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Neotropical Entomology, Volume: 37, Issue: 6, Published: 2008
  • Natural invertebrate hosts of iridoviruses (Iridoviridae) Forum

    Williams, Trevor

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Los virus iridiscentes de invertebrados (VIIs) son virus icosaedrales de ADN que infectan a invertebrados, principalmente insectos e isópodos terrestres en hábitats húmedos y acuáticos. Búsquedas extensivas de bases de datos resultaron en la identificación de 79 artículos científicos, los cuales reportaron 108 especies de invertebrados infectados naturalmente por iridovirus. De estos, 103 (95%) fueron artrópodos y los otros fueron moluscos, un anélido y un nematodo. Nueve especies fueron de hábitats marinos. De las 99 especies no marinas, 49 fueron terrestres y 50 fueron acuáticas, especialmente los estadios acuáticos de dípteros (44 especies). La abundancia de infecciones en especies de Aedes,Ochlerotatus y Psorophora se contrasta marcadamente con la escasez de casos en especies de Anopheles,Culex y Culiseta. Reportes de infecciones de los isópodos terrestres son numerosos (19 especies), aunque la diversidad de los VII que los infectan es desconocida. Se han reportado infecciones por VIIs de todos los continentes, excepto Antártica, pero se notan pocos ejemplos de África, Asia y Latinoamérica. La mayoría de los artículos señala que las infecciones patentes son poco comunes, mientras que las infecciones enmascaradas (subletales) pueden ser comunes en algunas especies. La relación entre el tamaño de la partícula y el color iridiscente concuerda con la teoría óptica en casi todos los casos. Veinticuatro de los VIIs de insectos han sido caracterizados parcialmente y solo dos de éstos han sido secuenciados completamente. Demuestro que el ritmo de publicación sobre los VIIs ha disminuido en los últimos 15 años, señalo varias conclusiones y sugerencias de la lista de especies de huéspedes y presento algunas recomendaciones para la investigación futura con este grupo de patógenos.

    Abstract in English:

    Invertebrate iridescent viruses (IIVs) are icosahedral DNA viruses that infect invertebrates, mainly insects and terrestrial isopods, in damp and aquatic habitats. Exhaustive searches of databases resulted in the identification of 79 articles reporting 108 invertebrate species naturally infected by confirmed or putative iridoviruses. Of these, 103 (95%) were arthropods and the remainder were molluscs, an annelid worm and a nematode. Nine species were from marine habitats. Of the 99 non-marine species, 49 were from terrestrial habitats and 50 were aquatic, especially the aquatic stages of Diptera (44 species). The abundance of records from species of Aedes,Ochlerotatus and Psorophora contrasts markedly with a paucity of records from species of Anopheles,Culex and Culiseta. Records from terrestrial isopods are numerous (19 species), although the diversity of IIVs that infect them is mostly unstudied. IIV infections have been reported from every continent, except Antarctica, but there are few records from Africa, southern Asia and Latin America. Most reports describe patent IIV infections as rare whereas inapparent (covert) infection may be common in certain species. The relationship between particle size and iridescent colour of the host is found to be consistent with optical theory in the great majority of cases. Only 24 reported IIVs from insect hosts have partial characterization data and only two have been subjected to complete genome sequencing. I show that the rate of publication on IIVs has slowed from 1990 to the present, and I draw a number of conclusions and suggestions from the host list and make recommendations for future research efforts.
  • Wolbachia in two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Copeland, Claudia S.; Matthews, Robert W.; González, Jorge M.; Aluja, Martin; Sivinski, John

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    We investigated two populations of Melittobia digitata Dahms, a gregarious parasitoid (primarily upon a wide range of solitary bees, wasps, and flies), in search of Wolbachia infection. The first population, from Xalapa, Mexico, was originally collected from and reared on Mexican fruit fly pupae, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae); the other, from Athens, Georgia, was collected from and reared on prepupae of mud dauber wasps, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). PCR studies of the ITS2 region corroborated that both parasitoid populations were the same species; this potentially provides a useful molecular taxonomic profile since females of Melittobia species are superficially similar. Amplification of the Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) confirmed the presence of this endosymbiont in both populations. Sequencing revealed that the Wolbachia harbored in both populations exhibited a wsp belonging to a unique subgroup (denoted here as Dig) within the B-supergroup of known wsp genes. This new subgroup of wsp may either belong to a different strain of Wolbachia from those previously found to infect Melittobia or may be the result of a recombination event. In either case, known hosts of Wolbachia with a wsp of this subgroup are only distantly related taxonomically. Reasons are advanced as to why Melittobia - an easily reared and managed parasitoid - holds promise as an instructive model organism of Wolbachia infection amenable to the investigation of Wolbachia strains among its diverse hosts.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Se investigaron dos poblaciones de Melittobia digitata Dahms, un parasitoide gregario (principalmente sobre un rango amplio de abejas solitarias, avispas y moscas), en busca de infección por Wolbachia. La primera población, provenía de Xalapa, México, y fue originalmente colectada y criada sobre pupas de la Mosca Mexicana de la Fruta, Anastrepha ludens Loew (Diptera: Tephritidae). La segunda población, originaria de Athens, Georgia, fue colectada y criada sobre prepupas de avispas de barro, Trypoxylon politum Say (Hymenoptera: Crabronidae). Estudios de PCR de la región ITS2 confirmaron que ambas poblaciones del parasitoide pertenecen a la misma especie; lo que nos provee de un perfil molecular taxonómico muy útil debído a que las hembras de las diversas especies de Melittobia son superficialmente similares. La amplificación del gen de superficie de proteina (wsp) de Wolbachia confirmó la presencia de este endosimbionte en ambas poblaciones. La ejecución de la secuencia reveló que Wolbachia alojada en ambas poblaciones exibe un wsp que pertenece a un subgrupo único (denominado aquí como Dig) dentro del supergrupo B de los genes wsp conocidos. Este nuevo subgrupo de wsp podría pertenecer o a un lineaje de Wolbachia de los previamente conocidos infectando a Melittobia o podría ser el resultado de algún evento recombinante. En cualquier caso, los huéspedes conocidos de Wolbachia con un wsp en este subgrupo están relacionados taxonómicamente en forma lejana. Se presentan razones posibles del por qué Melittobia - un parasitoide fácil de criar y manipular - es prometedor como un organismo modelo conveniente para el estudio de líneas de Wolbachia entre diversos huéspedes.
  • First come, first serve: " sit and wait" behavior in dung beetles at the source of primate dung Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Jacobs, Jennifer; Nole, Inés; Palminteri, Susanne; Ratcliffe, Brett

