silva, Matheus Santos Cardoso da; Nascimento, Osmar Silva; Honda, Marcelo Ossamu

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: To introduce a platform called “InteractiveLab” (ILab) for collecting and analyzing ball passing networks during soccer games. Methods: The software was organized to collect data through a mobile interface and touch screen and simultaneously access that data from a remote database, allowing the automated acquisition, storage, and processing of data during games through an application from the web. The analysis is based on the concept of social networks, characterized by the interaction of players through passing exchanges. Results: This descriptive study presents the construction architecture and functioning of the developed software. It also presents the results of intra- and inter-rater reliability and a comparison with the manual collection method. Data were extracted and viewed according to the attacking unit classifications, with the following four outcomes: (a) interception, (b) lost ball, (c) incompletion, and (d) completion. This classification allows for the configuration of the data for a more precise analysis. Some limitations were highlighted, as well as future projections for the improvement of applications and analysis of the interactions network in the context of soccer. Conclusion: It is concluded that the InteractiveLab platform is a viable and beneficial tool that offers new possibilities for analysing performance in soccer. Moreover, given the lack of solutions that work similarly, this product also has market potential.
  • Relationship between Sprint, lower limb power, and change of direction speed in adolescents Sports Training

    Mello, Júlio Brugnara; Pinheiro, Eraldo dos Santos; Ferreira, Gustavo Dias; Bergmann, Gabriel Gustavo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The purpose of this study is to verify the association between sprint, lower limb power, and change of direction speed in schoolchildren. Method: This is a cross-sectional school-based study with a probabilistic sample (n=1455) of adolescents aged 10-17 years. The variables were: sex, chronological age, body mass, height, skinfold sum, maturity offset, lower limb power, change of direction speed, and sprint. For the data analyses, we used a t-test for independent samples, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression. A statistical significance level of 5% was considered for all analyses. Results: The three variables of physical fitness presented moderate and significant correlations between them (r = {0.39-0.61}). Three models were tested with sprint (model 1), change of direction sprint (model 2) and lower limb power (model 3) as an outcome. Predictors tested explain 47% of model 1, 49% of model 2, and 54% of model 3. The individual predictor's contribution in both models varied between 0.1% to 38%. Conclusions: The evidence suggests that change of direction speed and sprint, together with sex, body mass, and skinfold sum account for approximately 54% of the variance of lower limb power in adolescents aged 10-17 years.
  • Crawl technique observation sheet for beginning swimmers: an evaluation proposal for swimming teachers Sports Training

    Vidal, Jessica de Medeiros; Tucher, Guilherme; Nogueira, Leandro; Novaes, Renato Cavalcanti; Vale, Rodrigo Gomes de Souza; Castro, Mariana Oliveira Rabelo de; Medeiros, Nathalia Glauss da Silva; Telles, Silvio de Cassio Costa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: This study aimed to present a technical evaluation proposal for the crawl stroke that can be used with large groups of swimmers, based on an observation sheet. Methods: Fifteen healthy university students aged between 18 and 30 years were chosen to participate in the study. The subjects were recorded swimming at a distance of 50 meters using the crawl technique at a comfortable and self-determined speed. The recordings simulated docent observation capacity. Five swimming teachers were selected to evaluate the proposed checklist and the subjects’ technique. An observation sheet was created based on references present in literature containing ten items that are considered fundamental for swimming movements. The study was divided into (i) checklist validation, (ii) intra-evaluator consistency, and (iii) inter-evaluator consistency. Results: The proposed checklist fulfilled the validity criteria, with intra-evaluator consistency varying between reasonable and substantial, with k varying between 0.36 and 0.73 respectively, while inter-evaluator consistency was deemed reasonable (k = 0.24). Conclusion: According to the results that were obtained, the suggested list is valid and adequate for what it proposes to do.
  • Prevalence of burnout syndrome and perception by playing position in professional football players Sport Training

    Ferreira, Rodrigo Weyll; Coswig, Victor Silveira; Monteiro, Pedro Antonio Marques da Silva; Gaia, Jhonatan Welington Pereira; Penna, Eduardo Macedo; Pires, Daniel Alvarez

