• El comportamiento acústico de Fenestra bohlsii Giglio-Tos (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Gomphocerinae)

    Lorier, Estrellita; Clemente, Maria E; García, Maria D; Presa, Juan J

    Abstract in English:

    The acoustic behavior of Fenestra bohlsii Giglio-Tos is described for the first time. The sounds and behaviors were observed and registered in captivity. The signals were digitized with the Sound-Blaster AWE64 Gold program and analysed with the Avisoft SAS Lab Pro 30 PC for MS Windows software. Seven different types of sounds are described as produced by males: spontaneous song (also used during the courtship), two different types of courtship song, assault song, tapping associated to the courtship, interaction between males and fly crackling. For each one, the characteristic oscillograms and frequency spectra are given. Sounds are produced by different mechanisms: femoro-tegminal stridulation, typical for Gomphocerinae, fly crackling, hind tarsi tapping and alar beat, the last produced by the beat and clash of hind alae, that is, the castanet method which up to now was only known, among Orthoptera, in Stenobothrus rubicundulus Kruseman & Jeekel. A description of the stridulatory file of male and female is given, as well as that of the alar special structures. Behavioral units and their sequence during the courtship are defined. There, in addition to the acoustic signals, visual signals are present, referring to positions, hind legs, antennae and palpi movements and body vibrations.
  • Polinizadores de Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidales: Lecythidaceae): interações com abelhas sem ferrão (Apidae: Meliponini) e nicho trófico

    Santos, Charles F; Absy, Maria L

    Abstract in English:

    This paper presents an analysis of the foraging behavior and interactions of Xylocopa frontalis Olivier (Apidae: Xylocopini) and Eulaema mocsaryi (Friese) (Apidae: Euglossini) in the presence of stingless bees (Apidae: Meliponini) in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa, the Brazilian nut. The palynological load carried by both species was also examined. This study was conducted in the farm Aruanã, Itacoatiara/ Amazonas state, Brazil, during the flowering peak of B. excelsa. The visitation by the main pollinators X. frontalis and E. mocsaryi were influenced by the presence and activities of stingless bees in the flowers of B. excelsa. Meliponini bees did not have any effect on the visits and collection of floral resources by X. frontalis, while negatively affecting the number of visits by E. mocsaryi. The stingless bees presented a variety of strategies to get access to pollen grains of B. excelsa, grouped into two categories: opportunism -Frieseomelitta trichocerata Moure, Tetragona goettei (Friese), and Tetragona kaieteurensis (Schwarz), and stealing -Trigona branneri Cockerell, Trigona fuscipennis Friese, and Trigona guianae Cockerell. The palynological analysis from X. frontalis showed that the bee collected pollen in a few species of plants, but mainly on B. excelsa. The pollen grains of B. excelsa were poorly represented in the pollen shipments of E. mocsaryi, due to its large trophic niche in the locality.
  • Distribuição espacial de formigueiros de Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel)(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) em plantios de Pinus taeda

    Nickele, Mariane A; Oliveira, Edilson B de; Reis Filho, Wilson; Iede, Edson T; Ribeiro, Rodrigo D

    Abstract in English:

    The spatial distribution of insects is essential to perform control strategies, to improve sample techniques and to estimate economic losses. We aimed to determine the spatial distribution of nests of Acromyrmex crassispinus (Forel) in Pinus taeda plantations. The experiments were carried out in P. taeda plantations with different ages (treatments: recently-planted, three and six-year old plants). The study took place in Rio Negrinho and in Três Barras, SC. Three plots of one hectare were delimited in each treatment, and plots were divided in 64 sample units. The analysis of the dispersion index [variance/mean relationship (I), index of Morisita (Iδ) and k exponent of negative binomial distribution] showed that the majority of the samplings presented random distribution. Among the three distributions of probabilities studied: Poisson, positive binomial and negative binomial, the Poisson distribution was the best model to fit the spatial distribution of A. crassispinus nests in all samplings. The result was a random distribution in the plantings of different ages.
  • Evaluation of water quality of an urban stream in southeastern Brazil using Chironomidae larvae (Insecta: Diptera) Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

    Oliveira, Vívian; Martins, Renato; Alves, Roberto

    Abstract in English:

