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Neotropical Entomology, Volume: 39, Issue: 1, Published: 2010
  • Integrated pest management: theoretical insights from a threshold policy Forum

    Costa, Michel I da Silveira; Faria, lucas Del B

    Abstract in English:

    An Integrated Pest Management is formulated as a threshold policy. It is shown that when this strategy is applied to a food web consisting of generalist, specialist predators and endemic and pest prey, the dynamics can be stable and useful from the pest control point of view, despite the dynamical complexities inherent to the application of biocontrol only. In addition, pesticide toxicity depends rather on the species intrinsic parameters than on the chemical agent concentration.
  • Performance of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) in fruits: comparison of two laboratory populations

    Joachim-Bravo, Iara S; Guimarães, Analice N; Magalhães, Tatiana C; Nascimento, Antônio S

    Abstract in English:

    This study evaluated the influence of two fruits hosts (orange and papaya) on biological and behavioral parameters of two populations of Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) reared under laboratory conditions. One of these populations has been reared under laboratory conditions by 25 years without introduction of wild flies (Lab-pop), while the other has been maintained under the same conditions by 15 years but with occasional introduction of wild specimens (Hybrid-pop). The following parameters were analyzed: emergence percentage, life cycle duration (from eclosion to emergence), adult size, longevity, female fecundity and oviposition preference. The best performance of immatures of both populations was obtained on papaya as a host. Larvae reared on orange had longer life cycle, low emergence percentage and smaller adults. The fruit type did not affect fecundity and longevity of the Lab-pop, but in the Hybrid-pop males lived longer when reared on papaya, while females had higher longevity and fecundity when reared on orange. Females of both populations preferred to lay eggs in papaya (better host for larvae) when compared to orange. However, some eggs were deposited on orange only by females of Lab-pop, suggesting a lower ability for host selection of this population. These data are discussed regarding to the effects of continuous laboratory rearing on the biological parameters of this species.
  • Biological aspects of Cyclocephala verticalis burmeister (coleoptera: scarabaeidae)

    Rodrigues, Sérgio R; Nogueira, Gerson A L; Echeverria, Rodrigo R; Oliveira, Vilma S

    Abstract in English:

    Several coleopterans of the Scarabaeidae family (Pleurosticti) are reported as important pests of agricultural crops, but little information on their biology is available. We describe our observations on the biology of adult Cyclocephala verticalis Burmeister collected with light traps from January, 2006 to December, 2007, in Aquidauana, MS, Brasil. Field collected adults were taken to the laboratory and kept in plastic containers containing soil and seedlings of Brachiaria decumbens under controlled conditions (26 ± 1ºC with 12h of photophase). The embrionary period of C. verticalis took 17.2 days in the average. The duration of first-, second- and third-instar larvae was 22.0, 23.7 and 138.1 days in the average, respectively. The prepupal stage took 12.7 days and the pupal stage 14.8 days. Adults obtained in laboratory lived 37.5 days. The complete cycle reached 228.6 days, making possible the development of a single generation per year. In laboratory conditions, the copulation lasted about 19 min and 20 seconds. The adults fly in a great amount in September and October, being this the main period of oviposition in the field.
  • Dung beetle communities: a neotropical-north temperate comparison Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Radtke, Meghan G; Fonseca, Cláudio R V da; Williamson, G Bruce

    Abstract in English:

    Dung beetle communities have been compared across north temperate latitudes. Tropical dung beetle communities appear to be more diverse based on studies using different methodologies. Here, we present results from a standardized sampling protocol used to compare dung beetle communities across five neotropical forests in Brazil and Ecuador and two warm, north temperate forests in Mississippi and Louisiana. Species richness in the tropical forests was three to seven times higher than the temperate forests, as would be expected by studies of other taxa across tropical and temperate latitudes. Average body size in the temperate forests was larger than the tropical forests, as predicted by Bergmann's rule. Dung beetle abundance and volume per trap-day were generally higher in Ecuador than Brazil, and higher in Mississippi than Louisiana, but there were no tropical-temperate differences. Species rank-abundance curves were similar within countries and between countries. Rank-volume distributions indicated a smaller range of beetle body sizes in Ecuador versus Brazil or the USA. Community similarity was high within countries and low between countries. Community differences between Brazil and Ecuador sites may be explained by differences in productivity based on geological age of the soils.
  • Alternative food sources and overwintering feeding behavior of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis boheman (coleoptera: curculionidae) underthe tropical conditions of central Brazil Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Ribeiro, Paulina de A; Sujii, Edison R; Diniz, Ivone R; Medeiros, Maria A de; Salgado-Labouriau, Maria L; Branco, Marina C; Pires, Carmen S S; Fontes, Eliana M G