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Los Escarabajos del estiércol (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) compiten intensamente por excrementos, un recurso escaso por el cual muchas especies forrajean en el sotobosque en bosques tropicales. En este artículo describimos el comportamiento particular de una especie de escarabajo del estiércol, Canthon aff. quadriguttatus (Olivier), asociado a dos especies de primates en Perú. Observamos esta especie de escarabajo en la región genital y anal de monos " tocones" , Callicebus brunneus (Wagner), y subsecuentemente cayendo con excrementos que los monos defecaron. De manera similar, observamos individuos de esta especie de escarabajo asociados a monos " huapos" , Pithecia irrorata irrorata (Gray). Mediante un comportamiento de " sentarse y esperar" a la fuente, C. aff. quadriguttatus llega primero a la fuente de excremento y aparentemente supera a otras especies de escarabajos en la competencia por el mismo recurso. Este artículo representa el primer registro de C. aff. quadriguttatus en asociación a dos especies de primate en la Amazonía del sureste de Perú. Discutimos este comportamiento en el contexto de competencia y distribución de recursos y especulamos sobre la razón por la cual este escarabajo está asociado a ambas especies de primates.

    Abstract in English:

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) compete intensively for dung resources, and most species forage in the understory. Here, we describe the unique behavior of one dung beetle species, Canthon aff. quadriguttatus (Olivier), associated with two species of monkeys from Peru. We observed this beetle species on the genital and anal regions of the brown titi monkey, Callicebus brunneus (Wagner), and subsequently falling with dung as the monkeys defecated. The same association was also observed with the bald-faced saki monkey, Pithecia irrorata irrorata (Gray). Using the " sit and wait" at the source behavior, C. quadriguttus may arrive first at the dung resource, possibly out-competing other dung beetle species. This paper is the first report of this behavior for C. aff. quadriguttatus on the brown titi monkey and bald-faced saki monkey from southeastern, Amazonian Peru. We discuss this behavior in the context of competition and resource partitioning, and also speculate as to why C. aff. quadriguttatus has been found on both monkey species.
  • Thermal requirements and estimate of the annual number of generations of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on strawberry crop

    Nondillo, Aline; Redaelli, Luiza R.; Botton, Marcos; Pinent, Silvia M.J.; Gitz, Rogério

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) é uma das principais pragas associadas à cultura do morangueiro no Sul do Brasil. O ataque do inseto à cultura resulta no murchamento de flores e bronzeamento de frutos. Neste trabalho, foi estimada a temperatura base e as exigências térmicas das fases de ovo, larva e pupa de F. occidentalis em morangueiro. Os insetos foram criados em folíolos da planta nas temperaturas de 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 e 31°C, em câmaras climatizadas (70 ± 10% U.R.; fotofase de 12h). O número de gerações anuais que F. occidentalis completa foi estimado para seis regiões produtoras de morango no Rio Grande do Sul (RS), com base nas exigências térmicas da espécie. A velocidade de desenvolvimento de F. occidentalis aumentou com a elevação da temperatura. A faixa mais adequada para o desenvolvimento da espécie foi entre 25ºC e 28ºC. A temperatura base e a constante térmica para o período ovo-adulto foi de 9,9ºC e 211,9 graus-dia, respectivamente. Com base nas exigências térmicas de F. occidentalis, foram estimados 10,7; 12,6; 13,1; 13,6; 16,5 e 17,9 gerações/ano, respectivamente, para as regiões produtoras de morangueiro de Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre e Taquari, RS.

