Materials Research, Volume: 17, Issue: 4, Published: 2014
  • Effect of niobium in the phase transformation and corrosion resistance of one austenitic-ferritic stainless steel Regular Articles

    Itman Filho, André; Silva, Rosana Vilarim; Cardoso, Wandercleiton da Silva; Casteletti, Luiz Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    Austenitic-ferritic stainless steels containing 0.2% and 0.5% niobium were evaluated with respect to the microstructures, microhardness, pitting potential resistance, electrochemical impedance and wearing tests. Niobium is an alphagenic element and has a great influence on phase transformation of duplex stainless steels. In the present investigation, the samples were annealed at 1050 ºC and aged at 850 ºC to promote the formation of sigma phase. The pitting potential resistance and electrochemical impedance were evaluated in 3.5 % sodium chloride solution. The wear coefficients were calculated by micro-wear tests conducted using a fixed ball machine and aluminum oxide as abrasive. The results show that the niobium content lead to increase on Laves phase formation. This phase, in association with the sigma phase, causes a significant increase in the hardness and wear resistance with a decrease on corrosion resistance of the austenitic-ferritic stainless steels.
  • TPS Nanocomposite reinforced with MFC by melting process Regular Articles

    Ferreira, Adriane Medeiros; Carvalho, Antonio José Felix

    Abstract in English:

    Bionanocomposites of thermoplastic starch (TPS) reinforced with microfibrilated cellulose (MFC) were prepared by melt processing. MFC was prepared from eucalyptus wood pulp by a process combining cryogenic milling in high shear mixers, chemical treatment with sodium hydroxide and ultrasound treatment. The never dried MFC was then dispersed in native starch and glycerol and processed in a single screw extruder. Two MFC contents were incorporated, 3 and 10 wt %, based on TPS. The MFC was characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The bionanocomposites were characterized by tensile tests, SEM and water absorption experiments. Modulus and tensile strength were improved. Water absorption did not change in an appreciable way with the addition of MFC. The homogeneous dispersion of the MFC into TPS matrix can be considered one of the remarkable points of the new process used in the composite preparation.
  • HA/TCP scaffolds obtained by sucrose crystal leaching method: Preliminary in vitro Evaluation Regular Articles

    Rodrigues, Leonardo Ribeiro; Laranjeira, Marta de Sousa; Fernandes, Maria Helena; Monteiro, Fernando Jorge; Zavaglia, Cecília Amélia de Carvalho

    Abstract in English:

    Scaffolds produced with ceramics are commonly used as bone substitute. In this work calcium phosphate materials were used to produce the scaffolds, because HA and TCP have many similarities with bone tissue. For crystalline phase analysis the scaffolds were calcined at 750 °C and sintered at 1330 °C. Electron microscopy images showed HA and TCP nanoparticles and the compounds were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. X-ray diffraction showed this material to be mostly crystalline. X-ray fluorescence identified chemical contaminants. X-ray micro computerized tomography produces tomographic images of the objects in 360°. In vitro testing was used to study cells behavior in contact with this material in a controlled environment.
  • High sensitivity ethanol gas sensor based on Sn - doped ZnO under visible light irradiation at low temperature Regular Articles

    Zhang, Peishuo; Pan, Guofeng; Zhang, Bingqiang; Zhen, Jiali; Sun, Yicai

    Abstract in English:

    Pure ZnO and 5at%, 7at%, 9at% Sn - doped ZnO materials are prepared by the chemical co - precipitation method. They were annealed by furnace at temperature range of 300 - 700ºC in air for 1h. The ZnO materials are characterized by X - ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the Sn - doped ZnO materials appear rough porous structures. The maximum sensitivity can be achieved by doping the amount of 7 at%. It has much better sensing performance towards ethanol vapor under visible light irradiation. The response and recovery time are ~1s and ~5s, respectively. The mechanism for the improvement in the sensing properties can be explained with the surface adsorption theory and the photoactivation theory.
  • Evaluation of calcined hydrocalumite-type materials as supports of CoMo and NiMo for thiophene hydrodesulfuration reaction Regular Articles

    Felipe Linares, Carlos; Bretto, Pablo; Álvarez, Ruth; Ocanto, Freddy; Corao, Carolina; Betancourt, Paulino; Brito, Joaquín Luis

    Abstract in English:

    A hydrocalumite-type material (HC) was synthesized by the co-precipitation method, mixing Ca and Al nitrate solutions in a NaOH solution (pH ≅ 11). This solid was characterized by using different physico-chemical techniques such as: Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and BET surface area measurements. Then, a portion of as-synthesized solid was calcined at 420 ºC (HC 420). Both calcined and pristine solids were impregnated with Mo (15% w/w as MoO3). Ni or Co was also impregnated on Mo/HC or Mo/HC 420 in 1(Co or Ni):3 (Mo) atomic ratios to get catalytic precursors. These solids were also characterized by the above mentioned techniques. Catalytic precursors were tested in the thiophene hydrodesulfuration reaction at 280 ºC and atmospheric pressure. Cobalt promoted catalysts were more active than those promoted with Ni. However, thiophene conversions were lower than that of a conventional CoMo/γ-Al2O3 catalyst.
  • Compressive strength, microstructure and hydration products of hybrid alkaline cements Regular Articles