    In order to estimate the water quality of São Pedro stream, through distribution and composition of Chironomidae larvae present in the sediment four sampling sites were selected. In each sampling site, three sediment samples were collected within a period of twelve months using the Petersen (0.0189 m²) and the van Veen (0.0518 m²) dredges. Samples were washed through a sieve with a 0.21 mm mesh and the collected organisms were sorted in transparent trays, with a light shine being reflected into the tray. The sites located in the greatest urban mesh showed high densities of the genus Chironomus and lower values for diversity, uniformity and taxa richness, in relation to sites located in a less urbanized area. A significant difference in density of Chironomidae larvae (p = 0.02; H = 5.89) was observed between the sites without domestic sewage effluents (site I) and those with the input of the effluents (sites II, III and IV). The Chironomidae larvae composition and the physical and chemical parameters were effective as indicators of the environmental alterations in São Pedro stream.
  • Floral preferences and climate influence in nectar and pollen foraging by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier (Hymenoptera: Meliponini) in Ubatuba, São Paulo state, Brazil Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

    Fidalgo, Adriana de O; Kleinert, Astrid de M P

    Abstract in English:

    We describe the environment effects on the amount and quality of resources collected by Melipona rufiventris Lepeletier in the Atlantic Forest at Ubatuba city, São Paulo state, Brazil (44º48'W, 23º22'S). Bees carrying pollen and/or nectar were captured at nest entrances during 5 min every hour, from sunrise to sunset, once a month. Pollen loads were counted and saved for acetolysis. Nectar was collected, the volume was determined and the total dissolved solids were determined by refractometer. Air temperature, relative humidity and light intensity were also registered. The number of pollen loads reached its maximum value between 70% and 90% of relative humidity and 18ºC and 23ºC; for nectar loads this range was broader, 50-90% and 20-30ºC. The number of pollen loads increased as relative humidity rose (rs = 0.401; P < 0.01) and high temperatures had a strong negative influence on the number of pollen loads collected (rs = -0.228; P < 0.01). The number of nectar loads positively correlated with temperature (rs = 0.244; P < 0.01) and light intensity (rs = 0.414; P < 0.01). The percentage of total dissolved solids (TDS) on nectar loads positively correlated with temperature and light intensity (rs = 0.361; P < 0.01 and rs = 0.245; P < 0.01), negatively correlated with relative humidity (rs = -0.629; P < 0.01), and it increased along the day. Most nectar loads had TDS between 11% and 30%, with an average of 24.7%. The volume measures did not show any pattern. Important pollen sources were Sapindaceae, Anacardiaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae, Solanaceae and Myrtaceae; nectar sources were Sapindaceae, Fabaceae, Rubiaceae, Arecaceae and Solanaceae.
  • Nesting behavior of Podium denticulatum Smith (Hymenoptera: Sphecidae) Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

    Ribeiro, Favi; Garófalo, Carlos A.

    Abstract in English:

    The nesting behavior of Podium denticulatum Smith was studied on the campus of Ribeirão Preto of the Universidade de São Paulo, SP, Brazil, from September 2003 to August 2005. The wasps established their nests in bamboo canes ranging from 11.4 cm to 26.2 cm in length and from 0.7 cm to 1.8 cm in internal diameter. Podium denticulatum nested almost exclusively in the hot and wet season (September-April), producing at least five generations per year. The cell provisioning was made with adult and nymphal cockroaches (Blattellidae) which were arranged venter-up and with the head inward toward the inner end of the cell. The construction of a temporary closure occurred in cells that took more than one day to be provisioned. The cells provisioned with a greater number of prey were more likely to produce females than males. The nests included 1-6 brood cells separated by mud partitions and arranged in a linear series. The innermost cells of the nests produced females, and the outermost cells produced males. Nests were parasitized by Eulophidae (Melittobia sp.), Chrysididae and Tachinidae.
  • Comportamiento de oviposición de Phymastichus coffea LaSalle (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sobre su huésped natural

    López-Guillén, Guillermo; Infante, Francisco; Castillo, Alfredo

    Abstract in English:

    Phymastichus coffea LaSalle is an African endoparasitoid of adults of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) that was introduced into Mexico for biological control purposes. The objective of this study was to investigate the oviposition behavior of P. coffea on its host under laboratory conditions. The results indicate that P. coffea females exhibited 12 behavioral acts during and after oviposition, such as, walking, cleaning, flying, surface landing, resting, host landing, host antennation, touching the host with forelegs, host recognition, walking on the host, oviposition and cleaning after oviposition. The sequence of each behavior is described in an ethogram.
  • Resposta da comunidade de formigas aos atributos dos fragmentos e da vegetação em uma paisagem da Floresta Atlântica nordestina

    Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R

    Abstract in English:

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments.
  • O bambu Merostachys fischeriana (Bambusoideae: Bambuseae) como habitat para formigas de Floresta Tropical Montana

    Fagundes, Roberth; Terra, Gilberto; Ribeiro, Sérvio P.; Majer, Jonathan D.