    Abstract in English:

    Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) is one of the major strawberry pests in southern Brazil. The insect causes russeting and wither in flowers and fruits reducing commercial value. In this work, the thermal requirements of the eggs, larvae and pupae of F. occidentalis were estimated. Thrips development was studied in folioles of strawberry plants at six constant temperatures (16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31°C) in controlled conditions (70 ± 10% R.H. and 12:12 L:D). The number of annual generations of F. occidentalis was estimated for six strawberry production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State based on its thermal requirements. Developmental time of each F. occidentalis stages was proportional to the temperature increase. The best development rate was obtained when insects were reared at 25ºC and 28ºC. The lower threshold and the thermal requirements for the egg to adult stage were 9.9ºC and 211.9 degree-days, respectively. Considering the thermal requirements of F. occidentalis, 10.7, 12.6, 13.1, 13.6, 16.5 and 17.9 generations/year were estimated, respectively, for Vacaria, Caxias do Sul, Farroupilha, Pelotas, Porto Alegre and Taquari producing regions located in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.
  • Phylogeographical analysis of neotropical Rhagoletis (Diptera: Tephritidae): did the Andes uplift contribute to current morphological differences? Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Ramírez, Claudio C.; Salazar, Marcela; Palma, R. Eduardo; Cordero, Cecilia; Meza-Basso, Luís

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Las especies de Rhagoletis neotropicales han sido agrupadas en cuatro grupos: nova,psalida,striatella y ferruginea, constituyendo 18 especies. Se han descrito diferencias morfológicas entre estas especies a ambos lados de la cordillera de los Andes que podrían relacionarse con el proceso de levantamiento cordillerano. En este trabajo se evalúa esta hipótesis usando análisis filogenético de atributos morfológicos y moleculares. Los resultados muestran que: a) las especies Neotropicales de Rhagoletis constituyen un grupo separado de las especies Palearticas y Norteamericanas, con la excepción de un miembro del grupo striatella el cual presenta cierta asociación con las especies Norteamericanas; 2) Las especies Neotropicales parece conformar un clado monofilético; 3) La separación de los grupos Sudamericanos de otros grupos fue estimada en 4.333 millones de años antes del presente, proceso anterior a la emergencia del puente de tierra entre América Central y Sudamérica; 4) Dentro de las especies con distribución Sudamericana, los caracteres morfológicos y moleculares coinciden en ubicar algunas especies del grupo ferruginea separadas de especies de Rhagoletis Neotropicales. 5) La separación del grupo ferruginea fue estimada en 3.882 millones de años antes del presente, evento que precede al último levantamiento de los Andes. La diversificación de los grupos ferruginea,psalida y nova a uno y otro lado de la cordillera de los Andes parece responder inicialmente a un proceso vicariante y posteriores eventos de dispersión y aislamiento. Estos resultados sugieren que el levantamiento de los Andes habría participado en los patrones de diversificación de las Rhagoletis Neotropicales.

    Abstract in English:

    Neotropical Rhagoletis species are arranged in four groups: nova,psalida,striatella and ferruginea, which include 18 species. On both sides of the Andes, the evolution of morphological differences among these groups has been suggested to be related to the Andes uplift process. In order to test this hypothesis, a phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular data was performed. The results suggest that: 1) Neotropical species of Rhagoletis constitute a separate group from Paleartic and North American species, with the only exception being a member of the striatella group having a certain association with the northern species. 2) Neotropical species seem to form a monophyletic clade, although statistical support for this is weak. 3) The split of South American Rhagoletis from other groups was dated at 4.333 million years ago, which is before the emergence of a continuous landbridge between Central and South América. 4) Within species distributed in South América, morphological and molecular data were coincident, placing species of the ferruginea group separate from the other Neotropical Rhagoletis. 5) The divergence of the ferruginea group from the other groups was dated at 3.882 million years ago, which is before the last uplift of the Andes. These results suggest that diversification of the ferruginea,psalida and nova groups, on each side of the Andes, was the result of a vicariant separation followed by dispersal and isolation processes. Thus, these results support the hypothesis that the Andes uplift has played an important role in Neotropical Rhagoletis diversification.
  • A longitudinal study of two species of Belostoma Latreille (Heteroptera: Belostomatidae): allometry and ontogeny Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Iglesias, Mónica S.; Gaspe, María S.; Valverde, Alejandra C.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Los patrones de crecimiento alométrico de los segmentos del rostro y de las patas de Belostoma elegans (Mayr) y B. cummingsi De Carlo son presentados y comparados por primera vez. Se emplearon datos longitudinales de todos los estadios ninfales en un contexto multivariado. Los segmentos de la pata media y posterior presentan coeficientes alométricos con polaridad opuesta a los de la pata anterior. Estas diferencias observadas pueden deberse al diferente rol que presentan las patas. La función principal de la pata anterior es la captura de las presas, mientras que las patas media y posterior están adaptadas para la natación. El tamaño relativo de los segmentos del rostro es una característica taxonómica importante en Belostoma. En B.cummingsi el segmento proximal es más largo que el medio, mientras que en B. elegans son subiguales. Nuestro propósito es explicar estas diferencias a través del análisis de las trayectorias ontogéneticas en un intento de aclarar diferencias morfológicas entre especies desde una perspectiva del desarrrollo.

    Abstract in English:

    The multivariate allometric growth patterns from longitudinal data of leg and rostral segments of all instars of Belostoma elegans (Mayr) and B. cummingsi De Carlo are presented for the first time, and the allometric coefficients are compared. The segments of the middle and hind legs present allometric coefficients with opposite polarity to those of forelegs. This discrepancy in the ontogenetic trajectories may be due to the different functions of the legs. The foreleg main function is to capture of the prey, while the middle and hind legs are adapted to swimming. The relative size of rostral segments is an important taxonomic character in Belostoma. In B. cummingsi, the proximal segment is longer than the middle one, while in B. elegans they are subequal. Our purpose is to explain these differences through the analysis of their ontogenetic trajectories in an attempt to illuminate the morphological differences among species from a developmental perspective.
  • Five new species of the neotropical genus Ganodes Townes (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Díaz, Francisco A.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Cinco espécies do gênero Neotropical Ganodes Townes, coletadas no México, Venezuela, Brasil e Argentina, são descritas e ilustradas: G. bocaina, G. garciai, G. mexicanus, G. townesi y G. wahli. É apresentada uma chave para sete espécies, incluindo duas descritas anteriormente, G. balteatus Townes e G. matai Gauld.