    Abdollahnejad, Zahra; Hlavacek, Petr; Miraldo, Sergio; Pacheco-Torgal, Fernando; Aguiar, José Luís Barroso de

    Abstract in English:

    Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) is the dominant binder in the construction industry with a global production that currently reaches a total of 3 Gt per year. As a consequence, the cement industry's contribution to the total worldwide CO2 emissions is of about 7% of the total emissions. Publications on the field of alkali-activated binders (also termed geopolymers), state that this new material is, potentially, likely to fbecome an alternative to Portland cement. However, recent LCA studies show that the environmental performance of alkali-activated binders depends, to great extent, of their composition. Also, researchers report that these binders can be produced in a more eco-efficient manner if the use of sodium silicate is avoided. This is due to the fact that the referred component is associated to a high carbon footprint. Besides, most alkali-activated cements suffer from severe efflorescence, a reaction originated by the fact that the alkaline and/or soluble silicates that are added during processing cannot be totally consumed. This paper presents experimental results on hybrid alkaline cements. The compressive strength results and the efflorescence observations show that some of the new mixes already exhibit a promising performance.
  • Hydrodynamic Simulation of Gas - Particle Injection Into Molten Lead Regular Articles

    Gutiérrez Pérez, Víctor Hugo; Vargas Ramírez, Marissa; Cruz Ramírez, Alejandro; Romero Serrano, José Antonio; Rivera Salinas, Jorge Enrique

    Abstract in English:

    A multiphase- hydrodynamic model was solved with the phase field method and the Cahn-Hilliard equation to simulate the behavior of particle injection with nitrogen as conveying gas through a submerged lance into a lead bath in two dimensions. The residence and mixing time were obtained for different operating parameters like gas flow rate, lance depth, and different kettle and lance dimensions. The residence and mixing time decreased when the injection rate and the lance diameter increased. Therefore, the particle will have less opportunity to react with the liquid bath decreasing the refining metal processes efficiency. When the lance height and kettle dimensions were increased, the residence and mixing time also increased. In order to have an efficient disengagement of the particles from the carrier gas within molten lead, the operating parameters must take into account the residence and mixing times. The Cahn-Hilliard equation represents adequately the hydrodynamic behavior in the lance-kettle system studied.
  • Electrophoretic fabrication of ZnO/ZnO-CuO composite for ammonia gas sensing Regular Articles

    Corpuz, Ryan Dula; Albia, Jason Rayala

    Abstract in English:

    Nanostructured deposits of ammonia (NH3) sensitive ZnO and ZnO-CuO composites were fabricated on a graphite electrode via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). Deposition was done by holding the applied voltage and deposition time constant at room temperature. Testing of sensing properties of the deposits was conducted using Wheatstone bridge circuit. SEM micrographs show a more open structure and more exposed surface area of the pure ZnO deposit compared to the ZnO-CuO deposit. The average particle size deposited at 500V for ZnO and ZnO-CuO were 241nm and 260nm respectively; whereas at 750V the average particle size is 195nm and 276nm, respectively. Deposits with greater surface area, smaller particle sizes and thicker deposits exhibit high gas sensitivity. On the other hand, addition of CuO resulted to a more compact and dense surface structure and decreased gas sensitivity. Thus, particle size and the surface structure of the deposits dictate the sensitivity of the material.
  • Pulsed dc discharge in the presence of active screen for nitriding of high carbon steel Regular Articles

    Saeed, Adnan; Khan, Abdul Waheed; Jan, Faiq; Waqar, Muhammad; Abrar, Muhammad; Mujahid, Zaka - Ul - Islam; Hussnain, Ali; Zakaullah, Muhammad

    Abstract in English:

    A discharge of nitrogen - hydrogen mixture by 50 Hz pulsed dc in the presence of active screen cage is investigated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The aim is to identify the parameters (mixture ratio, filling pressure and current density) that may lead to high concentration of active species (N2, N2+ and N). The maximum concentration in this experiment is found with 40% H2 - 60% N2, at filling pressure of 3 mbar with current density of 5 mAcm-2. High carbon steel samples are nitrided for 1 - 4 hours at 500ºC and the treated samples are characterized by X - ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy and Vicker's micro - hardness testing. The XRD spectra show different phases of nitrides (Fe2 - 3N, FeN, CrN) along with iron oxides. The Raman spectra confirm the formation of α - β (C3N4). The surface hardness is found to increase up to six times for 2 hour treatment.
  • Niobium and niobium-iron coatings on API 5LX 70 steel applied with HVOF Regular Articles