    Abstract in English:

    The boll weevil causes serious damage to the cotton crop in South America. Several studies have been published on this pest, but its phenology and behavior under the tropical conditions prevailing in Brazil are not well-known. In this study the feeding behavior and main food sources of adult boll weevils throughout the year in Central Brazil was investigated. The digestive tract contents of insects captured in pheromone traps in two cotton fields and two areas of native vegetation (gallery forest and cerrado sensu stricto) were analyzed. The insect was captured all through the year only in the cerrado. It fed on pollen of 19 different plant families, on Pteridophyta and fungi spores and algae cysts. Simpson Index test showed that the cerrado provided greater diversity of pollen sources. In the beginning of the cotton cycle, the plant families used for pollen feeding were varied: in cotton area 1, the weevil fed on Poaceae(50%), Malvaceae and Smilacaceae (25% each); in cotton area 2 the pollen sources were Malvaceae (50%), Asteraceae (25%) and Fabaceae and Clusiaceae (25% each); in the cerrado they were Chenopodiaceae (67%) and Scheuchzeriaceae (33%). No weevils were collected in the gallery forest in this period. After cotton was harvested, the family Smilacaceae was predominant among the food plants exploited in all the study areas. These results help to explain the survivorship of adult boll weevil during cotton fallow season in Central Brazil and they are discussed in the context of behavioral adaptations to the prevailing tropical environmental conditions.
  • Comparative study of the stridulatorium sulcus, buccula and rostrum of nymphs of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al and Triatoma williami Galvão et al (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Silva, Maria B A; Jurberg, José; Galvão, Cleber; Barbosa, Helene S

    Abstract in English:

    Ultrastructural analysis of the ventral region of the head - rostrum, buccula and stridulatorium sulcus - of 1st, 3rd and 5th instars of Triatoma klugi Carcavallo et al, Triatoma vandae Carcavallo et al, and Triatoma williami Galvão et al, are described in here. Morphological differences in the analyzed structures for all three Triatoma species studied were detected under scanning electron microscopy, allowing their grouping by their morphological similarities. Species-specific differences at each nymphal development stage were analyzed as well.
  • Isoenzymatic polymorphism in the leaf-cutting ant Atta capiguara Gonçalves (hymenoptera: formicidae) Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Cantagalli, Liriana B; Mangolin, Claudete A; Ruvolo-Takasusuki, Maria C C

    Abstract in English:

    This study was carried out to analyze the genetic population structure of Atta capiguara from 12 nests collected in Tapejara in the state of Paraná, Brazil, using isoenzyme polymorphisms. The analyzed isoenzymes were esterases (EST - EC 3.1.1.1), acid phosphatase (ACP - EC 3.1.3.2) and carbonic anhydrase (CA - EC 4.2.1.1). Ten loci were found in A.capiguara and four polymorphic loci were detected. The observed heterozigosity (0.0296) was low when compared to the expected heterozigosity (0.1461). The high value of F IS (0.7954) shows an excess of homozygous genotypes probably caused by inbreeding.
  • A new species of Metriocnemus van der wulp (diptera: chironomidae) with a tentative phylogeny of the genus Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Donato, Mariano; Siri, Augusto

    Abstract in English:

    The male and female of the new species Metriocnemus puna sp. n from the Argentinean Puna are described and illustrated. A parsimony analysis including 24 well-described species of the genus plus the new species based on the adult male was conducted in order to access the phylogenetic position of the new species and to provide the first phylogenetic hypothesis for the genus.
  • A new species of Xylocopa (Monoxylocopa) Hurd & Moure and new records of X. abbreviata Hurd & Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae)

