Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to compare the global cognitive function and depressive symptoms in hypertensive and/or diabetic middle-aged and elderly women (52-76 years old). Methods: Sixteen participants with hypertension (HT) and 12 with hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus (HT+DM) were included; sociodemographic data, anthropometric measurements, and blood pressure were analyzed, and questionnaires for cognitive screening (Mini-Mental State Examination - MMSE) and depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale - GDS-30) were administered. For statistical analysis, independent Student's t-test, chi-square test (dichotomous variables), and the Mann-Whitney test (ordinal variables) were used and p < 0.05 was adopted. Results: Results indicate that there were no significant differences pertaining to depressive symptoms (HT = 7.4 ± 5.5; HT+DM = 10.2 ± 4.6 points; p = 0.1658) and global cognitive function (HT = 22.3 ± 4.2; HT+DM = 21.0 ± 3.2 points; p = 0.4015) between hypertensive women and hypertensive and diabetic women, contradicting the hypothesis that the presence of two comorbidities would intensify cognitive impairment and mental health. However, clinically relevant cognitive decline (HT = 63%; HT+DM = 75%; χ2 = 0.4834) and depressive symptoms (HT = 38%; HT+DM = 33%; χ2 = 0.8199) were found in both groups. Conclusion: It has been shown that the presence of two comorbidities: type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, does not intensify cognitive impairment and mental health when compared to hypertension alone in middle-aged and elderly women.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This study evaluated the effects of 10 weeks of combined exercise training on the salivary oxidative profile of hypertensive and normotensive postmenopausal women. Methods: Twenty-six non-obese postmenopausal women were divided into two groups: the hypertensive group (HT; n = 13; 58.9 ± 3.9 years; and BMI of 27.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2) or the normotensive group (NT; n = 13; 52.7 ± 5.2 years; and BMI of 26.9 ± 2.9 kg/m2). They performed 30 sessions of combined exercises over 10 weeks: 45 min per session, three times a week. Resting saliva samples were collected after an overnight fast to evaluate salivary nitrite levels and oxidative stress markers before and after training. Results: Two-way ANOVA showed that there was no difference in the responses over time between the hypertensive and normotensive groups in catalase, superoxide dismutase salivary activity, total antioxidant capacity, or lipid peroxidation. However, superoxide dismutase activity (δHT -0.87 ± 14.53 SOD/mg protein; δNT: 7.13 ± 9.39 SOD/mg protein; p < 0.01) and nitrite levels (δHT 10.32 ± 60.83 mM; δNT 101.92 ± 149.57 mM; p = 0.03) were higher overall in the hypertensive group compared to the normotensive group. Moreover, salivary nitrite levels increased over time (p = 0.04) in both groups. Conclusion: 10 weeks of combined exercise training did not change salivary oxidative stress markers in either normotensive or hypertensive postmenopausal women, although, after exercise training, nitrite levels increased in both groups, even with higher baseline salivary nitrite levels in hypertensive women. Thus, recurrent exercise seems to be a safe strategy after menopause from the standpoint of oxidative stress, regardless of the presence of hypertension.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: to correlate cardiopulmonary capacity widely used variables with athletic performance in 4 km cross country race, in elite female military pentathlon athletes. Methods: Five military pentathlon athletes from Brazilian team with 27.5 [25.0; 29.3] years old underwent an incremental ramp treadmill test to determine VO2max, vVO2max (velocity of initial VO2 plateau), maximum velocity, and these same variables in anaerobic threshold. Furthermore, the performance obtained on the cross-country race of the last trial before the world military games was recorded. Spearman’s correlations were used to investigate the association between cardiopulmonary variables and athletic performance (p < 0.05). Results: The athletes exhibited a median total body weight of 64.3 [60.9; 66.6] kg and height of 1.75 [1.66; 1.76] cm. Race performance was positively correlated with vVO2max (r = 0.98, very strong correlation) and maximum velocity reached (r = 0.95, very strong correlation). The remaining cardiopulmonary variables did not show similar behavior, with r varying between -0.26 and 0.44. Conclusion: Maximum velocity and vVO2max indicators are directly related to athletic performance in the 4 km cross country race of elite female military pentathlon athletes. Thus, the technical team must pay particular attention to athletic performance in these cardiopulmonary variables in both the selection of new athletes and the identification of the effectiveness of applied training strategies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: Prejudice against women's futsal players is reported in the literature. The perception of prejudice in university futsal may be lower due to the higher educational level of the players and a more open-minded context. This study aimed to describe the experience of young women university futsal players and to explore their perspective on gender prejudice in that sports practice. Methods: Ten women university futsal players (aged 18 to 30 years old) were interviewed. Data were produced and analyzed following a grounded theory approach. Results: The results showed that the athletes perceived they suffered gender prejudice for playing futsal, however, in the university context this was attenuated. The participants experienced diversified practice before specializing in futsal and felt that the support of male family members and friends was important to their engagement in futsal and soccer in childhood and adolescence. However, they also suffered from prejudice against their futsal practice coming from family and friends, struggling with the constant association between futsal practice and hegemonic masculinity. Conclusion: The participants of this study perceived less prejudice in university women's futsal in comparison to other sports contexts. Thus, the university context may have the potential to boost the practice of futsal among women.