    Abstract in English:

    Five new species of the Neotropical genus Ganodes Townes, from Mexico, Venezuela, Brazil and Argentina, are described and illustrated: G. bocaina, G. garciai, G. mexicanus, G. townesi and. G. wahli. A key to seven species is provided, including two species described previously, G. balteatus Townes and G. matai Gauld.
  • Bionomics data and descriptions of the immatures of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), pest of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) (Arecaceae) in Tabasco, Mexico

    Córdova-Ballona, Leonides; Sánchez-Soto, Saúl

    Abstract in Spanish:

    En el presente trabajo se presentan descripciones de la morfología externa del huevo, instares larvales y pupa de Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insecto plaga de la palma aceitera (Elaeis guineensis J.) y de la palma camedor (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) en el estado de Tabasco, México. Además se aportan algunos datos acerca de la bionomía de esta especie, la cual fue criada en laboratorio sobre plantas jóvenes de palma aceitera.

    Abstract in English:

    Characters of the external morphology of egg, larval instars and pupae of Calyptocephala gerstaeckeri Boheman, insect pest of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis J.) and camedor palm (Chamaedorea elegans Mart.) in the State of Tabasco, Mexico, are described and illustrated. Some bionomics data are also presented. The specie was reared in the laboratory on young oil palm plants.
  • A new species of Anagrus (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from Amazonas, Brazil Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V.; Querino, Ranyse B.; Feitosa, Malu C.B.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Uma nova espécie de mimarídeo Neotropical, Anagrus (Anagrus) amazonensis Triapitsyn, Querino & Feitosa, sp. n., é descrita e ilustrada. Anagrus Haliday é um gênero extenso de Mymaridae (Hymenoptera), que agora inclui oito espécies registradas para o Brasil. Esta nova espécie ataca ovos de libélulas (Odonata: Zygoptera).

    Abstract in English:

    A new fairyfly species from the Neotropics, Anagrus (Anagrus) amazonensis Triapitsyn, Querino & Feitosa, sp. n., is described and illustrated. Anagrus Haliday is a large genus of Mymaridae (Hymenoptera), which now includes eight species recorded from Brazil. This new species attacks eggs of damselflies (Odonata: Zygoptera).
  • New records of Brazilian cicadas including the description of a new species (Hemiptera: Cicadoidea, Cicadidae) Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Sanborn, Allen F.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Una nueva especie de Proarna Stål se describe en el sur de Brasil. Proarna gianucai sp. nov. se distingue por su coloración y genitalias. La especie habita en ambientes de dunas costeras y se asocia con la hierba perenne Panicum racemosum (P. Beauv.) Spreng. Los adultos son activos desde Diciembre a Marzo. Los primeros registros de Carineta durantoni Boulard, Carineta gemella Boulard, Carineta pilifera Walker, Fidicina christinae Boulard & Martinelli, Fidicina torresi Boulard & Martinellli, Fidicinoides determinata (Walker), Fidicinoides distanti (Goding), Fidicinoides glauca (Goding), Majeorona truncata Goding, y Zammara columbia Distant, en el Brasil son descritos en este estudio. Contando la nueva especie y los nuevos registros presentados aqui, la diversidad de la cigarras alcanza un total de 146 especies en el Brasil.

    Abstract in English:

    A new species of Proarna Stål is described from southern Brazil. Proarna gianucai sp. nov. is distinguished by its coloration and genitalia. The species inhabits coastal dune environments and is associated with the perennial grass Panicum racemosum (P. Beauv.) Spreng. Adults are active from December to March. The first records of Carineta durantoni Boulard, Carineta gemella Boulard, Carineta pilifera Walker, Fidicina christinae Boulard & Martinelli, Fidicina torresi Boulard & Martinellli, Fidicinoides determinata (Walker), Fidicinoides distanti (Goding), Fidicinoides glauca (Goding), Majeorona truncata Goding, and Zammara columbia Distant for Brazil are provided. The new species and new records bring the total cicada diversity of Brazil to 146 species.
  • Morphological caste studies in the neotropical swarm-founding Polistinae wasp Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Gelin, Luiz F.F.; Cruz, Jucelho D. da; Noll, Fernando B.; Giannotti, Edilberto; Santos, Gilberto M. de M.; Bichara-Filho, Carlos C.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    As vespas neotropicais enxameadoras possuem colônias poligínicas e uma variação muito grande em relação à diferenciação das castas, desde espécies em que rainhas e operárias possuem formas e tamanhos semelhantes até aquelas em que grande diferença na forma e no tamanho são observados. Estudos morfométricos utilizando oito medidas corporais em nove colônias de Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier) foram realizados a fim de aumentar o conhecimento sobre diferenciação de castas em Epiponini, empregando-se análise canônica discriminante e teste t de Bonferroni. Os indivíduos foram dissecados para determinar o nível de desenvolvimento ovariano e as espermatecas foram removidas para verificar a ocorrência de inseminação e assim definir os três grupos de fêmeas: rainhas (ovários desenvolvidos e espermateca fecundada), intermediárias (ovários desenvolvidos e espermateca não-fecundada) e operárias (ovários não-desenvolvidos). Apesar de serem encontradas diferenças significativas para algumas medidas em sete das nove colônias, a análise multivariada (lambda de Wilks) mostrou que as castas são de difícil distinção apenas pela morfologia. É possível concluir que diferenças morfológicas entre castas de A. pallens são pequenas ou ausentes, o que reflete o plano basal para os Epiponini, i.e. padrão pós-imaginal de diferenciação castas.