    Brandolt, Cristiane de Souza; Souza Junior, Jair Garcia de; Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Vega, Maria Rita Ortega; Schroeder, Roberto Moreira; Malfatti, Célia de Fraga

    Abstract in English:

    The present study aimed to create and characterize niobium and niobium-iron 60% coatings applied to steel API 5L X70 using the hypersonic thermal spray process (HVOF). The morphologies of the coatings were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and profilometry, while the coatings' hardnesses was evaluated using the Vickers hardness test. The coatings' corrosion resistance was evaluated by monitoring their open circuit potential and potentiodynamic polarization and performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in a 0. 05 M NaCl solution. The results showed that the niobium-iron coating contained minor porosity regions, while such defects occurred over large regions of the niobium coating. In terms of corrosion resistance, the coatings obtained in this work promoted a reduction in the substrate's corrosion rate, but the presence of discontinuities such as porosity compromised the barrier effects of these coatings.
  • Mechanical properties of epoxy resin based on granite stone powder from the Sergipe fold-and-thrust belt composites Regular Articles

    Gonçalves, Jorge Antônio Vieira; Campos, Diego Adalberto Teles; Oliveira, Gislane de Jesus; Rosa, Maria de Lourdes da Silva; Macêdo, Marcelo Andrade

    Abstract in English:

    This paper studies the mechanical properties including traction, flexion, compression, and hardness characteristics of a composite made from the combination of epoxy resin and granitic stone powder from the fold-and-thrust belt located in the municipality of Nossa Senhora da Glória, in the state of Sergipe, Brazil. Chemical and mineralogical analyses of the stone and analysis by SEM of the particle/matrix interface are performed. Two Granite types, named 53-A and 12-A, were incorporated with different mass percentages of 0%, 30% and 50%, in the polymeric matrix, DGEBA, formed by the Araldite polymer GY 279 and the curing agent Aradur 2963. The test results with 50% show a compression of 79 MPa with a maximum increase of 121% compared with the pure epoxy resin.
  • Mechanical properties of recycled Kraft paper residue polyester composites Regular Articles

    Reis, João Marciano Laredo dos; Cardoso, José Luiz; Castro, Protasio Ferreira e

    Abstract in English:

    Construction industry has a significant grow in the past few years. Following that rate, the amount of residue produced from that growth also increases. The need to find alternatives apart from disposing that residue in landfills have led researchers to find new materials from disposal residues. In this paper, kraft paper from cement bags used in building constructions is utilized as reinforcement in unsaturated polyester matrix composites. The kraft paper residue (KPR) was used as shredded particles in different quantities, 30%, 40% and 50%, by weight, and also cutted in sheets to be used as laminas. Tensile and flexural tests were performed to characterize the KPR composites. The results showed that tensile strength and modulus of elasticity increase as shredded KPR content increase. Higher increase was observed when KPR laminas were used as reinforcement. In flexion, a decrease is reported when shredded KPR is used but an increase was observed due to KPR laminas. Flexural modulus was not altered by KPR.
  • Strength and Durability of Mortar Using Cork Waste Ash as Cement Replacement Regular Articles

    Ramos, Telma; Matos, Ana Mafalda; Sousa-Coutinho, Joana

    Abstract in English:

    Cork powder, the major waste from cork processing industries, is generated from grinding, cutting and finishing operations throughout the industrial cork process. Cork powder has been used mainly as fuel in cork industries. Cork waste ash is usually landfilled but if efficiently used in cement based construction materials it could contribute to sustainability. Strength and durability testing was undergone on mortar with 10 and 20% cement replacement with cork waste ash. Although strength is acceptable for 10% cement replacement with cork ash (5% loss at 90 days, compared to control), most durability properties (tested up to 6 months according to test type) reduced performance probably due to a broader pore structure caused by coarse particles in the ash which tested non pozzolanic. Moreover, cork waste ash does not present the necessary requirements in terms of chemical properties considering several standards. Present work has revealed that this cork waste cannot be used as a pozzolan or as a filler in cement based materials. In fact it is known that chemical composition of biomass ash is highly variable due to moisture variations, ash yield and different genetic types of inorganic matter in biomass and therefore it is important to pinpoint which types of biomass waste are adequate or not to use as cement replacement in construction.
  • Weldability studies and parameter optimization of AISI 904L super austenitic stainless steel using friction welding Regular Articles

    Balamurugan, Karupanan; Mishra, Mahendra Kumar; Sathiya, Paul; Sait, Abdullah Naveen

    Abstract in English:

    Welding input parameters play a very significant role in determining the quality of a weld joint. The quality of the joint can be defined in terms of mechanical properties, distortion and weld-bead geometry. Generally, all welding processes are employed with the aim of obtaining a welded joint with the desired characteristics. The purpose of this study is to propose a method to decide near optimal settings for the welding process parameters in friction welding of (AISI 904L) super austenitic stainless steel by using non conventional techniques and genetic algorithm (GA). Grey relational analysis and the desirability approach were applied to optimize the input parameters by considering multiple output variables simultaneously. An optimization method based on genetic algorithm was then applied to resolve the mathematical model and to select the optimum welding parameters. The main objective of this work is to determine the friction welding process parameters to maximize the fatigue life and minimize the width of the partial deformation zone (left & right) and welding time. This study describes how to obtain near optimal welding conditions over a wide search space by conducting relatively a smaller number of experiments. The optimized values obtained through these evolutionary computational techniques were also compared with experimental results. ANOVA analysis was carried out to identify the significant factors affecting fatigue strength, welding time and partially deformed zone and to validate the optimized parameters.
  • Synthesis, characterization and microwave dielectric properties of flower - like Co(OH)2/C nanocomposites Regular Articles

    Feng, Chao; Bi, Nannan; Liu, Xianguo; Jin, Chuangui; Huang, Kai; Xiao, Feng; Sun, Yuping; Or, Siu Wing

    Abstract in English:

    Flower - like Co(OH)2/C nanocomposites have been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. Flower - like Co(OH)2/C nanocomposites were self - assembled by the nanosheets with the thickness distribution of 50 - 80 nm and abundant flocculent carbon structures. With the help of transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectrometer, nanosheets were observed to have core/shell structure, in which Co(OH)2 worked as cores and amorphous C as shells. When the as - prepared products were heated for 6 h at 180 ºC, the Co(OH)2 cores were amorphous. The heating time increased to 10 h, the Co(OH)2 cores became crystalline. The formation mechanism and the self - assembly evolution process were proposed. The microwave dielectric properties of Co(OH)2/C nanocomposites were investigated in the frequency range of 0.03 - 18 GHz. Compared with the amorphous Co(OH)2/C nanocomposites, crystalline nanocomposites had the better conductivity.
  • Rheological and mechanical characterization of poly (methyl methacrylate)/silica (PMMA/SiO2) composites Regular Articles

    Silva, Erik dos Santos; Ribeiro, Lourdes Aparecida; Nascimento, Maria Carolina Burgos Costa do; Ito, Edson Noriyuki

    Abstract in English:

    The search for new materials with properties suitable for specific applications has increased the number of research studies to fill the market demands. The development of polymer composites by the addition of inorganic fillers to the poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) increases the potential use of this polymer in various application fields. The main objective of this work was to study the rheological and mechanical behavior of composites obtained from the addition of silica in two different types of PMMA matrix: a common (PMMAc) and an elastomeric copolymer (PMMAel). The results showed that the addition of silica particles to the PMMA matrix promoted an increase in torque, a decrease in the melt flow index of composites and an increase in hardness compared to pure polymers. The composites also showed a reduction of the maximum tensile strength for composites with PMMAc matrix and maintenance of tensile strength for composites with PMMAel matrix. The average width of scratch decreased due to a change in wear mechanism, attributed to the increase of hardness in the composites obtained.
  • Optical characterization of europium-doped indium hydroxide nanocubes obtained by Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal method Regular Articles

    Motta, Fabiana Villela da; Marques, Ana Paula de Azevedo; Araújo, Vinícius Dantas de; Tavares, Mara Tatiane de Souza; Delmonte, Mauricio Roberto Bomio; Paskocimas, Carlos Alberto; Li, Máximo Siu; Nascimento, Rubens Maribondo do; Longo, Elson

    Abstract in English:

    Crystalline europium-doped indium hydroxide (In(OH)3:Eu) nanostructures were prepared by rapid and efficient Microwave-Assisted Hydrothermal (MAH) method. Nanostructures were obtained at low temperature. FE-SEM images confirm that these samples are composed of 3D nanostructures. XRD, optical diffuse reflectance and photoluminescence (PL) measurements were used to characterize the products. Emission spectra of europium-doped indium hydroxide (IH:xEu) samples under excitation (350.7 nm) presented broad band emission regarding the indium hydroxide (IH) matrix and 5D0 → 7F0, 5D0 → 7F1, 5D0 → 7F2, 5D0 → 7F3 and 5D0 → 7F4 europium transitions at 582, 596, 618, 653 and 701 nm, respectively. Relative intensities of Eu3+ emissions increased as the concentration of this ion increased from 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 mol %, of Eu3+, but the luminescence is drastically quenched for the IH matrix.
  • Investigation on the Wear Behaviour of Eutectic Al-Si Alloy- Al2O3 - Graphite Composites Fabricated Through Squeeze Casting Regular Articles

    Shanmughasundaram, Palanisamy

    Abstract in English:

    Dry sliding wear test was conducted on Al -Si alloy - Al2O3 - Graphite composites which are fabricated through squeeze casting method, using pin -on -disc wear testing rig. The influence of parameters such as applied load, sliding velocity and weight percentage of graphite, on the wear loss of Al- 5 wt. % Al2O3 - Graphite hybrid composite was investigated through Taguchi and Analysis of variance (ANOVA). It was found that the applied load was the most influential parameter on wear followed by sliding velocity and weight percentage of graphite. The morphology of worn surfaces of the wear pins was investigated by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to analyze the wear mechanism. EDS analysis was carried out to investigate the Mechanically Mixed Layer (MML), which forms on the worn surface of the composites.
  • Electrodeposition of Cobalt Rich Zn-Co alloy Coatings from Citrate Bath Regular Articles