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This study aimed to investigate the presence of women coaches in table tennis certification courses carried out by national and international federations. Methods: We carried out an analysis on documents extracted from the official websites of the Brazilian Table Tennis Confederation (CBTM) and the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF). Those documents presented the certificated coaches by each organization. We also collected information about the location of the coach according to the five macro-regions of Brazil. Results: We found a greater frequency of men (89.3%) compared to women (10.7%) in ITTF courses and, in Brazil, we also found a higher rate of men (83.7%) compared to women (16.3%) certified by CBTM. We found no increase in women's participation in ITFF courses over the years. In both national and international courses, most of the women coaches (international = 36%; national = 46.4%) were from the Southeast, while few women coaches were found in the Northeast and North. Conclusion: The findings of our study reveal that the training process of table tennis coaches is still mostly occupied by men. We also found a discrepancy between the macro-regions of the country where most women coaches are from the Southeast. CBTM managed to almost double the women's representation among coaches (from 10.7% to 16%) due to the policy that has been adopted in an attempt to increase the number of women in the sport. We highlight the importance of gender equality policies to improve women coaches’ participation in table tennis.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: To verify the effects of a 2-week of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on physical performance in young female athletes. Methods: female rugby players (n = 13; 15.92 ± 0.76 years old) participated in an 8-session of HIIT supervised through online video calls for two weeks. They were evaluated pre- and post-HIIT for 3-min of burpees, 1-min of sit-ups, maximum push-ups, and 1-min of squats. Perceptions related to training protocols were collected through the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) post-intervention. Results: Significant improvements in burpees (pre:54.15 ± 18.03 and after: 63.15 ± 15.18), sit-ups (pre:24.38 ± 13.38 and after: 31.15 ± 13.15), push-ups (pre: 9.46 ± 6.59 and after: 13.85 ± 7.33) and squats (pre: 48.00 ± 8.37 and after: 54.85 ± 8.79) were observed. PACES revealed positive perceptions related to the enjoyment of participating in this HIIT. Conclusion: Virtually supervised HIIT improved physical performance in young female athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic, and maybe an efficient strategy for the quarantine period.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: to compile existing information in the scientific literature on female military pentathlon athletes. Methods: searches were performed on Pubmed/Medline, Scielo, and Scholar Google databases with specific strings in English and Portuguese. Results: military pentathlon is a discipline that comprises five events, namely: rifle shooting, obstacle run, obstacle swimming, throwing, and cross country running. Our search initially identified 275 records, which were reduced to the final list of 14 after the eligibility criteria analysis was performed in two phases: title + abstract reading and full-text reading. The first record was published in 2007 (recent field of study) and most studies were cross-sectional ones (scarcity of experimental studies), investigating outcomes like psychological, anthropometric, biochemical, biomechanics, cardiopulmonary, nutritional, skin temperature, performance, and prevalence of injury. The female military pentathlon athletes present low values of body fat, energy intake, and high weekly training volume, so professionals must be aware to prevent relative energy deficiency in sports (RED-S) syndrome. The obstacle run was the most investigated event, with lower blood lactate and skin temperature for women athletes. It was also observed that anthropometric, muscle power, and cardiopulmonary variables are well correlated with athletic performance and in some studies, these correlations were stronger for female athletes. Conclusion: scientific research with female military pentathlon athletes is still incipient, especially for experimental design researches, which are highly encouraged in future studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: The present study aimed to screen for differences in isokinetic peak torque, hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio, and proprioception within the lower limbs of female handball athletes. Methods: Twelve college-level female handball athletes with no previous experience with resistance training performed five maximal isokinetic contractions of the knee extensors and knee flexors to determine isokinetic peak torque and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratios. Proprioception was determined by assessing passive position sense on an isokinetic dynamometer. Results: The athletes presented significantly greater (p < 0.01) knee extensors isometric peak torque for the jumping limb (144.9 ± 23.1) when compared to the non-jumping limb (132.9 ± 21.5). The Hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio was below 0.6 for both limbs, being significantly greater (p < 0.01) for the non-jumping limb (0.56 ± 0.08) when compared to the jumping limb (0.50 ± 0.08). Conclusion: Female handball athletes that do not engage in resistance training can experience functional bilateral asymmetries in the knee extensors and knee-joint instability, as assessed by the hamstrings-to-quadriceps ratio due to the asymmetric characteristics of handball. Regular strength training might correct such asymmetries and instabilities.
Abstract in English:Abstract Aim: This study aims to analyze the perceptions of women who hold leadership positions in sports on female participation as the head coach of the Brazilian women's handball national team. Method: We offer a qualitative case study. The collected data was through in-depth elite interviews. The interviewees’ responses were analyzed and interpreted using the construction of categories. Results: The finds show perceptions of the categorization process. Three main categories emerged: 1) Prejudice. The interviewees affirm that the prejudice within the sport has been decreasing over the years. But it remains latent and continues to make difficult the continuity and rise of women in sports. 2) Professional and personal life. The interviewees affirm that Brazil is still a macho country, and even at a lower level, prejudice still exists in the universe of sports. The sport is known as a territory where men produce and demonstrate their masculinity; this favors the perception that coaches are usually men, having specific questions about the women's competence in that position, and that only men would be able to run teams. 3) Competence. The conciliation between family and professional life is a delicate situation, promotes conflicts, and does not favor the rise of women in positions of command. Nevertheless, the difficulty of reconciling personal and professional life, especially in high-performance sports, is necessary to leave home for extended periods for training or competition. Conclusion: The prejudice still is present despite its reduction over the years. The men domain the sports career, and for women, it is necessary to face the glass ceiling and prove their capacity constantly. Women's access to head coach teams, such as the Brazilian adult women's handball national team, is still a significant challenge.