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the indicators of burnout, to determine whether playing position affects the perception of syndrome dimensions, and to identify burnout prevalence in professional football players. Methods: The participants were 100 professional football players (mean age 24.3 ± 4.6 years and meantime as a professional athlete of 9.2 ± 4.5 years) who were divided into three groups: 27 forwards, 34 midfielders, and 39 defenders. The Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ) and a sociodemographic questionnaire were applied. Results: The results show that a) the majority of athletes had low burnout indicators, b) there was no difference in the perception of burnout dimensions by playing position, and c) the prevalence of athletes with burnout, whether mild, moderate, or severe, was 13%. Conclusion: The variable of playing position was not a determinant of perception of burnout dimensions among the forwards, midfielders, and defenders. Nonetheless, the prevalence of burnout deserves attention, as the negative effects of this syndrome may exert impacts on health, well-being, and sports performance, making athletes more likely to abandon their sport.
  • Developmental pathway routes to achieve expert performance in portuguese track and field athletes Sports Training

    Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles de Castro; Costa, Flávia Rodrigues da; Leite, Nuno Miguel Correia; Santos, Sara Diana Leal dos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize the developmental pathway undertaken by Portuguese expert track and field athletes considering the quantity and type of structured and unstructured activities. Methods: The sample was composed of 24 experts and 35 non-expert athletes who completed a questionnaire designed to gather information about their previous experiences in sports. Results: Results reveal key factors which distinguished expert from non-expert athletes’ developmental pathway were related to a greater commitment within track and field in relation to years (U = 251.000, p < 0.01) and hours (U = 212.500, p < .01), as well as with the number of years spent in unstructured activities (U = 284.500, p < .05). Furthermore, a significant association (χ2 = 27.131, p < 0.01) was found between the number of unstructured activities practiced and an expert performance attainment. Conclusions: These findings revealed that more successfully track and field athletes had an early diversified pathway with greater involvement in structured and unstructured activities. Overall, the study provides an insight into the developmental pathway of Portuguese track and field athletes.
  • Funding and performance of amateur and youth organizations in Brazil: a longitudinal analysis of a basketball league Sports Training

    Leonardi, Thiago José; Gutierrez, Diego Monteiro; Sarti, Ariane Caroline; Souza, Lucas Arromba de; Nicolau, Paula Simarelli; Galatti, Larissa Rafaela; Paes, Roberto Rodrigues

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The general aim was to analyze the profile of the teams participating in a basketball regional competition over 8 years (2012-2019). Specifically, we aimed to a) analyze the variation in the number of an organization participating, b) identify the variation in the type of funding, c) verify the existence of a relationship between the performance and the longevity of the organization, d) verify the existence of a relationship between the performance and the type of funding. Methods: The research was designed as an exploratory case study. A total of 86 organizations took part in the league during the period, with 767 different teams playing competitions between U-11 and senior. Results: Instability is the main characteristic of the league. The organizations competing are constantly changing the type of funding and unable to stay in the league for long periods. The research also showed that there is a relation between a stable source of funding and performance. Conclusion: Instability is the main problem in Brazilian youth and amateur basketball organizations. This study presents useful information for managers better understand the problems and difficulties of basketball in Brazil.
  • Official matches and training sessions: physiological demands of elite junior badminton players Sports Training