    Abstract in English:

    Neotropical swarm-founding wasps present polygynic colonies and a great variation in relation to caste differentiation, ranging from species in which queens and workers are similar in shape and size to those where variation in shape and size is conspicuous. Canonical discriminant analysis and Bonferroni t-test analysis on morphometric data collected from eight body parts of specimens from nine colonies of Angiopolybia pallens (Lepeletier) were undertaken as a step towards to a better understanding on caste differenciation in Epiponini. All specimens were dissected to verify the ovary developmental stage, and the spermatheca was removed to check for the mating status. Females were then grouped as queens (mated with developed ovaries), intermediates (virgin with developed ovaries) and workers (virgin with undeveloped ovaries). Even though differences were found for some measurements in seven out of the nine colonies evaluated, multivariate analysis (Wilks' lambda values) indicated castes could not be reliably distinguished only by morphology. We conclude that morphological differences among A. pallens castes are low or absent, reflecting a possible groundplan for the Epiponini, i.e. a post-imaginal pattern of caste differentiation.
  • Use of by-products rich in carbon and nitrogen as a nutrient source to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based biopesticide Biological Control

    Valicente, Fernando H.; Mourão, André H.C.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A quantidade de carbono e nitrogênio usados para produzir biopesticidas à base de Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner) pode influenciar a qualidade final do produto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar meios com diferentes níveis de carbono e nitrogênio: meio 1 - glicose de milho a 1.5% + farinha de soja a 0,5%, meio 2 - glicose de milho a 3,0% + farinha de soja a 1,0%, meio 3 - glicose de milho a 1,0% + farinha de soja a 3,0% e meio 4 - Luria Bertani (LB) + sais (FeSO4, ZnSO4, MnSO4 e MgSO4). O inóculo semente foi produzido usando 150 ml de meio LB mais sais incubados por 18h a 30ºC, sob agitação de 200 rpm. A cepa utilizada foi 344 (B. thuringiensis var tolworthi - pertencente ao Banco de Microorganismos da Embrapa). O pH foi medido a intervalos regulares. Após 96h de cultivo, o pH de todos os meios testados tenderam ao básico (entre 6,91 e 8,15), o maior número de esporos foi de 4,39 x 10(9) sporos/ml no meio 3, onde o teor de proteína usado foi o mais alto. A produção de massa celular foi maior no meio 3, com total acumulado de 39,3 g/l. A mortalidade de larvas de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) de dois dias de idade nos meios 3 e 4 foi de 100%. A CL50 para o meio 3 foi de 8,4 x 10(6) esporos/ml. Os meios alternativos usados promoveram crescimento satisfatório de Bt, sendo o meio 3 o mais promissor para ser usado na produção de biopesticida à base de Bt.

    Abstract in English:

    The amount and sources of carbon and nitrogen used to produce Bacillus thuringiensis (Berliner)-based biopesticide may influence the quality of the final product. The objective of this research was to test different levels of carbon and nitrogen: medium 1 - 1.5% maize glucose + 0.5% soy flour, medium 2 - 3.0% maize glucose + 1.0% soy flour, medium 3 - 1.0% maize glucose + 3.0% soy flour and medium 4 - Luria Bertani (LB) + salts (FeSO4, ZnSO4, MnSO4, MgSO4). The seed culture was produced in LB medium plus salt, under agitation (200 rpm) for 18h at 30ºC. The strain 344 of Bt was used (B. thuringiensis var tolworthi - belonging to the Embrapa's Bt Bank). The pH was measured at regular intervals. and After culturing for 96h, the pH of the four tested media was basified (6.91 and 8.15), the number of spores yielded 4.39 x 10(9) spores/ml in medium 3, where the amount of protein is high. The dry biomass weight accumulated in media 3 was 39.3 g/l. Mortality of 2-day-old larvae Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) was 100% when using Bt produced in media 3 and 4. CL50 for medium 3 was 8.4 x 10(6) spores/ml. All tested media were satisfactory to Bt growth, and medium 3 wass the most promising to be used on a large scale Bt-based biopesticide production.
  • Bioactivity of Trichilia pallida Swartz (Meliaceae) derived molecules on Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Cunha, Uemerson S. da; Vendramim, José D.; Rocha, Waldireny C.; Vieira, Paulo C.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A partir do extrato em diclorometano (DIC) de folhas e frutos de Trichilia pallida Swartz, objetivou-se fazer o isolamento e identificação de substâncias com atividade inseticida sobre a traça-do-tomateiro, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). Do extrato em DIC de folhas de T. pallida foram isolados os triterpenos 24-metilenocicloarta-3β-ol (TRIT-1), 24-metilenocicloarta-3β-26-diol (TRIT-2) e cicloarta-23-eno-3β,25-diol (TRIT-3), os esteróides 24-metileno-3,22-diidroxicolesterol (EST-1), 24-metilenocolesterol (EST-2) e 24-metileno-3β,4β,22-triidroxicolesterol (EST-3), além do limonóide gedunina (LIM) obtido de frutos da planta. As substâncias foram dissolvidas em acetona e pulverizadas a 0,1% em folíolos de tomateiro infestados com lagartas recém-eclodidas. Foram avaliadas a mortalidade de lagartas aos quinto e nono dias após a infestação, duração e sobrevivência das fases de larva e pupa, peso de pupas e porcentagem de adultos deformados. TRIT-1, EST-1 e LIM foram as moléculas que apresentaram maior atividade sobre T. absoluta, alongando o desenvolvimento larval e reduzindo a sobrevivência dessa fase.

