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First Record of Sinoxylon anale Lesne and Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Brazil

Primeiro Registro de Sinoxylon anale Lesne e Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) no Brasil

Abstracts

Sinoxylon anale Lesne and Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch) are registered for the first time in Brazil in wood imported from India and China.

Insecta; wood borer


É registrada pela primeira vez a presença de Sinoxylon anale Lesne e Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch) no Brasil, em madeira importada da Índia e da China.

Insecta; coleobroca


SCIENTIFIC NOTE

First Record of Sinoxylon anale Lesne and Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in Brazil

ÉDSON P. TEIXEIRA1, JOSÉ P.S. NOVO1 AND EVONEO BERTI FILHO2

1Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, C. postal 28, 13001-970, Campinas, SP

2Depto. Entomologia, Fitopatologia e Zoologia Agrícola - ESALQ-USP, C. postal 9, 13400-970, Piracicaba, SP

Primeiro Registro de Sinoxylon anale Lesne e Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch)

(Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) no Brasil

RESUMO - É registrada pela primeira vez a presença de Sinoxylon anale Lesne e Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch) no Brasil, em madeira importada da Índia e da China.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Insecta, coleobroca

ABSTRACT - Sinoxylon anale Lesne and Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch) are registered for the first time in Brazil in wood imported from India and China.

KEY WORD: Insecta, wood borer

Bostrichidae is one of the families of Coleoptera with species of economic importance as agricultural, forestry and forest product pests. Some species of Sinoxylon are very harmful to trees, bamboos and wood. Sinoxylon anale Lesne is considered one of the most destructive wood borers in India, attacking great variety of plants (Fisher 1950).

According to the "Comitê de Sanidade Vegetal do Cone Sul (2001)", S. anale is a quarentine pest to Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, on host plants such as Acacia spp., Hevea brasiliensis and fruit trees. However, this species is not considered a quarentine pest by the "Normative Instructions SDA n. 38/1999" (Brasil 1999).

The first record of S. anale occurring in South America was reported by Joly et al. (1994) in Venezuela, in packing box used for exporting fruits to the United States of America.

In the beginning of 2001, we identified specimens of S. anale collected in wood pallets imported from India, in Americana County (22o 44' S 47o 20' W), State of São Paulo, and from wood pallets from China, intercepted at the port of Santos (23o 56' S 46o 22' W), State of São Paulo. Pinned specimens of this species and Sinoxylon senegalensis (Karsch) are deposited in the Collection of the Museum of Zoology, University of São Paulo, and the labels indicate that the insects were collected, in Natal, State of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, in airplanes coming from Africa, in 1942/43. Apparently these data were never published.

If established in Brazil, where many of its host plants occur, this insect may become an important pest, causing economic damage in wood of fruit trees, ornamental and industrial trees, as rubber tree, jacaranda, cashew, flamboyant.

Described from India, S. anale is also found in Sri Lanka, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Asian Southeast, South of China, Malay Archipelago, Philippines, Australia, Indonesia and New Zealand, and has been introduced to various parts of the world by trading activities. It was registered in wood packing and in roots of Derris in the ports of New York, Detroit, Philadelphia, San Francisco, Miami and Columbus (Lesne 1906, Fisher 1950).

Sliwa (1971) and Skalski (1971) registered the occurrence of S. anale in Poland, in material coming from Pakistan. Argaman (1987) reported its occurrence in Tel Aviv (Israel). Joly et al. (1994) registered the occurrence of the species in Venezuela in packing box of fruits. Lesne (1906) reported S. senegalensis in Senegal, Mali, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Egypt, Chade, Sudan and Ghana.

Stebbing & Bell, apud Lesne 1906, registered S. anale in dead wood of Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. and D. sissao Roxb. (Leguminosae), Xylia dolabrifornis Benth. (Mimosaceae), Shorea robusta Gaertn. (Dipterocarpaceae) and bamboo. Lesne (1906) reported Terminalia belerica Roxb. (Combretaceae) and Mallotus roxburghianus Mueil. (Euphorbiaceae) as hosts of Sinoxylon. Cotes (1889), apud Lesne (1906), observed the attack of S. anale in bamboo, cardamom capsules and grains of Dolichos uniflorus Lam. and D. lablab L. Beeson & Bhatia (1937), apud Fisher (1950), registered 67 botanical species as hosts of S. anale in India. It is a common species in the forests, timber depots, sawmills and furniture industries, and is a primary borer in the sapwood of logs, and timbers used in house building, boxes, and packing cases. Bhot & Lila (1978) studied the biology and habits of S. anale Lesne, 1897 in kampas (Koompassia melaccensis), in Thailand. Gnanaharan et al. (1983) registered its occurrence attacking logs and rubber tree boards (Hevea brasiliensis). Gnanaharan et al. (1985) indicated S. anale as the second most important pest of stored wood of cashew (Anacardium occidentale). Pratap & Bhandari (1987) registered the occurrence of S. anale attacking wood of Acacia tortilis.