    Sales, Karen Christie Gomes; Santos, Marcos Antônio Pereira; Nakamura, Fabio Yuzo; Silvino, Valmir Oliveira; Sena, Alyson Felipe da Costa; Ribeiro, Sérgio Luís Galan; Rodrigues Júnior, Jefferson Fernando Coelho; Cabido, Christian Emmanuel Torres; Mendes, Thiago Teixeira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: To evaluate the intensity of training and official badminton matches (international championship) in junior elite players. Methods: Twelve elite players from the Brazilian junior national team (6 male and 6 female) were monitored during 19 training sessions and 50 official men's and women's single and double matches in the XXVII Pan-American Junior Games. Subjects underwent an incremental running step test to determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), and an individual relationship between heart rate (HR) and VO2max was established to estimate exercise intensity and oxygen uptake at official matches (OMs) and training sessions. HR was monitored during multi-shuttlecock (MS), technical-tactical (TT), and physical (PS) training methods, as well as during simulated matches (SMs) and OMs. Variables such as %HRmax, HR zones, %VO2max, and energy expenditure were also calculated. Results: OM was the most intense activity monitored for male and female athletes, followed by SM according to %HRmax (86.8 ± 4.1% and 84.4 ± 5.0% for female and male, respectively, in OM vs. 74.6 ± 2.3% and 75.0 ± 5.0% for female and male, respectively, in SM). OM mean energy expenditure was 10.7 ± 0.5 kcal.min-1 for females and 14.9 ± 4.6 kcal.min−1 for males. Conclusion: MS training has less physiological demand and OM presented higher intensity. SM, on the other hand, had the closest physiological demand to an OM.
  • Effects of soccer training during preseason on physical and physiological variables in youth soccer players Sports Training

    Rodrigues Júnior, Jefferson Fernando Coelho; Dias-Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Oliveira Júnior, Mário Sevílio de; Sena, Carlan da Silva; Ferreira, Andressa Coelho; Mendes, Thiago Teixeira; Costa, Herikson Araújo; Soares Junior, Nivaldo de Jesus Silva; Marques, Raphael Furtado; Mostarda, Cristiano T.; Dias, Carlos J.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to explore the effects of a training program during the pre-season on aerobic and anaerobic performance, hemodynamics, autonomic variables, and sleep quality in youth soccer players. Methods: Nineteen athletes, with an average age of 17 ± 1 years, participated in the study. The multicomponent training protocol was divided into technical, tactical, and physical practice for four weeks. The cardiac autonomic modulation was obtained through an electrocardiogram and blood pressure values were measured by a sphygmomanometer. The athletes answered the Pittsburgh questionnaire that assessed sleep patterns and issues. The VO2max was analyzed using the Intermittent Recovery Test Yo-Yo level 1. The RAST test was used to assess anaerobic power. Results: There was improvement in Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indicated by the increase in indexes, mean square root of the differences between normal cycles (RMSSD), low frequency increase (LF) (p = 0.04; d = 0.70), high frequency decrease (HF) (p = 0.01; d = 1.02) and the LF / HF sympathovagal index (p = 0.03; d = 0.70), variables related to faster recovery. An improvement in the components of sleep duration (p = 0.03) and quality (p = 0.02) of baseline and post-intervention sleep was also observed. Conclusion: The four-week multicomponent protocol contributed to improving VO2max, improving fatigue rates, quality of sleep, and maximum power. Additionally, we observe that youth soccer athletes had physiological and hemodynamic adaptations that resulted in an improvement in cardiac autonomic modulation and sleep patterns after four weeks of training.
  • Measuring the legacy of mega-events: sportive usage index of the Brazil 2014 FIFA World Cup™ Sports Training

    Reis, Rômulo Meira; DaCosta, Lamartine Pereira; Telles, Silvio de Cassio Costa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: This study's general objective is to analyze the sportive usage of the 12 Brazil 2014 FIFA World Cup™ arenas. The specific objectives are: (i) To measure the 12 arenas’ sportive legacy usage; (ii) To examine and analyze the causes and effects of the results that were found; and (iii) To develop a sportive usage index. Methods: To achieve these objectives, the documental research method was employed. Once in possession of the qualitative and quantitative data, parameters were established for the analysis, which was limited by the seasons from 2014 to 2019. We then constructed tables and applied statistical treatment. Results: 2014 Season: 215 matches; 2015 Season: 287 matches; 2016 Season: 248 matches; 2017 Season: 260 matches; 2018 Season: 296 matches; and 2019 Season: 325 matches. These results revealed extremes, with some arenas receiving little use and others being highly used. The sportive usage index was about ≅23 matches/year and 2 matches/month. Conclusions: These results are not random and occurred due to matters pertaining to Brazilian soccer peculiarities, with an emphasis on successive increases in the number of competitions; a large number of matches per year; arenas constructed in locations with low popularity teams that receive little use; and political and management issues that interrupted an arena's use (Maracanã in 2016) We recommend that new studies be conducted focusing on the management of these arenas, their state of maintenance and/or conservation, costs, budgets and the use of public resources in their construction.
  • The effects of active vs. passive recovery on riding performance during a simulated motocross race Sports Training

    Olle-Casanovas, Aleix; Ahtiainen, Juha P.