    Zanella, Fernando C V; Silva, Maise

    Abstract in English:

    Xylocopa (Monoxylocopa) macambirae sp. nov. is described from specimens collected mainly in areas at moderately high altitude of Northeastern brazil, inside the caatinga semi-arid domain. Additionally, a complementary diagnosis for the subgenus is presented.
  • New species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp (Diptera: Chironomidae) from São Paulo state, Brazil Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Sanseverino, Angela M; Trivinho-Strixino, Susana

    Abstract in English:

    Tanytarsus lenyae sp. n., T. giovannii sp. n., T. fittkaui sp. n. and T. alfredoi sp. n. from São Paulo State (Brazil) are described and diagnosed, the first as adult male and pupa, and the remaining as male, pupa and larva. The species were collected in areas of Cerrado, at the boundaries of São Carlos city. Complete diagnoses and drawings of the species are given. The imagos can be separated from other species of Tanytarsus van der Wulp mainly by differences in the antennal ratio, dorsomedian extension of the eyes, the thorax and wing setation, the shape of anal tergal bands, the anal point armament and the shape of superior volsella, digitus and median volsella. The pupae are characterized by the thoracic horn armament, the arrangement of the precorneals, the shape of anal comb and the abdominal setation. The larvae can be separated by differences in the antennal pedestal, the sclerotization of the second antennal segment, the size of Lauterborn organ pedicels, the shape of the clypeal seta S3 and the sclerotization of the mentum. Apparently, the four new species are not closely related, and the anal point armament alone would be enough to separate one species from the other.
  • A new species of Moneuptychia Forster (Lepidoptera: Satyrinae: Euptychiina) from central Brazil Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Freitas, André V L; Emery, Eduardo O; Mielke, Olaf H H

    Abstract in English:

    This paper describes a new species of Moneuptychia Forster from the cerrado in the Federal District and Goiás region in central Brazil, and from highland open vegetation (campos de altitude) of Minas Gerais and Paraná. We provide details of the adult morphology and discuss the new species placement in the genus Moneuptychia.
  • Effects of landscape structure and Eucalyptus genotype on the abundance and biological control of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Silva, Jhonathan O; Oliveira, Karla N; Santos, Kenya J; Espírito-Santo, Mário M; Neves, Frederico S; Faria, Maurício L

    Abstract in English:

    Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore is an Australian native pest of Eucalyptus detected in Brazil in 2003. Since then, it has spread fast and colonized plantations in several states of the country. This study aimed to investigate the influence of cerrado remnants on the abundance and biological control of G. brimblecombei. We placed yellow sticky card traps to capture insects in four plantations of hybrid clones of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis ("Urograndis") and four plantations of E. urophylla x Eucalyptus camaldulensis ("Urocam"). Traps were placed in three areas of these plantations: center, border with cerrado and border without cerrado. We also collected leaves from the same clones to estimate psyllid egg and lerp abundance. The abundance of G. brimblecombei was lower in the plantation-cerrado border, and the inverse pattern was observed for microhymenopterans. The leaf abaxial surface showed a higher abundance of eggs and nymphs, probably as a consequence of a lower parasitism rate and mechanical removal by wind and rain. Egg number was higher on Urograndis than in Urocam clones, but the number of psyllid lerps was higher in the latter. Thus, the establishment of first instars is probably a critical event to psyllid infestation, and these differences may be caused by morphological, anatomical and biochemical leaf features of distinct clones. Our results suggest that the maintenance of native vegetation around plantations is a promising management practice to promote the natural biological control of G.brimblecombei, a strategy that would also enhance the preservation of cerrado remnants.
  • Influence of the webbing produced by Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on associated predatory phytoseiids

    Franco, Renato A; Reis, Paulo R; Zacarias, Mauricio S; Oliveira, Daniel C

    Abstract in English:

    Oligonychus ilicis (McGregor) is among those mite species that can cause damage to coffee plants (Coffea spp.). Species of Phytoseiidae acari are considered the most important and studied predatory mites. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the webbing produced by O.ilicis on its predation by females of the phytoseiids Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, Euseius citrifolius Denmark & Muma and Amblyseius herbicolus (Chant). Four bioassays were conducted, with three treatments and ten replicates. Each replicate consisted of 25 O.ilicis per experimental unit (a leaf disc of Coffea arabica) according to the tested developmental stage, in independent experiments. To spin the web, 15 adult females were put on each experimental unit for 24h; females were then removed, leaving only the web, and predators and prey to be tested were introduced. Predation was assessed after 24h. In the presence of webbing, the consumption of eggs, larvae and nymphs by I.zuluagai and eggs and larvae by E.citrifolius was lower. For A.herbicolus, egg predation was lower, but larval predation did not vary significantly and predation of nymphs and adults was higher in the presence of webbing. Predators as a whole were more efficient consuming larvae regardless of the presence of webbing. Considering the stages of O.ilicis altogether, webbing reduced the predation potential of I.zuluagai and E. citrifolius, but not of A. herbicolus.
  • Spread of phosphine resistance among brazilian populations of three species of stored product insects Pest Management

    Pimentel, Marco A G; Faroni, Lêda R D'A; Silva, Felipe H da; Batista, Maurílio D; Guedes, Raul N C

    Abstract in English:

    The resistance to fumigant insecticides in stored-products insects is often recorded. Several factors influence the evolution of insecticide resistance. Among these, the frequency of applications and the migration of resistant populations are of primary importance for the stored-product insects. The aim of this study was to characterize the spectrum and investigate the status of phosphine resistance in Brazil, in 13 populations of the Coleoptera Tribolium castaneum Herbst (Tenebrionidae), ten populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (Fabr.) (Bostrichidae), and eight populations of Oryzaephilus surinamensis (L.) (Silvanidae). The pattern of resistance dispersion in the populations of these species was also verified. The bioassays for the detection of phosphine resistance followed the FAO standard method. To test the influence of migration in the evolution of the phosphine resistance, the difference of mortality in the discriminating concentration and the geographical distance among each pair wise combination of collection sites were correlated. None of the populations exhibited mortality above 90% in the discriminating concentration, for the three species. Mortality in the discriminating concentration increased with the geographical distance for R.dominica and O.surinamensis. However, no significant linear response was observed among the variables for T.castaneum populations. These results suggest that the dispersion of insects and the local selection are relevant in the evolution of the phosphine resistance in populations of R.dominica and O.surinamensis. In contrast, grain trade and local selection are probably the factors that determine the evolution of the phosphine resistance in populations of T. castaneum.
  • Population dynamics and damage caused by the leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis blanchard (Diptera: Agromyzidae), on seven potato processing varieties grown in temperate environment Pest Management

    López, R; Carmona, D; Vincini, A M; Monterubbianesi, G; Caldiz, D

    Abstract in English:

    The leafminer Liriomyza huidobrensis Blanchard is considered a key pest for potatoes in Argentina. Population dynamics and leaf damage caused by the leafminer on seven selected potato processing varieties were assessed at Balcarce during the 2002 and 2003 growing seasons. Adult population dynamic was monitored using yellow sticky traps, while leaf damage (punctures and mines) was assessed using a damage index scale from low to severe. Liriomyza huidobrensis adults were present throughout the growing season and the population increased along crop development. The same was true for all varieties regarding larval damage, being low on early crop stages and severe late in the season. Varieties were grouped in two different categories according to damage scale index. Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator showed a higher damage index when compared with Santana, Ranger Russet and Russet Burbank, which exhibited a lower damage. Moreover, it could be assumed that damage was related to the foliage greenness, with light green colored varieties (Shepody, Kennebec, Frital and Innovator) being more attractive and affected by L. huidobrensis.
  • Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil Public Health

    Andrade, Andrey J de; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    Abstract in English:

    The phlebotomine sand fly fauna of the State of Minas Gerais is presented based on an extensive review of the literature. The fauna, which is a rich one, is currently known to consist of at least 93 species included in 16 genera. The genus Evandromyia (16 spp.) is the most representative one, followed by Micropygomyia (13 spp.), Psathyromyia (12 spp.), Brumptomyia (11 spp.), Pintomyia (9 spp.), Lutzomyia (7 spp.), Psychodopygus (7 spp.), Martinsmyia (4 spp.), Nyssomyia (3 spp.), Deanemyia (2 spp.), Expapillata (2 spp.), Pressatia (2 spp.), and Sciopemyia (2 spp.). The genera Bichromomyia, Trichopygomyia, and Migonemyia are represented by only one species. An updated list of phlebotomine sand fly species occurring in Minas Gerais is provided. Finally, the importance of the species of public health concern is discussed.
  • Composition, abundance and infestation rate of ant species in a children's hospital in the city of Palmas, Tocantins, Brazil