    Abstract in English:

    Although Merostachys fischeriana is very abundant in the Brazilian Atlantic Rainforest, little attention has been paid to the biological interactions with other animals. The present study describes some of the interactions between ants and this bamboo species. The experiment was carried out in a fragment of a montane tropical forest in the Parque Estadual do Itacolomi, near Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil. Thirty culms of bamboo were randomly collected. The ants were obtained by direct collection from nodes and internodes. Morphometric variables of the bamboo were recorded for characterization of potential ant habitat. Merostachys fischeriana grows in rosettes as a thin bamboo (average = 1,0 cm; se = 0,27; n = 20) and is tall enough to reach the upper canopy of this low forest (average = 9,1 m; se = 2,72; n = 20). Fifteen ant species were sampled. Brachymyrmex heeri Forel was the most abundant in the nodes, while Camponotus crassus Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) was the most abundant in the internodes. The composition of the species that inhabit the internodes was different from the composition in the node (Q-test: Q = 3,76; P = 0,05). The level of occupation was defined by the number of holes (F = 10,33; P < 0,01), the number of internodes in the canopy (F = 6,84; P = 0,01) and the length of the culm (F = 7,52; P = 0,01). The plant's morphology allowed the occurrence of additional species of ants in the canopy and influenced the composition of the entire ant assemblage.
  • Efficient sampling of ground-dwelling arthropods using pitfall traps in arid steppes Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

    Cheli, Germán H; Corley, Juan C

    Abstract in English:

    Pitfall trapping is probably the most frequently used method for sampling grounddwelling arthropods. While the capture of specimens in pitfall traps largely depends on the number of individuals in the sampled area, trap design and trapping effort for a given environment, can also affect sampling success. The aim of this study was to determine the best pitfall trapping design for collecting ground-dwelling arthropods in the wind-blown and cold arid steppe areas of Patagonia. We tested four designs of traps, six types of preservative and different times of activation as well as the quantity of traps. Both preservation attributes and sampling efficiency differed between different trap designs and fluids compared. We conclude that in order to obtain reliable data on the structure of a community of ground-dwelling arthropods in Patagonia, at least three pitfall traps per experimental unit are required. In addition, traps should be opened for a minimum of 10 days filled with 300 ml of 30% ethylene glycol. We also suggested the use of a simple trap design (i. e. without funnel or roof). We believe these findings will contribute to more appropriate sampling of the ground dwelling fauna of Patagonia as well as other arid areas, leading to more reliable diversity studies.
  • The acceptance rate of young wasps by alien colonies depends on colony developmental stages in the swarm-founding wasp, Polybia paulista von ihering (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

    Kudô, Kazuyuki; Hozumi, Satoshi; Mateus, Sidnei; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    Abstract in English:

    In social insects, newly emerged individuals learn the colony-specific chemical label from their natal comb shortly after their emergence. These labels help to identify each individual's colony of origin and are used as a recognition template against which individuals can discriminate nestmates from non-nestmates. Our previous studies with Polybia paulista von Ihering support this general pattern, and the acceptance rate of young female and male wasps decreased as a function of their age. Our study also showed in P. paulista that more than 90% of newly emerged female wasps might be accepted by conspecific unrelated colonies. However, it has not been investigated whether the acceptance rate of newly emerged female wasps depends on colony developmental stage of recipient colonies. We introduced newly emerged female wasps of P. paulista into different colony developmental stags of recipient colonies, i.e., worker-producing and male-producing colonies. We found that the acceptance rate of newly emerged female wasps by alien colonies was pretty lower by male-producing colonies than worker-producing colonies. This is the first study to show that the acceptance rate of young female wasps depends on stages of recipient colonies.
  • Host plant association and genetic differentiation of corn and rice strains of Spodoptera frugiperda Smith (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Colombia Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