    Abstract in English:

    Dichloromethane (DIC) leaf and fruit extracts of Trichiliapallida Swartz were obtained for the isolation and identification of molecules with insecticidal activity against the tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick). DIC leaf extracts of T. pallida yielded six compounds, the triterpenes 24-methylenecycloarta-3β-ol (TRIT-1), 24-methylenecycloarta-3β-26-diol (TRIT-2) and cycloarta-23-eno-3β,25-diol (TRIT-3), the sterols 24-methylene-3,22-dihydroxycholesterol (EST-1), 24-methylenecholesterol (EST-2) and 24-methylene-3β,4β,22-trihydroxycholesterol (EST-3), while the fruit extract yielded the limonoid gedunine (LIM). These molecules were dissolved in acetone and sprayed at 0.1% on tomato leaflets infested with newly-hatched larvae. Larval mortality at day 5 and 9 after infestation, larval and pupal developmental time and survival, pupal weight and adult malformation were evaluated. TRIT-1, EST-1 and LIM were the most effective against T. absoluta due to larval development arrestment and reduced larval survivorship.
  • Factors affecting Diatomaceous Earth effectiveness in the control of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) adults

    Alves, Luis F.A.; Oliveira, Daian G.P.; Neves, Pedro M.O.J.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    A terra de diatomácea (TD) é uma alternativa potencial para o controle do cascudinho-dos-aviários, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). O objetivo do presente estudo foi conhecer a interferência de alguns fatores ambientais e comportamentais dessa espécie sobre a eficiência da terra diatomácea no seu controle. Para isso, avaliou-se o efeito da temperatura do ambiente e do substrato (ração para frangos e cama do aviário) na atividade da TD, assim como a atividade repelente do produto sobre adultos. A 32ºC a mortalidade de insetos foi significativamente maior (53 e 84%, respectivamente para as concentrações de 86 e 172 g/m²) (P < 0,05). Além disso, o substrato influenciou, obtendo-se mortalidade de 95% na ração, contra apenas 4% na cama de aviário. Parte dos resultados pode ser atribuída à remoção das partículas de TD pela cama de aviário, conforme indicado pela análise em microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV) e também pela determinação da concentração de rodamina na superfície dos insetos. Quanto ao comportamento dos insetos, as armadilhas com TD capturaram cerca de 50% menos insetos que aquelas contendo apenas ração, mostrando, assim, a ação repelente do produto. Assim, os fatores ambientais influenciam a eficiência de TD e, portanto, devem ser levados em consideração para orientar as estratégias de utilização de TD em campo.

    Abstract in English:

    Diatomaceous earth (DE) is a potential alternative to control the lesser mealworm of poultry farms Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). Our study aimed to understand the role of some of the environmental and insect behavioral factors play on DE effectiveness, such as the substrate (chicken food and poultry house litter), temperature and DE repellent activity on lesser mealworm adults. Mortality was higher at the highest temperature (32ºC), and it increased with DE concentration (53 and 84% respectively, for concentrations of 86 and 172 g/m²) (P < 0.05). The substrate also influenced DE effectiveness: 95% mortality was observed in the feed, against 4% in the poultry litter. Part of these results can be attributed to the removal of DE particles by the poultry bedding, as supported by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations and rhodamine concentration on the surface of the insects. As to insect behavior, DE had a repellent effect, since trap capture decreased nearly 50% in traps containing DE as opposed to those containing only food. Therefore, environmental factors do affect the DE effectiveness, and they must be taken into consideration when looking into developing control strategies in the field.
  • Diagrammatic scale of Aceria guerreronis Keifer (Acari: Eriophyidae) damage in coconut

    Galvão, Andréia S.; Gondim Jr., Manoel G.C.; Michereff, Sami J.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer é importante praga do coqueiro no mundo. Dada a falta de métodos padronizados para a quantificação dos danos causados por esse eriofiídeo, uma escala diagramática com níveis de 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48 e 70% de danos foi elaborada e testada para precisão e reprodutibilidade das estimativas. Para validar a escala, frutos com diferentes níveis de dano foram previamente avaliados com o programa Assess® e submetidos à avaliação por 10 avaliadores inexperientes com e sem a escala (1ª avaliação) e sete dias após (2ª avaliação) com os mesmos avaliadores, empregando-se as fotos digitalizadas dos mesmos frutos com seqüência diferente. A acurácia e a precisão de cada avaliador foram determinadas por regressão linear simples entre o dano observado e estimado. Sem a utilização da escala, sete de 10 avaliadores superestimaram o nível de dano, sendo pouco precisos. No entanto, avaliadores utilizando a escala obtiveram melhores níveis de acurácia e precisão. Os avaliadores apresentaram níveis mais elevados de reprodutibilidade das estimativas com a utilização da escala comparada às avaliações sem a escala. A escala foi utilizada para determinar a relação entre a infestação e o dano causado por A. guerreronis. A relação entre infestação e níveis de dano apresentou elevada precisão (R² = 99,87%, P < 0,0001) pela equação lny = 4,948 - 0,121 x + 1,789 lnx. Portanto, os resultados comprovam que é possível estimar a população de A. guerreronis nos frutos de coco infestados com a utilização da escala diagramática.