    Garcia, Julyana Ribeiro; Lago, Dalva Cristina Baptista do; Senna, Lilian Ferreira de

    Abstract in English:

    Zn-Co alloy coatings were produced on carbon steel, at room temperature, from citrate baths (0.100 mol L-1) containing [Zn2+]= [Co2+] = 0.05 mol L-1. Coatings with %m/m Co > %m/m Zn were observed under all deposition conditions, except for I = 10 A m-2. As the current density (I) was increased, a significant decrease (p<0.05) in %m/m Zn was noted, and the highest value of % m/m Co was observed at 80 A m-2. The Co-rich coatings presented refined microstructure, with small grain sizes. The smallest Icorr of the studied substrate/coatings systems, 2.4 µA cm-2, was obtained at I = 10 A m-2. Under these conditions, the coatings contained ~ 30 % m/m Co and 70 % m/m Zn and only the γ-ZnCo phase was obtained. The Icorr found in the present work is smaller than those usually found in the literature for Zn-Co coatings with small Co content.
  • Waste steel wires modified structural lightweight concrete Regular Articles

    Aghaee, Kamran; Yazdi, Mohammad Ali

    Abstract in English:

    Nowadays, the use of different waste fibers in concrete has started to increase rapidly due to some reasons such as economic savings and positive effects on the environment. In this study, waste steel wires taken from reinforcement and formwork which were previously utilized in construction projects, were employed in structural lightweight concrete (SLWC). The objective was to investigate the possibility of using this type of fiber as reinforcement in the SLWC. Compressive, tensile, flexural and impact tests were performed for investigating the mechanical properties of 28-day reinforced lightweight concrete specimens with the waste wires. The percentage of wire in the fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) was 0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75% in the volume fraction of the concrete. According to the results, by using waste wires, flexural, tensile and impact characteristics of SLWC were effectively improved. Moreover, it was concluded that waste steel wires could be used as a suitable micro reinforcement in the SLWC.
  • Strontium Incorporation on Microspheres of Alginate/β-tricalcium Phosphate as Delivery Matrices Regular Articles

    Moreira, Ana Paula Duarte; Sader, Márcia Soares; Soares, Gloria Dulce de Almeida; Leão, Maria Helena Miguez Rocha

    Abstract in English:

    Strontium (Sr) is known to positively affect the mechanism of bone remodelling. Consequently, calcium phosphate bioceramics associated with alginate matrices containing strontium could improve bone regeneration due to gradual strontium release. This work aims to incorporate Sr on microspheres of alginate (ALG)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and evaluates the in vitro release of strontium ions into a buffer solution at pH 4.0 and 7.4. In this study, strontium chloride was employed as a cross-linking agent and Sr source. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed that strontium was incorporated mainly at the surface of the microspheres produced. The in vitro experiments revealed that there is a rapid strontium release up to 24 h at pH 7.4 due to Sr location on microspheres' surface. At pH 4.0 both calcium and strontium were released due to the β-TCP dissolution.
  • Effect of Calcination Temperature on the Pozzolanic Activity of Brazilian Sugar Cane Bagasse Ash (SCBA) Regular Articles

    Ribeiro, Daniel Véras; Morelli, Marcio Raymundo

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using sugar cane bagasse ash (SCBA), a by-product of the sugar cane ethanol industry, obtained under controlled calcination as a partial replacement for Portland cement in mortars. Materials with pozzolanic characteristics may be used to partially replace cement in mortars or concrete and are known to provide durability to the products. Initially, TG/DTA curves of the sugar cane bagasse were conducted to define suitable calcination temperatures (500ºC, 600ºC and 700ºC), and tests were conducted to characterize the physical-chemical parameters of the SCBA and the pozzolanic activity according to NP EN 196-5. The results showed the technical feasibility of using the SCBA as a pozzolanic material in construction, which would provide an alternative to proper disposal for this waste while providing products with high technical performance.
  • Uniaxial near plane strain tensile tests applied to the determination of the FLC0 formabillity parameter Regular Articles

    Xavier, Marcos Domingos; Plaut, Ronald Lesley; Schön, Cláudio Geraldo

    Abstract in English:

    An alternative procedure for the determination of the FLC0 value, the limit strain value corresponding to the plane strain mode of the Forming Limit Curves (FLC), a critical parameter in the sheet formability analysis, is suggested and compared with conventional Nakazima simulation tests. The procedure was tested using two different materials: interstitial-free quality steel (IF) and a spheroidized SAE 1050 steel. The intrinsic tensile test, in a near plane strain state, was performed using a small number of samples, with dimensions suggested by the literature. The results were checked against Nakazima test results using the same materials. The plane strain test was reliable in determining consistent FLC0 values and should be preferred since it is not affected by the geometric aspects and by friction, which do affect the Nakazima test. The reliability of the FLC0 values obtained by near plane strain was also corroborated through comparison with literature data.
  • Extrusion-shear of AZ31 alloy billets with low temperature and high speed by using three-dimensional finite element modeling and experiments Regular Articles