    Saldamando, Clara I; Vélez-Arango, Ana M

    Abstract in English:

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) is a polifagous insect of major economic impact in the western hemisphere and exhibits two strains (i.e., corn and rice) that are morphologically identical but differ in ecology, genetics and physiology. In this work we identified these strains and their respective hybrids by using a PCR-RFLP of the COI gene and PCR of the tandem region FR. Moreover, we performed a population structure analysis by using 253 larvae from Tolima, a region where S. frugiperda is a pest on corn, rice, sorghum and cotton. Corn strain was found on 42% in corn, 34% in cotton, 19% in sorghum and 0.04 % in rice and rice strain on 35% in corn, 0.06% in cotton, 0.06% in sorghum and 53% in rice, demonstrating that corn strain specificity is superior to rice strain. Hybrids between these strains were more abundant in corn. The distributions on their host plants reflect a population genetic differentiation in S. frugiperda with values of PhiPT (COI) = 0.31, P < 0.0001, PhiPT (FR) = 0.17, P < 0.0001 for all crops and PhiPT (COI) = 0.42, P < 0.01, PhiPT (FR) = 0.13, P < 0.01 for the sixteen sampled farms. The dendrograms showed two clusters representing both strains. The results obtained in this study suggest that the management of this insect must differ on each host plant, given the specialization that both strains present, particularly in corn and rice.
  • Responses of Coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari)(Coleoptera: Scolytidae), to vertical distribution of methanol: ethanol traps Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

    Uemura-Lima, Daliana H; Ventura, Maurício U; Mikami, Adriana Y; Silva, Flávia C Da; Morales, Lauro

    Abstract in English:

    Captures of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) were assessed in traps in the field. IAPAR designed traps [plastic bottles (2 L) lured with methanol:ethanol (1:1) in a vessel] were placed either at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5m high from the ground or simultaneously tested in the 2004 fructification season. Traps placed at the three heights trapped 5.5 times more CBB than the others, mostly at the traps placed at 0.5 m (75%). Treatments using the IAPAR designed trap placed at 1.2 m high; IAPAR trap with a white plastic plate above (IAPAR modified I) at 1.2 m high; IAPAR at 0.5 m high and two additional vessels at 1.0 and 1.5m high (IAPAR modified II) and T-163 trap [three red plastic cups (300 ml) and a red plastic plate as a cover] lured with M:E (1:1) at 1.2m height were compared in the vegetative (2005) and fructification (2006) periods. IAPAR modified II (dispenser vessels placed at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m) trapped more beetles than the remaining types (2.72 times more beetles than IAPAR design); and IAPAR modified I traps trapped more beetles than T 163 and IAPAR traps in the vegetative period. In the reproductive period, IAPAR modified II trapped less beetles than IAPAR and IAPAR modified I. In 2007 vegetative season, IAPAR modified II trap were compared with IAPAR trap and trapped 2.8 times more beetles. The positive responses to a vertical distribution of the volatile attractants in the vegetative period of the planting allow the development of more efficient trapping systems for CBB.
  • Heterogeneidade do habitat, riqueza e estrutura da assembléia de besouros rola-bostas (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) em áreas de cerrado na Chapada dos Parecis, MT

    Silva, Ricardo J da; Diniz, Soraia; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    Abstract in English:

    Ecological theory of habitat heterogeneity and limited niche-similarity assumes that more heterogeneous environments provide a greater amount and diversity of resources than simple environments, resulting in a greater diversity of species. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the habitat heterogeneity on the richness of dung beetles and to examine the spatial patterns of assemblage structure in relation to patterns of habitat heterogeneity. Dung beetles were collected using pitfall traps without bait in 30 points distributed in an area of cerrado sensu lato, in the region of Tangará da Serra, MT, Brazil, including areas of cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, cerradão and gallery forest. A total of 1,291 dung beetles were collected, distributed in 16 genera and 29 species. Overall habitat heterogeneity exerted a negative effect on patterns of dung beetles richness. Higher levels of species richness were observed in areas of cerrado campo sujo, while the areas of gallery forest were the most species poor. Regarding assembly structure, it was found that the dung beetles were separated into two major groups, one formed by the presence of specialized species in forest areas and other composed of species that occurred predominantly in cerrado. In conclusion, it was found that habitat complexity influenced the distribution of dung beetles, but the level of turnover in species composition along the heterogeneity gradient was relatively weak.
  • Pollination of Adenocalymma bracteatum (Bignoniaceae): floral biology and visitors Ecology, Behavior and Bionomics