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: Motocross consists of two races of 30 min with a break in between. Recovery between races is paramount to performance, this study aimed to compare the effects of active and passive recovery between motocross races on riding performance. Methods: Thirteen elite and non-elite racers performed two races of 30 min with 1 h break, twice with two-week interval. Between the races active (20 min ergometer cycling at 60% of HRmax) or passive recovery (no activity) were executed in a randomized order. Lap times, heart rate during riding, blood lactate, reaction time, handgrip strength, upper back pull strength, counter movement jump height, and medicine ball throw distance were measured before and after both races. Serum creatine kinase enzyme activity and strength tests were assessed also 24 h after the races. Results: No statistically significant differences were observed in any variables between protocols. A significant drop in handgrip strength was found post-race values (p < 0.001). Post-racing creatine kinase values were above resting levels. Conclusion: These results do not support the use of active recovery in between motocross races for restoration of neuromuscular or riding performance. Motocross seems to cause some exercise-induced muscle damage; thus, some rest is required to recover homeostasis.
  • Effects of a backward running training on backward peak velocity running, V̇O2max, vVO2max and 3 km forward running performance in male adults: a pilot study Sports Training

    Kauffman, Alessandra Precinda; Araujo, Gabriel Henrique Ornaghi de; Manoel, Francisco de Assis; Peserico, Cecília Segabinazi; Machado, Fabiana Andrade

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: The study aimed to evaluate the effects of a backward running (BR) training program prescribed by the peak backward running velocity (Vpeak_BR) on physiological variables and a 3 km forward running (FR) performance. Methods: Eight untrained running male adults in running took place in the study. All the participants underwent five weeks of BR training prescribed based on Vpeak_BR. They performed a maximal incremental test on the treadmill to determine the maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and the velocity associated with V̇O2max (vV̇O2max). The participants were also tested on the track field to determine the Vpeak_BR and undertook a 3 km FR performance. All initial assessments were also performed after the training period. Results: The results showed statistically significant improvements in 3 km FR performance (14.2 ± 1.2 min vs. 13.5 ± 1.0 min) and Vpeak_BR (8.0 ± 0.8 km·h−1 vs. 8.5 ± 0.5 km·h−1) after the training period. Conclusion: BR training effectively improved 3 km FR performance and Vpeak_BR, demonstrating that Vpeak_BR determined according to the protocol proposed in this study can be used for the prescription of BR training. Further, BR training represents an effective training method that can be inserted into an FR running training program.
  • Physiological and technical demands of the small-sided and generic games in female futsal players Sports Training

    Costa, José Leandro T. Da; Spineli, Higor; Balikian Júnior, Pedro; Prado, Eduardo S.; Araujo, Gustavo G. De

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to compare the heart rate (HR) values and technical actions frequencies during small-sided (SSG) and generic (GG) games in women futsal players. Methods: Six futsal players (age: 20.5 ± 7.4 years, height: 163.3 ± 16 cm, body mass: 57.9 ± 22 kg, maximum rate of oxygen consumption (VO2max): 42.0 ± 9 mL.kg.min−1) performed two experimental conditions in two days separated for at least 72h of interval: (1) one set of 10 min of SSG, 3x3 players; and (2) one set of 10 min of GG, 4 (1 joker) x 4 (1 joker) players. During each experimental session, the subject's HR values were monitored every 1 min of play. Pass, shot, dribbling, driving, and disarmament were recorded during the games. Results: There was no difference between SSG and GG for HR average (p = 0.50). The HR values that were recorded at the first minute of GG were higher than SSG (p = 0.02). The HRmax in SSG and GG were equivalent to 91.9% and 90.8% of HRmax of the incremental test, respectively. Total technical actions were higher in SSG (+ 18.4%, p = 0.001) than GG. Pass was higher in the SSG (+16%; p = 0.01) in comparison to GG. Conclusion: Both models were higher than HRmax equivalent to AT velocity. The technical actions of the SSG were higher than GG, suggesting that the SSG model is a suitable technical and physiological stimulus for the development of female futsal players.
  • Women amateur street runners have a higher level of chronotype self- perception than men Sports Training

