Abstract in English:This study was focused on the predation upon microcrustaceans by an invertebrate predator (chaoborid larvae), and vertebrate predators (fish), in two small reservoirs in southeastern Brazil, with and without macrophytes, in two climatic periods (dry and rainy seasons). Chaoborus larvae were sampled in the limnetic zone, as they are scarce in the littoral, and fish in both limnetic and littoral zones. Their diets were evaluated by the analysis of the crop (chaoborid) or stomach contents (fish). Chaoborid larvae consumed the dinoflagellate Peridinium sp. or other algae, rotifers, and planktonic microcrustaceans. The fish species that included microcrustaceans in their diets were juveniles caught in the littoral. Aquatic insects, plant fragments, and detritus were their major dietary items, microcrustaceans representing a minor item. Planktonic copepods contributed more to the diet of chaoborid larvae than planktonic cladocerans. Fish preyed on planktonic microcrustaceans, as well as on benthic and macrophyte-associated species. Microcrustaceans were not heavily preyed on by chaoborid larvae and fish in both reservoirs.
Abstract in English:The Rio de la Plata. located between Uruguay and Argentina, generates a tremendous freshwater influx from the estuary into the coastal sea. It is thus suggested to constitute a biogeographic barrier for many taxa exhibiting a marine planktonic larval dispersal. However, evidence for corresponding intraspecific dispersal constraint has yet to be provided. We compared mitochondrial haplotypes of ten individuals for each of two populations of Uca (Leptuca) uruguayensis north and south of the estuary to examine the potential effect of the Rio de la Plata on the species' distribution. The populations are separated by nearly 2,000 km and were collected in São Paulo State (Brazil) and Mar Chiquita (Argentina). We found no significant indication for restricted gene flow between them, based on 823 basepairs of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene. The structure of the corresponding haplotype network and the estimated nucleotide diversities, however, suggest that the Argentinean population is genetically more diverse than the one from Brazil. In order to establish possible significant differences in haplotype distribution, further research including more populations and larger sample sizes will be necessary.
Abstract in English:The taxonomy of two trichodactyline genera of the Neotropical freshwater crab family Trichodactylidae are revised. The genus Avotrichodactylus Pretzmann, 1968, includes two species, A. constrictus (Pearse, 1911) and A. oaxensis Rodríguez, 1992; the genus Rodriguezia Bott, 1969, also has two species, R. mensabak Cottarelli and Argano, 1977, and R. villalobosi (Rodríguez and Manrique, 1967). The taxonomic statuses of all the species are discussed and a short diagnosis is provided for each. A complete list of the material examined and a map of geographic distribution of the species are furnished.
Abstract in English:The present work aims to study the size vs. weight relationship and the condition factor of a commercially important crab, Callinectes danae, from an estuarine complex located at Pernambuco State, Northeastern Brazil. After sampled, the specimens were measured on their carapace width (CW; mm) and weighted on their wet weight (WW; g). A total of 1,635individuals of C. danae were analyzed, being 881 males (53.8%) and 754 females (46.2%). Males were significantly larger and heavier than females (p < 0.05), the expected pattern to many crabs. The relationship WW vs. CW, described through the potency equation, was allometrically positive for both males (b = 3.12) and females (b = 3.02), a result also observed in other swimming crabs. The mean condition factor of males was 8.0 10-5 ± 1.5 10-5, and that of females was 11.5 10-5 ± 2.8 10-5, being significantly higher in females (p < 0.05), due to the fact that female gonads are heavier than that of males. The condition factor oscillated throughout the sampling year, for both sexes, which was related to the reproductive cycle.
Abstract in English:The geographical distribution of marine organisms, as a result of complex natural processes through geological time, has been changed, sometimes drastically, by species introductions. Instances of species introduction have been recorded worldwide, and the Brazilian coast is no exception. The present review provides an update of the geographical distribution of members of the brachyuran subfamily Mithracinae along the Brazilian coast. Of the 30 species of this subfamily recorded from Brazilian waters, the known geographical limits of more than 17 have been extended in recent decades. The records compiled here demonstrate the great importance of the Amazon River outflow on the geographical distribution of members of Mithracinae, acting as a biogeographical barrier for some species.
Abstract in English:Material belonging to the genus Processa, held in the Regional Marine Invertebrates Collection in Mazatlán, Mexico, is revised including specimens of the widely distributed P. peruviana, and the scarcely collected P. hawaiensis. For comparative purposes with the specimens from Hawaii and other localities, a detailed description of a male of P. hawaiensis collected in continental Mexico is provided, including illustrations of all appendages. Small differences are noted with previous description and partial redescriptions of this species, including proportion between propodus and dactylus of the fourth pereopod, and between merus and carpus of the right cheliped. In addition, the shape and setation of the first pair of pleopods in the Mexican material differs from the description of P. hawaiensis based on African material.
Abstract in English:A study on sexual dimorphism in Aegla marginata was conducted using geometric morphometric methods. The carapace of 47 females and 75 males and the left and right cheliped propodus of 29 females and 40 males were analyzed. Eighteen landmarks were established in the carapace and 10 in the cheliped propodus. A Generalized Procrustes Analysis based on landmark configurations was used to separate the components of size and shape. A Student t-test was used to determine whether statistically significant sexual dimorphism was shown by the carapace and the cheliped propodus. The variation in the shape of the structures was evaluated with a discriminant analysis. Our results show that there is no sexual dimorphism in the carapace of A. marginata. However, the size of the propodus differed statistically between the sexes. The carapace shape differed between the sexes: the females showed a wider posterior area and a narrower anterior area than the males. The shape of the cheliped propodus also differed between the sexes: overall, the females had a longer and narrower cheliped propodus than the males. The variations in the carapace shape found in this study confirm the results of other studies on aeglid morphology; however, the information presented by this study regarding variation in the shape of the cheliped propodus is new to the literature. The geometric morphometric approach applied in this study provided useful tools for achieving the proposed objectives.