    Bragança, Marcos A L; Lima, Jefferson D

    Abstract in English:

    This first survey of the ant fauna in a children's hospital in the city of Palmas, state of Tocantins, compares species composition, abundance and infestation rate of ants between rainy and dry seasons, day and night periods, and among 15 hospital sectors. Forty-eight collections, being 12 diurnal and 12 nocturnal in each season using five attractive baits distributed per sector, maintained for 3h per sampling. A total of 34,309 ants were collected, distributed in 12 species: Acromyrmex sp., Brachymyrmex sp., Camponotus spp. (four morphospecies), Dorymyrmex sp., Tetramorium sp., Solenopsis globularia (Creighton), Solenopsis saevissima Smith, Tapinoma melanocephalum (Fabricius) and Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille). The hospital presented an average building infestation rate (40.3%), when compared with hospitals from other Brazilian regions. In general, there was no difference in the species composition between seasons and the period of the day, although abundance of ants was higher at night. The dry season and the nocturnal period showed the highest infestation rate, mainly by T.melanocephalum and S.globularia. Gynecologic ward, lactation unit, preconception and pediatric ward access ramp showed higher infestation rate, although these varied between seasons. The significant infestation levels by the three species above, especially in sectors with restricted access such as lactation unit, laboratory, Intensive Care Unit e surgery center, indicate potential risks for contamination of patients by multi resistant pathogens possibly present in ants' bodies, as verified in others studies.
  • First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Pará, Brazil

    Ribeiro, Rafael C; Lemos, Walkymário P; Bernardino, Aline S; Buecke, Joel; Müller, Antonio A

    Abstract in English:

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hübner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Pará, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil.
  • Eufriesea pulchra smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini): extended geographic distribution and filling gaps in Mato Grosso state, Brazil Scientific Notes

    Anjos-Silva, Evandson J dos

    Abstract in English:

    This study was conducted in the Cotriguaçu district, situated on the bank of the Juruena River, in Mato Grosso state. The collects were carried out from August 22 to 25, 2007 with chemical baits to attract male orchid bees. The bees were captured on a daily basis, from 8 a.m. to 12 p.m. Of the 89 males captured three belonged to Eufriesea pulchra Smith. Before the present study, E.pulchra had been reported in the states of Pará, Amazonas, Amapá, (dubiously) São Paulo, and Maranhão. This occurrence extends its geographical distribution range by 900 to 2,000 km southwards in South America, as it is now recorded in the Amazon and Platina basins.
  • Presence of the fire ant Solenopsis invicta (Westwood) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) stimulates burrowing behavior by larvae of the sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) Scientific Notes

    Harvey, Jeffrey A; Hamilton, James G C; Ward, Richard D

    Abstract in English:

    The sandfly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) vectors leishmaniasis in the neotropics. Although much is known about the biology of adult flies, little is known about interactions with its natural enemies. Here, we examined behavior of larvae of L4 L.longipalpis on a soil substrate when exposed to the fire ant Solenopsis invicata (Westwood). When ants were absent, most larvae tended to remain at or close to the soil surface, but when ants were present the larvae burrowed into the soil. Sandflies seek refuges in the presence of generalist predators, thus rendering them immune to attack from many potential enemies.
  • First report of the citrus hindu mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae), in Brazil Scientific Notes

    Navia, Denise; Marsaro Jr, Alberto L

    Abstract in English:

    The citrus Hindu mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), is reported for the first time in Brazil and for the second time in South America. Mite specimens were collected from citrus in the municipality of Boa Vista, State of Roraima, northern Brazil. Symptoms associated with S.hindustanicus infestations on citrus are described. The importance of avoiding dissemination of this mite to the main citrus production areas in Brazil is discussed.
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