    Carvalho, Moisés Vieira de; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Bicalho, Camila Cristina Fonseca; Machado, Frederico Sander Mansur; Lopes, Breno Barreto; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The aims of the present study were to verify the self-perception level of the chronotype of amateur street runners and to test the association between the chronotype, gender, age, and preferred training time. Methods: A total of 166 amateur street runners were included (♀ = 89, age 38.9 ± 11.2 years; ♂ = 77, age 38.0 ± 9.7 years). The Brazilian version of the Horne & östberg questionnaire was used to assess chronotypes and the preferred training time was determined through a multiple choice question. Based on chronotype definitions that suggest that when free to choose, morning-types (MT) would prefer training in the morning, evening-types (ET) in the evening and neither-types (NT) would not have a predilection for any specific time. The corroboration of this hypothesis was assumed as self-perception level of the chronotypes. Results: Women showed higher self-perception levels of their chronotype compared to men (58.4% vs. 41.6%; χ2 = 4.699; p = 0.030). By chronotypes, MT, NT, and ET self-perception levels were 73.9%, 15.9%, 88.9%, respectively (χ2 = 57.489; p < 0.001). The most observed women circadian typology was MT, while in men it was NT (χ2 = 8.951; p = 0.011). However, there was no significant association between gender and preferred training time (χ2 = 2.654; p = 0.265). Age, female gender and preference to exercise during the day are associated with MT. Conclusion: Women runners showed a greater perception of their circadian traits than men, despite there was no association between gender and preferred training time.
  • The structuring of the defensive phase of beach handball Sports Training

    Gilio, João Paulo Torres Di; Silva, Karen Pereira da; Menezes, Rafael Pombo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aims: To analyze the structuring elements of the defensive phase of beach handball based on the coaches’ speeches. Methods: Five coaches of adult male and/or female teams that played the Beach Handball championship of Sao Paulo State were interviewed. For the analysis of the speeches, the Collective Subject Discourse method was used. Results: The defensive phase is structured from hierarchical aspects: numerical asymmetry (by the presence of the specialist player), defensive systems (influenced by the characteristics of the players of their own team and the opponents), and technical-tactical specific actions (defensive blocking, coverage, dissuading…). The numerical asymmetry and the defensive system are responsible for the choices of the technical-tactical actions. Conclusion: The defensive structuring elements are related in a hierarchical way, which provides a better understanding of beach handball by coaches and players.
  • Relative age effect and age of peak performance: an analysis of women's football players in the Olympic games (1996-2016) Sports Training

    Barreira, Júlia; Bueno, Bruno; Chiminazzo, João Guilherme Cren

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative age effect and the age of peak performance of women's football players who participated in the Olympic Games from 1996 to 2016. Methods: Birth dates, playing positions, and nationality of all players registered in women's football competition in the Olympic Games (1996 to 2016) were collected. All data used in this study were obtained from the official website of the Federation Internationale de Football Association (www.fifa.com). The sample size of the study comprised 1,203 players. Results: We found an average age of 25.1 ± 4.0 years old and a significant increase of 1.4 years in the average age from 1996 (25.0 ± 3.9 years old) to 2016 (26.4 ± 3.7 years old) (p < 0.001). The comparison of the players’ age between playing positions reveals that the goalkeepers are the oldest players (26.2 ± 4.4 years) and the forwards are the youngest players (24.4 ± 3.8 years) (p < 0.001). The RAE for women's football players showed neither effect over the years nor in different playing positions. Conclusion: We found an aging trend in women's football in the past two decades and different ages of peak performance among the playing positions. The current findings provide valuable information to coaches and professionals to program long-term training and to promote athletes’ progression towards their performance targets.
  • Limits of athletic performance by age: an analysis through the best performances in athletic jumping events Sports Training