    Abstract in English:

    Aceria guerreronis Keifer is an important pest of coconut worldwide. Due to the lack of standardized methods to quantify damage of this eryophyid, a diagrammatic scale with indices of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 48 and 70% of damage caused by A. guerreronis was elaborated and tested to accuracy, precision and reproduction of the estimations. To validate the scale, fruits with different levels of damage were previously measured with the program Assess® and submitted to 10 inexperienced evaluators with or without the scale (1ª evaluation) and seven days after (2ª evaluation) with the same evaluators, using digitized pictures of the same fruits in a different sequence. The accuracy and precision of each evaluator was determined through linear regression between observed and estimated damage. Without using the scale, evaluators were less precise as seven out of 10 overestimated the damage, while evaluators provided with the scale were much more accurate. Also, evaluations with the aid of the scale were much more reproducible than without the scale. The scale was used to determine the relationship between infestation and damage levels caused by A. guerrerronis. The relationship between infestation and damage fitted by the equation lny = 4.948 - 0.121x + 1.789 lnx (R² = 99.87%, P < 0.0001). Therefore, these findings show that it is possible to estimate A. guerreronis population density on infested coconut fruits by using the diagrammatic scale.
  • Effect of diet composition on the development of the floodwater Mosquito Ochlerotatus (Ochletotatus) albifasciatus (Macquart) (Diptera: Culicidae) Public Health

    Sy, Victoria E.; Campos, Raúl E.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Un paso importante para la colonización de Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) es conocer las condiciones óptimas para la cría de las larvas, lo cual además posibilita el desarrollo de experimentos en el laboratorio. En este trabajo se estudió el efecto de la dieta sobre el desarrollo de O. albifasciatus. Para ello se criaron cohortes de 20 larvas I utilizando cinco tipos de dietas: una mezcla 1:1 de levadura y TetraMin®, una mezcla 1:1 de materia orgánica fina y gruesa, gramíneas cortadas y sumergidas en agua 1h o 24h antes de incorporar las larvas, y una mezcla 1:1:1 de gramíneas cortadas, materia orgánica fina y materia orgánica gruesa. Para cada cohorte se registró la supervivencia, y para cada individuo, el tiempo de desarrollo desde larva I hasta pupa y la longitud del ala de los adultos. El efecto de la dieta sobre estas características se analizó mediante un ANOVA de una vía. Los resultados mostraron que la dieta afecta la supervivencia y la longitud del ala, obteniéndose los mayores valores de estas variables (79-100 % y ~ 4,46 mm) con las dietas consistentes en materia orgánica o materia orgánica más gramíneas. El tiempo de desarrollo no estuvo afectado por la dieta, aunque el tiempo más corto (8,1-8,3 dias) y la menor variación entre réplicas se registraron al criar las larvas con materia orgánica o materia orgánica más gramíneas. Se concluye que las dietas consistentes en materia orgánica o una mezcla de ésta y gramíneas, son las más efectivas para la cría de O. albifasciatus.

    Abstract in English:

    One important step for the colonization of Ochlerotatus albifasciatus (Macquart) is to determine the optimal conditions for larval rearing, which makes possible the development of experiments comprising larval rearing in the laboratory. In this research the effect of diet composition on the development of O.albifasciatus was studied. For this purpose, cohorts of 20 first instars were reared using five diets: 1:1 mix of yeast and TetraMin®, 1:1 mix of fine and coarse organic matter, grass cuts soaked in water for 1h or 24h before larvae incorporation, and 1:1:1 mix of grass cuts, fine organic matter and coarse organic matter. Survival was recorded for each cohort, while development time from first instar to pupa, and adult wing length were recorded for each individual. The effects of the diet on the observed traits were analyzed by one way ANOVA. Both survival and wing length were affected by diet, being significantly higher (79-100% and ~ 4.46 mm) on diets consisting of organic matter or organic matter plus grass than on those consisting of yeast plus TetraMin® or grass. Development time was not affected by the diet, although the shortest time (8.1 to 8.3 days) and lower variation between replicates were recorded when larvae were reared using organic matter or organic matter plus grass. Thus, it is concluded that the diets consisting of organic matter or a mix of it and grass are the most effective for O.albifasciatus rearing.
  • New records of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae), wild hosts and parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in the Brazilian Amazon Scientific Note

    Jesus, Cristiane R. de; Pereira, Júlia D.B.; Oliveira, Manoela N. de; Silva, Ricardo A. da; Souza Filho, Miguel F.; Costa Neto, Salustiano V. da; Marinho, Cláudia F.; Zucchi, Roberto A.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Anastrepha anomala Stone foi obtida de frutos de Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) e Anastrepha hastata Stone de Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) no Amapá, sendo obtidos dois braconídeos, Doryctobracon sp. e Opius bellus Gahan, dessa espécie. Este é o primeiro registro de P. amapa como hospedeiro de moscas-das-frutas. C. cognatum é o primeiro hospedeiro conhecido de A. hastata e os braconídeos são também os primeiros registros de parasitóides dessa espécie.