Argaman (1987) reported a severe outbreak of S. anale in Delonix regia, in Tel Aviv (Israel), in 1984, and although the trees were burned, this did not prevent the establishment of the insect in Israel. The author pointed out that the species is one of the most destructive wood borers.

Hutacharern & Choldumrongkul (1989) surveying insects on Acacia mangium, A. auriculiformis, Leucaena diversifolia and L. leucocephala x L. diversifolia (K743) in Thailand, registered S. anale and Sinoxylon spp. as key pests, causing more than 30% of damage. Joly et al. (1994) registered the species in dry branches of acacia (Delonix regia). Ho & Hashim (1997) observed the occurrence of six Bostrichidae species, among them S. anale and Sinoxylon conigerum Gerstäcker, under field conditions in rubber wood (Hevea brasiliensis).

According to Lesne (1906), S. senegalensis attacks wood and live Leguminosae trees of the genera Acacia (A. albida Delile and A. disappears Turez) and Albizzia. Bushara (1981) mentioned Acacia seyal and A. nilotica as hosts of S. senegalensis in Sudan.

The material is deposited in the Collection of the "Instituto Agronômico de Campinas" (IACC), under numbers 7363 and 7456, respectively.

Literature Cited

Comitê de Sanidade Vegetal do Cone Sul - COSAVE. 2001. Listas de pragas quarentenárias [on line]. Buenos Aires (Ar): 2001 [citado em 25/7/2001], <http://www.cosave.org.py/listapragasquarentenarias.htm> .

Received 01/11/2001. Accepted 05/12/02.

  • Argaman, Q. 1987. Sinoxylon anale - a new destructive wood borer in Israel. Phytoparasitica 15: 257.
  • Bhot, A. & K. Lila. 1978. Malaeng kap mai-thong-bung, p. 28-41. In Forestry Conference, 1978. Proceedings. Bangkok, Forest Products Research Division.
  • Brasil. Ministério de Agricultura e Abastecimento. 1999. Instrução normativa SDA n. 38/1999 de 14 de outubro de 1999. Diário Oficial da União, 5 de novembro de 1999. Estabelece a lista de pragas quarentenárias A1, A2 e não quarentenárias regulamentadas, a ser observada pelo sistema de defesa fitossanitária do Brasil. (Diario Oficial da União, 5 de novembro de 1999).
  • Bushara, M.G. 1981. Short notes on the biology of the talih wood-borer Sinoxylonsenegalense Karsch (Bostrychidae), (Coleoptera). Sudan-Silva 4: 25-33.
  • Fisher, W.S. 1950. A revision of the North American species of beetles belonging to the family Bostrichidae. Misc. Publ. U. S. Dep. Agr. n. 698, 157p.
  • Gnanaharan, R., G. Mathew & T. K. Damodharan. 1983. Protection of rubber wood against the insect borer Sinoxylon anale Les (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae). J. Indian Acad. Wood Sc. 14: 8-11.
  • Gnanaharan, R, V.V. Sudheendrakumar & K.S.S. Nair. 1985. Protection of cashew wood in storage against insect borers. Mater. Org. 20: 65-74.
  • Ho, Y.F. & S. Hashim. 1997. Kumbang bubuk kayu getah - Bostrychidae. J. Trop. Forest Prod. 3: 15-19.
  • Hutacharern, C. & S. Choldumrongkul. 1989. A note on the insect pest of multipurpose tree species in Thailand. J. Trop. Forest Sci. 2: 81-84.
  • Joly, L.J., J. Dedordy & M. Moreira. 1994.Sinoxylon anale Lesne, 1897 (Coleoptera, Bostrichidae) nuevo registro para la fauna Venezolana. Bol. Entomol. Venez. N.S. 9: 21-24.
  • Lesne, P. 1906. Révision des coléoptères de la famille des bostrychides. 5ème Mém. Ann. Soc. Entomol. France 75: 444-561.
  • Pratap, S. & R.S. Bhandari. 1987. Insect pests of Acacia tortilis in India. Indian For. 113: 734-743.
  • Skalski, J. 1971.Sinoxylon anale Lesne-przybysz z Pakistanu. Przem-Drzewny 22: 34-35.
  • Sliwa, E. 1971.Sinoxylon anale Lesne-szkodnik zawleczony z Pakistanu do Polski. Sylwan 115: 51-54.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    20 Feb 2003
  • Date of issue
    Oct 2002

History

  • Received
    01 Nov 2001
  • Accepted
    05 Dec 2002
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