    Brenzikofer, René; Barreira, Júlia; Macedo, Denise Vaz

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to investigate and interpret the upper limit of recorded performances in the four jumping events according to the age of the athletes. Methods: A phenomenological and its corresponding mathematical model were developed to describe the age-related upper limit of performance according to sex and competition level (national or world-class), comprising 16 groups. Our model was based on three hypothesised parameters: i) a maximum performance level (Pmax) for each jumping event; ii) the rate of performance growth which is proportional to what remains to reach Pmax (constant of proportionality K); iii) a starting age (T0) for its application. The resulting exponential mathematical model integrates the three parameters, which were quantified by fitting the model to the performance data. Results: All the 16 limit curves were efficiently fitted within the upper borders of the data over the entire analysed age range. The adequacy of the model and its hypotheses were validated through the R² of the fitted curves (mean = 0.90, max/min = 0.98/0.75), and the fitting of the 48 parameters were qualified through their 95% confidence intervals. An interpretation of the model's parameters is proposed and comparisons of the age-related performance between Brazilian and international athletes are exhibited. A linear relation between To and 1/K was observed. Conclusion: The limit curves may be used as a reference for age-related improvement in athletic performance. The comparison between the limit curves of national and world-class competition levels reveals an original tool for comparing the effectiveness of the country's infrastructures and sports policies.
  • The height importance of male athletes for the classification in the world handball championships Sports Training

    Meletakos, Panagiotis; Noutsos, Konstantinos; Bartha, Alina Ioana; Bayios, Ioannis

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: The main purpose of the study was to investigate the height factor and player position concerning final team ranking in the three age categories, youths, juniors, and seniors. Height data were checked. Methods: Data was analyzed from 24 participating teams for seniors (n = 972, age = 27.3 ± 4.5), juniors (n = 622 age = 19.9 ± 1.0), and youths (1035 age = 18.8 ± 0.2) from official data from the selected last male World Handball Championships of 2013-2019. For each participating player, his position was noted too: backs (left and right), pivot (line player), goalkeeper, back (center), and wings (left and right). The final team ranking was recorded and the 24 teams were divided into 3 ranking groups of 8 teams. Results: The ANOVA test proved that mean heights were significantly different between the three age groups (seniors: 190.04 ± 7.33, juniors: 187.28 ± 8.13, youths: 186.84 ± 7.55, F(2,3095) = 61.1 p < 0.001). Effect size 0.039. In all ranked groups and all categories, the heights of the players were significantly different between different player positions. The discrimination ability of height in all three categories and player positions represented an overall percentage of around 70% classifying the three 8-team ranking tiers. Conclusion: Height is a factor that differentiates high-level performance for both players’ position and age categories. The practical results can help the national federations and coaches apply more effective strategies for player selection.
  • Do lower limb deficiencies interfere with the recruitment of the trunk and upper limb muscles of paracanoe athletes? Sports Training

    Pesenti-Tofalini, Fernanda Bortolo; Macedo, Christiane de Souza Guerino

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: This study aimed to compare the recruitment of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, triceps (long head), and latissimus dorsi muscles during rowing, in paracanoe and canoe athletes. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study, with ethical approval, including a sample of five paraplegic athletes, four lower limb amputees, and four athletes without disabilities. Surface electromyography of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, triceps (long head), and latissimus dorsi muscles. The athletes rowed for three minutes in an ergometer kayak. The Root Mean Square (RMS) signal of the second minute of data collection, normalized by the RMS peak (% RMS), was considered for analysis. Results: The results of paraplegic athletes, amputees, and athletes without disabilities were similar, as follows; the anterior deltoid: 10.81 ± 3.1; 9.6 ± 3.13 and 9.92 ± 3.12 (p = 0.83), pectoralis major: 7.71 ± 0.66; 8.66 ± 0.66 and 8.53 ± 2.62 (p = 0.72), long head of the triceps: 8.41 ± 3.05; 4.79 ± 1.2 and 6.66 ± 1.01 (p = 0.08), and latissimus dorsi: 8.18 ± 1.97; 6.39 ± 2.64 and 6.95 ± 1.64 (p = 0.45). Conclusion: Paracanoe and canoe athletes present similar muscle recruitment of the upper limbs and trunk during rowing.
  • Effect of the inclusion of static stretching in general warming up on muscle strength in Brazilian army military personnel Sports Training