    Hongjun, Hu; Zhiye, Zhai; Hao, Wang; JunZhi, Fan

    Abstract in English:

    A new kind of compound extrusion technology including direct extrusion and shears for AZ31 magnesium billets can cause plastic large deformations and high strain rates. A series of compressive tests have been done to obtain the stress-strain curves of AZ31 magnesium alloy. Three-dimensional (3D) thermo-mechanical coupled finite element modeling of forming magnesium alloy AZ31billets into small rods at certain high ram speed and low temperature by extrusion-shears have been carried out. The simulation model has been established and meshed based on symmetrical characteristic. Computed parameters including material characteristics for workpiece and die and process conditions consisting of initial billet temperature, extrusion ratio, channel angle and ram speed have been list. The evolution of temperature during extrusion-shear process, there are hardly any temperature gradients within the workpiece, but temperature in severe plastic deformation zone increase rapidly. Strain evolutions for inner billet are larger than those of border positions. The flow velocity distribution is uniform basically which avoid the extrusion cracks to a certain degree. Experiments show that the rods with good surface smoothness can be obtained by low temperature and high speed extrusion-shear, and the alloy grains are effectively refined by dynamic recrystallization (DRX).
  • An investigation into the dissolution characteristics of γ precipitates in Mg-3Al-Zn alloy Regular Articles

    Mohammadi, Javad; Ghoreishi, Marjan; Behnamian, Yashar

    Abstract in English:

    In non-equilibrium conditions, the coring phenomena may occur in the α-Mg solid solution and γ-Mg17Al12 phase forms in the microstructure of AZ magnesium alloy series. This eutectic phase may introduce detrimental effect on workability of wrought alloys. In the present work, the dissolution characteristics of γ phase have been investigated in AZ31 wrought magnesium alloy. Considering the eutectic temperature of AZ31 alloy, the homogenization treatment was executed in temperature range of 300-437 ºC (i.e., somewhat below eutectic melting temperature of γ precipitate) and 437-500 ºC (i.e., higher eutectic melting temperature of γ precipitate) for different durations. A thorough microstructural investigation and also thermodynamic calculations were executed. The results indicated that the dissolution rate of γ phase is very low even at temperatures just below the eutectic point of the alloy, whereas it dramatically increases at temperatures higher than eutectic point. Moreover, it is suggested that partial melting of γ phase due to eutectic melting reaction (α+γ→L) may lead to reduced formability.
  • Tailored Dealloying Products of Cu-based Metallic Glasses in Hydrochloric Acid Solutions Regular Articles

    Wang, Zhifeng; Wang, Lijuan; Qin, Chunling; Liu, Jiangyun; Li, Yongyan; Zhao, Weimin

    Abstract in English:

    Free dealloying of Cu-Hf-Al metallic glasses in HCl electrolytes are studied in this paper. The results show that the electrolyte concentration and dealloying time strongly influence the type of dealloying products. A superficial dealloying happens in diluted HCl electrolytes while a complete dealloying occurs in concentrated HCl electrolytes. The results present that Cu2O microparticles with regular morphology can be tailored on glassy surfaces in 0. 05 M HCl solution by controlling the dealloying time. Furthermore, the designable products of nanoporous Cu, Cu2O nanoplates and CuO microwires can be fabricated in 1. 2 M HCl electrolyte with the dealloying time. Due to a big difference of examined Cu-Hf-Al alloys in the electrolyte concentration and dealloying time, one or mixed dealloying products (Cu, Cu2O and CuO), which depend on the progress of relative chemical reactions and the different dealloying route, will finally be produced.
  • Analysis of surface roughness and hardness in titanium alloy machining with polycrystalline diamond tool under different lubricating modes Regular Articles

    Revankar, Goutam Devaraya; Shetty, Raviraj; Rao, Shrikantha Srinivas; Gaitonde, Vinayak Neelakanth

    Abstract in English:

    The present work deals with the investigation on machining of difficult-to-machine material titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) using poly crystalline diamond (PCD) tool under different coolant strategies, namely dry, flooded and MQL. Taguchi technique has been employed and the optimization results indicated that MQL lubricating mode with cutting speed of 150 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 mm/rev, nose radius of 0.6 mm and 0.25 mm depth of cut is necessary to minimize surface roughness and dry mode with cutting speed of 150 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 mm/rev, nose radius of 0.6 mm and 0.75 mm depth of cut is necessary to maximize surface hardness. The results indicate the substantial benefit of the minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL) and justify PCD inserts to be the most functionally satisfactory commercially available cutting tool material for machining titanium alloys for better surface finish and hardness.
  • Recrystallization of a Ti-45Ni-5Cu cold-worked shape memory alloy characterized by thermoelectric power and electrical properties Regular Articles