    Abstract in English:

    Anastrepha anomala Stone was obtained from Parahancornia amapa (Huber) Ducke (Apocynaceae) fruits, and Anastrepha hastata Stone from Cheiloclinium cognatum (Miers.) (Hippocrateaceae) in the State of Amapá, Brazil. Two braconids, Doryctobracon sp. and Opius bellus Gahan, were reared from the latter fruit fly species. This is the first record of P. amapa as a fruit fly host. C. cognatum is the first host known to A. hastata. Both braconids are also the first records of parasitoids for this species.
  • Trichoptera imatures in Paranã river basin, Goiás State, with new records for genera

    Martins-Silva, Maria J.; Engel, Diana W.; Rocha, Fabio M. da; Araújo, Juliana

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Este trabalho apresenta a distribuição de Trichoptera ao longo da Bacia do Rio Paranã, GO, com novos registros para gênero. Foram estabelecidas 18 estações de coleta ao longo da bacia durante as estações chuvosa (março e dezembro/2003) e seca (julho/2003 e agosto/ 2004). Foram utilizadas redes de bentos do tipo Surber e " D" , para a coleta dos organismos nos diversos ambientes.

    Abstract in English:

    Distribution of Trichoptera along Paranã River Basin, Goiás State, with new records for genera, is presented. Eighteen sample sites were made along the basin during the rain (March and December/2003) and dry (July/2003 and August/2004) seasons. Surber and D net were used for sampling all habitats.
  • First report of Raoiella indica Hirst (Acari: Tenuipalpidae) in South America Scientific Note

    Vásquez, Carlos; Quirós de G., Magally; Aponte, Orlando; Sandoval, D. María F.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Se registra la presencia de Raoiella indica Hirst por primera vez en Sur América. Altas poblaciones y daños severos causados por esta nueva especie invasiva fueron encontrados en hojas de coco y banana en los estados nororientales de Venezuela, Sucre (10° 27' 47" N y 64°10' 38" W) y Monagas (9º46'60" N y 63º12'0" W).

    Abstract in English:

    The presence of the red palm mite, Raoiella indica Hirst is recorded for the first time in South America. High populations and severe damages caused by this new invasive mite were found on coconut and banana leaves in Sucre (10° 27' 47" N and 64°10' 38" W) and Monagas (9º46'60" N and 63º12'0" W) states in northeastern Venezuela.
  • Herbivory on bracken (Pteridium spp.) by Bolax palliata Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), a poliphagous beetle of the Venezuelan Andes Scientific Note

    Avila Núñez, Jorge L.; Otero, L. Daniel; Naya, Marlene; Calcagno-Pisarelli, Maria P.

    Abstract in Spanish:

    Se reporta la herbivoría de Bolax palliata Burmeister sobre dos especies simpátricas del helecho macho: Pteridium caudatum (L.) Maxon and P. arachnoideum (Kaulf.). Observaciones de laboratorio y campo mostraron preferencia por la última de estas especies. La información fitoquímica disponible sugiere que esta selección podría estar basada en diferencias en la concentración de taninos condensados.

    Abstract in English:

    Herbivore attack by Bolax palliata Burmeister is reported on two sympatric bracken species: Pteridium caudatum (L.) Maxon and P. arachnoideum (Kaulf.). Laboratory and field observations revealed a preference for the last of the two species. Available phytochemical information suggests it could be based on differences in concentration of condensed tannins.
  • First report and differential colonization of Passiflora Species by the B biotype of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Brazil Scientific Note

    Nunes, Endson S.; Brown, Judith K.; Moreira, Adriana G.; Watson, Gillian; Lourenção, André L.; Piedade, Sônia M.S.; Rezende, Jorge A. M.; Vieira, Maria L.C.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    Esse trabalho descreve pela primeira vez a ocorrência do aleirodídeo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biótipo B colonizando maracujazeiros no Brasil. Também foi examinada a colonização de nove espécies de Passiflora pelo inseto em condições de telado. P. amethystina Mikan foi a espécie de maior preferência para oviposição e colonização, enquanto P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. e duas espécies cultivadas comercialmente, P. alata Curtis e P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, foram pouco colonizadas pelo aleirodídeo. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. e P. caerulea L. exibiram níveis intermediários de colonização. Esses resultados sugerem que certas espécies de Passiflora exibem diferentes graus de resistência à colonização ou preferência para oviposição de B. tabaci biótipo B.

    Abstract in English:

    This note is the first report of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) biotype B colonizing passionvine in Brazil. We examined the colonization of nine Passiflora species by a wild B type population under greenhouse conditions. P. amethystina Mikan was the most preferred species for oviposition and colonization, whereas P. suberosa L., P. coriacea Juss. and two commercially cultivated species, P. alata Curtis and P. edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Degener, were mostly uncolonised. P. morifolia Mast., P. cincinnata Mast., P. foetida L. and P. caerulea L. showed intermediate levels of colonization. Such differential colonization might suggest some degree of resistance by certain Passiflora species or oviposition preference by B. tabaci.
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