    Gonçalves, Michel Moraes; Walter, Wilian de Paula; Pinto, Luiz Guilherme da Silva; Mafra, Adalgiza Moreno; Moura, Paulo Henrique; Marson, Runer Augusto; Miranda, Humberto Lameira

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: Several health professionals prescribe static stretching exercises (SS) as essential for those that practice physical exercises, for injury prevention and performance improvement, although there is still no consensus. There are few studies on the effects of SS use on warming up. Thus study aimed to compare the effects of the inclusion of SS in general warming up procedures on muscle strength in Brazilian army personnel. Methods: Thirty-two young military men were selected. They were subjected to anthropometric evaluation and performed knee extension and flexion in an isokinetic digital dynamometer, at a speed of 60°/s. Then, they were divided into two randomized and counterbalanced groups, Traditional Group (TG) and Experimental Group (EG). The TG performed the lower limbs warm-up protocol provided for military physical training (MPT) and immediately after, performed the isokinetic muscle strength test. The EG performed the same protocol, performing the SS in the hamstrings and quadriceps, before warming up. Results: An increase was found in the peak isokinetic torque in the knee extension of the EG (Pre: 209.80 ± 21.36 vs Post: 243.98 ± 30.35; p = 0.001) and flexion (Pre: 130.86 ± 18.63 vs Post: 142.41 ± 25.92; p = 0.006). In the TG, significant differences were found in the extension of the knee, but not in flexion (Pre: 209.14 ± 34.27 vs. Post: 239.38 ± 36.17; p = 0.001 and Pre: 129.23 ± 18.43 vs Post: 133.66 ± 13.20; p = 0.297, respectively). Conclusion: The inclusion of SS in general warming up did not harm and even improved muscle strength performance in knee extension and flexion in Brazilian Army military personnel.
  • Comparison of drop jump force-time profiles of team sport athletes and active controls Sports Training

    Scarr, Thomas; Oranchuk, Dustin J; Rafferty, Daniel

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Aim: Lower-body non-contact injuries in team sport athletes (TSAs) are associated when absorbing force, during cutting and landing movements due to a lack of eccentric strength and decreased neuromuscular control leading to excessively higher joint forces. Thus, this project aimed to identify if TSAs had different acceleration and deceleration force profiles compared to a control group (non-TSA) when performing drop jumps (DJs). Methods: University TSAs (n = 15) and non-TSAs (n = 10) performed a series of DJs from a 39 cm box onto a force-plate. All data were normalized to the individual's body mass. Between-group differences in ground reaction force (GRF), rate of force development (RFD), and propulsive and breaking impulses were compared via t-tests and standardized differences. Results: TSAs had significantly, and meaningfully greater RFD than the non-TSAs (p < 0.01, Hedges’ g (ES) = 1.24, 53%). While not statistically significant, the non-TSA group produced practically larger mean GRFs than TSAs (p = .09, ES = 0.72, 12.1%). No significant or meaningful between-group differences were detected for propulsive impulse (p = 0.08, ES = 0.41, 9.1%), braking impulse (p = 0.85, ES = 0.25, 4.6%), or impulse ratio (p = 0.35, ES = 0.21, 6.7%). Conclusions: This study shows the presence of significant RFD differences during the DJ in TSAs compared to non-TSAs. Furthermore, this investigation also showed there was no difference between TSA and students in GRF and impulse metrics. Implications from these findings suggest that TSAs can produce force rapidly, but deceleration metrics were not different from untrained students.
  • Errata Erratum

  • Errata: Moderate intensity swimming training on bone mineral density preservation under food restriction in female rats Erratum

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  • Errata: Intra and inter-rater agreement of the Dynamic Movement Assessment Agreement of the DM Erratum

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