    Soto-Parra, Daniel Enrique; Flores-Zúñiga, Horacio; Cuéllar, Enrique López; Ochoa-Gamboa, Raul Armando; Ríos-Jara, David

    Abstract in English:

    The recrystallization of a cold-worked shape memory alloy (SMA) without R-phase transition, i.e. the Ti-45.0Ni-5.0Cu (% at.), has been studied by thermoelectric power (TEP) technique and electrical resistivity change (Dρ) on several heat treated samples after cold working. This study was also supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hardness Vickers (HV) measurements. Transformation temperatures show an increase with heat treatment temperature, while hysteresis decreases. Hardness values decrease with aging temperature for the same heat treatment time. No important changes were observed in electrical resistivity with heat treatment temperature, except at 300ºC. TEP results show an important increase with heat treatment temperature, and a linear relationship was found between hardness and thermoelectric power. With this correlation between TEP and microhardness it is possible to predict its mechanical response by knowing its TEP, so this correlation could be important for applications.
  • Bioactivity of leucite containing glass - ceramics using natural raw materials Regular Articles

    Stábile, Franco Matías; Volzone, Cristina

    Abstract in English:

    Glass compositions were carefully prepared, using natural quartz and potassium feldspar as a part of the starting raw materials. The solids were prepared so as to have theoretical stoichiometric leucite and 45S5 Bioglass in different L/Bg weight ratios between 0.43 - 1.00. Novel bioactive glass - ceramics, containing leucite, sodium calcium silicate and silicorhenanite, confirmed by XRD and FTIR, were obtained. Bioactivity tests were carried out on powdered and sintered disks forms. The immersion time was up to 25 days. Apatite formation on powders was studied by FTIR, and XRD and SEM were used to study bioactivity on disks. The materials developed an apatite layer on their surfaces within 6 days of immersion in simulated body fluid. The glass - ceramic with L/Bg ratio = 0.43 presented an apatite layer on all its surface, not so for the samples with 0.66 and 1.00 ratios, on which such layer was peeled off in most part of their surfaces.
  • Photocatalytic degradation of polypropylene/TiO2 nano-composites Regular Articles

    Kamrannejad, Mohammad Mehdi; Hasanzadeh, Amin; Nosoudi, Nasim; Mai, Lee; Babaluo, Ali Akbar

    Abstract in English:

    In this research, we have investigated the photocatalytic degradation of carbon-coated TiO2 nanoparticles in polypropylene-based nano-composites. For this purpose, polypropylene-based nano-composites were prepared using carbon-coated TiO2 nanoparticles and commercially available TiO2 nanoparticles (Degussa, P25). Our results from SEM, FTIR, and tensile tests showed that the photocatalytic property of TiO2 causes chain scission reactions, crosslinking and consequently photocatalytic degradation of polypropylene that affects the mechanical properties of exposed nano-composites. We have observed that with greater carbon content of the TiO2 nano-powders, there is less photocatalytic degradation.
  • Dry reforming of methane at moderate temperatures over modified Co-Al Co-precipitated catalysts Regular Articles

    Souza, Guilherme de; Marcilio, Nilson Romeu; Perez-Lopez, Oscar William

    Abstract in English:

    M-Co-Al (M = Ca, La, Li or Mg) materials were synthesised by co-precipitation and investigated for dry reforming of methane. Thermogravimetry, temperature-programmed oxidation, reduction and CO2 desorption, specific area and X-ray diffraction were utilised for characterisation. Activity tests were conducted at atmospheric pressure, temperatures between 400-550ºC , CH4/CO2 molar ratio of 1 and GHSV of 6000 NmL CH4·g-1·h-1. The partial substitution of Co by a third element increased the area and changed the acid/base properties, reducibility and crystallinity of the oxides. These modifications resulted in higher activity for dry reforming of methane, mainly related to the decrease in the acidity of the promoted materials and, consequently, lower carbon formation. The Li-modified sample presented the lowest coke deposition due to the increase in stronger basic sites. The Mg-promoted catalyst exhibited the best activity performance. This depicts the enhancement in the reducibility and acid/base properties found in the MgCoAl sample.
  • 3D finite element modeling of grains refinement for magnesium alloys by extrusion-shear and experimental verification Regular Articles

    Hongjun, Hu; Zhiye, Zhai; YunYang, Li; Hao, Wang; JunZhi, Fan; zhongwen, OU

    Abstract in English:

    To explore the deformation mechanisms of a new composite extrusion including extrusion and successive shear subsequently which is shorten "ES", Three dimensional finite element modeling of grain refinements for magnesium alloys by ES process has been researched. The ES die have been designed and manufactured and installed to the horizontal extruder. Finite element software DEFORM TM-3D to investigate the plastic deformation behaviors of magnesium alloy during extrusion-shear has been employed. The extrusion loads and temperatures distribution of billets and maximum extrusion forces have been obtained from simulation results. From the simulation results it is clear that evolutions of extrusion loads curve and effective stresses and temperatures can be divided into three stages. ES process has been applied to fabricate AZ31 magnesium alloy rod at preheat temperature of 420ºC with extrusion speed of 20 mm/s. The results proved that the ES process is a formality method for magnesium suitable for large scale industrial application. The microstructures of AZ31 magnesium alloy along the longitudinal section of rods have been sampled and examined and observed. Fine grained microstructures can be observed throughout longitudinal section of extruded rod. The researches results show that ES process would cause severe plastic deformation and improve the dynamic recrystallization of AZ31 magnesium alloy. The simulation results and calculated Zener-Hollomon parameters showed that the grains of magnesium would be refined gradually during ES process.
  • Microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles with potential use as anode in lithium ion batteries Regular Articles

    Xavier, Camila Soares; Paskocimas, Carlos Alberto; Motta, Fabiana Villela da; Araújo, Vinícius Dantas; Aragón, Maria José; Tirado, José Luís; Lavela, Pedro; Longo, Elson; Delmonte, Mauricio Roberto Bomio

    Abstract in English:

    Rechargeable solid-state batteries have long been considered an attractive power source for a wide variety of applications, and in particular, lithium-ion batteries are emerging as the technology of choice for portable electronics. One of the main challenges in the design of these batteries is to ensure that the electrodes maintain their integrity over many discharge-recharge cycles. Fe3O4 deserves great attention as one of the most important electrode active materials due to its high theoretical capacity (926 mAhg- 1), low cost, being environmental-friendly and naturally abundance in worldwide. A simple strategy to synthesize magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4) by microwave-assisted hydrothermal method in a short processing time without further treatment is reported. The material obtained was tested as anode active material for lithium ions batteries. Impedance spectroscopy revealed that small differences in cell performance on cycling observed between samples cannot be strictly correlated to cell resistance. A high reversible capacity of 768.5 mAhg- 1 at 1C over 50 cycles was demonstrated, suggesting its prospective use as anode material for high power lithium ion batteries.
  • Effect of curing temperature and architectural (monolayer and bilayer) of hybrid films modified with polyethylene glycol for the corrosion protection on tinplate Regular Articles

    Kunst, Sandra Raquel; Beltrami, Lilian Vanessa Rossa; Cardoso, Henrique Ribeiro Piaggio; Veja, Maria Rita Ortega; Baldin, Estela Knopp Kerstner; Menezes, Tiago Lemos; Malfatti, Célia de Fraga

    Abstract in English:

    Hybrid films obtained by a sol-gel process are based on two important reactions: hydrolysis and condensation. The condensation reaction is influenced by the curing temperature, since it induces the development of the intrinsic properties of the gel. The aim of this work is to coat tinplate, a substrate widely used in the packaging industry, with monolayered and bilayered hybrid films modified with polyethylene glycol and obtained through dip-coating. The results showed that the bilayered hybrid film obtained at 60ºC had a higher layer thickness, and the best performance in the electrochemical assays, as well as the most hydrophobic character, in relation to the other samples. For the monolayered systems, the 90ºC-cured system showed a lower layer thickness; however, this system showed a more compact, uniform and less porous layer, and presented better electrochemical impedance results, in comparison with the 60ºC-cured samples.
  • Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of ZAR-345 cold-formed steel at elevated temperatures Regular Articles

    Landesmann, Alexandre; Silva, Fernanda Cristina Moreira da; Batista, Eduardo de Miranda

    Abstract in English:

    Considering the technical-scientific advances of recent years in the steel construction industry, there is a strong trend for the increasing use of cold-formed steel members in civil construction, due to several advantages such as cost and versatility of fabrication and erection. However, there is need for further study concerning the behavior of this type of steel when subjected to fire conditions. This work deals with the experimental characterization of cold-formed steel at high temperatures. It is recognized that the reduction factors of the mechanical properties applicable to hot-rolled steel members do not remain valid for cold-formed ones. In the case of the European Code, cold-formed members are treated in the same way of hot-rolled or welded thin-walled sections (i.e., class 4), the only differences in relation to the other (class 1, 2 or 3) consisting (i) the definition of the yield strength and (ii) the corresponding reduction factors (shown in Table E.1 of appendix E of EC3-1.2:2005). In this context, coupon tensile tests were carried out according to recommendations proposed by AS 2291:2007 standard for ZAR-345 (ABNT NBR 7008-1:2012) (or ASTM A653-2011- SS50(340)C1, equivalent). The variation of the constitutive relations (stress-strain-temperature curves) was measured for different uniform temperatures, ranging from 20 ºC (ambient) to 100-200-300-400-500-600 ºC. The obtained experimental results indicate a clear distinction with the models proposed by other authors as well as specifications of EC3-1.2:2005.
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