    Almeida-Soares, Stela; Polatto, Leandro P; Dutra, João C S; Torezan-Silingardi, Helena M

    Abstract in English:

    Adenocalymma bracteatum is a shrub of dense foliage and yellow flowers, easily found on grasslands areas in Central Brazil. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive biology and the flower visitors of A. bracteatum in a pasture area nearby Ivinhema city, MS (Brazil). The flowering peak occurs in winter. The flower reflects ultraviolet light. Anthesis begins at 6:30h, and pollen and nectar are the resources to visitors. We captured 1,038 floral visitors. The bees Apis mellifera (L.), Trigona sp., Trigona spinipes (Fabricius), (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) and the ant Cephalotes sp. (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) were the main visitors. The reproductive tests indicate that A. bracteatum is self compatible, justifying its expansion in altered environments; however, the largest reproductive success was dependant on cross-pollination and self-pollination, evidencing the pollinators importance. Adenocalymma bracteatum presents melittophilous syndrome and bumblebees were the main pollinators in the area. The correlations observed between the climatic variables and the main pollinator species were low or medium.
  • A new long-horned Caddisfly in the genus Triplectides Kolenati (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae) from the Itatiaia massif, southeastern Brazil Systematics, Morphology and Physiology

    Dumas, Leandro L; Nessimian, Jorge L

    Abstract in English:

    Triplectides itatiaia sp. nov. is described from specimens collected on the Itatiaia massif, Mantiqueira mountain range, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The new species can be distinguished by the presence of hind wing fork I petiolate, the long dorsal excision of segment X and the flat, apically rounded mesal lobes. Female and immature stages are unknown. A key to the Brazilian species in the genus is provided.
  • Aging and food source effects on mandibular stylets teeth wear of phytophagous stink bug (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) Systematics, Morphology and Physiology

    Depieri, Rogério A; Siqueira, Fábio; Panizzi, Antônio R

    Abstract in English:

    Studies were conducted to test the effect of age and food sources on wear of the mandibular teeth of the phytophagous pentatomid, Euschistus heros (F.). The total length (µm) of the area bearing the mandibular teeth, the length of the 1st tooth, and the height of the 2nd tooth for teneral (< 1 day-old) adults were significantly greater than that of adults fed on natural [green bean, Phaseolus vulgaris pods, raw shelled peanuts, Arachis hypogaea, and mature soybean, Glycine max seeds] for 30 or 60 days. Adults fed on artificial dry diet showed, in general, similar results to those of teneral adults. Force (Newtons) required penetrating the natural foods was significantly greater than that required penetrating the artificial diet. The greater hardness of the natural foods caused increased mandibular serration wear.
  • Sexual dimorphism in antennal receptors of Phyllophaga ravida Blanchard (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Melolonthidae) Systematics, Morphology and Physiology

    Romero-López, Angel; Morón, Miguel; Valdez, Jorge

    Abstract in English:

    The external morphology of sensilla on the antennae of males and females of Phyllophaga ravida Blanchard is described using scanning electron microscopy. Sexual dimorphism in body and antennal dimensions and in antennal receptor types was found. The female's body is slightly larger than the male's, although male antennal lamellae are longer than in females. Sixteen types of sensilla were identified on the proximal and distal surfaces of lamellae from both sexes, most of them in males: three types of placodea sensilla, four types of auricilica sensilla, five types of basiconica sensilla, and four types of coeloconica sensilla. Also, two types of mechanoreceptor sensilla were present on the lamellae periphery. Furthermore, males had larger placodea, auricilica and some types of basiconica sensilla.
  • Comparative genetic diversity and genetic structure of three chinese silkworm species Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Meneville and Samia cynthia ricini donovan (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) Systematics, Morphology and Physiology

    Liu, Yan-Qun; Qin, Li; li, Yu-Ping; Wang, Huan; Xia, Run-Xi; Qi, Yong-Hong; li, Xi-Sheng; Lu, Cheng; Xiang, Zhong-Huai

    Abstract in English:

    The genetic diversity and genetic structure of three Chinese silkworm species Bombyx mori L., Antheraea pernyi Guérin-Meneville and Samia cynthia ricini Donovan were comparatively assessed based on RAPD markers. At the species level, A. pernyi and B. mori showed high levels of genetic diversity, whereas S. cynthia ricini showed low level of genetic diversity. However, at the strain level, A. pernyi had relatively highest genetic diversity and B. mori had lowest genetic diversity. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) suggested that 60% and 72% of genetic variation resided within strains in A. pernyi and S. cynthia ricini, respectively, whereas only 16% of genetic variation occurred within strains in B. mori. In UPGMA dendrogram, individuals of A. pernyi and B. mori formed the strain-specific genetic clades, whereas those of S. cynthia ricini were distributed in a mixed way. The implications of these results for the conservation and utilization in breeding programs of three silkworm species are discussed.
  • Seleção de isolados de fungos entomopatogênicos para o controle de Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) e sua compatibilidade com alguns inseticidas usados na cultura do tomateiro

    Pires, Lauricí M; Marques, Edmilson J; Oliveira, José V de; Alves, Sérgio B

    Abstract in English:

    The activity of Metarhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana towards eggs and larvae of Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) was evaluated. Our data showed that the isolates were pathogenic to both developmental stages tested and the eggs were more susceptible than the 1st instars. The isolates URPE-6 and URPE-19 of M. anisopliae were more pathogenic to eggs and larvae, respectively. The compatibility of these two isolates with the insecticides chlorfenapyr, spinosad, indoxacarb, abamectin, and neem were evaluated. Spinosad and indoxacarb were compatible with the two M. anisopliae isolates in all tested concentrations. At the average recommended concentration, chlorfenapyr was compatible to URPE-6 and abamectin to UFPE-19. The use of entomopathogenic fungi associated with compatible insecticides may be a useful alternative to control T. absoluta.
  • Selectivity of neem to Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) Biological Control

    Hohmann, Celso L; Silva, Flávia A C; Novaes, Tanara G de

    Abstract in English:

    Trichogramma pretiosum Riley and Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis are commonly found in avocado and persimmon orchards in northern Parana state. However, their abundance depends on whether insecticides are used or not to control the key lepidopteran pests Stenoma catenifer (Wals.) (Lepidoptera: Elachistidae) and Hypocala andremona (Stoll) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), respectively. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of an aqueous neem seed extract (ANSE) at 15, 3 and 1.5%, and of an emulsifiable concentrate neem oil (ECNO) at 2.5, 0.5 and 0.25% on lifetime parameters of these trichogrammatids as a way of testing the feasibility of integrating the biological and chemical control methods. Chemicals were applied on Anagasta kuehniella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs before or after parasitization (one, three or five days). ANSE was more deleterious to both parasitoid species than ECNO, regardless of the concentration and the time of application. The chemicals acted on a concentration and time dependent manner. Treating the host with neem before parasitism was less deleterious to wasp emergence, especially for T. annulata. Pre-treatments (24h) of the host eggs with ECNO at concentrations varying from 0.5% to 0.25% did not affect T. pretiosum longevity, but 2.5% reduced T. annulata survival. Feeding wasps with honey mixed with 0.25% ECNO negatively affected T. annulata survival.
  • Efficiency of Phytoseiulus longipes Evans as a control agent of Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Phytoseiidae: Tetranychidae) on screenhouse tomatoes Biological Control

    Silva, Fernando R da; Moraes, Gilberto J de; Gondim Jr, Manoel G C; Knapp, Markus; Rouam, Sigrid L; Paes, Jefferson L A; Oliveira, Guilherme M de

    Abstract in English:

    The spider mite Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard can cause severe damage to tomato crops. The predatory mite Phytoseiulus longipes Evans was recently reported in association with T. evansi in Uruguaiana, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of P. longipes on the population of T. evansi on tomatoes under screenhouse condition. The study consisted on four experiments, in each of which 80 potted plantlets were distributed in two plots of 40 plantlets each. Two weeks later, each plantlet of both plots was infested with eight adult females of T. evansi; one week after, four adult females of P. longipes were released onto each plant of one plot. The population levels of T. evansi and the damage caused by these mites were significantly lower (P < 0.05; linear mixed-effect model) in the plots where P. longipes had been released. The results indicate the potential of this predator as a candidate for classical biological control of T. evansi by inoculative releases on tomato plants.
  • Oviposição, desenvolvimento e reprodução de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) em diferentes hospedeiros de importância econômica

    Barros, Eduardo M; Torres, Jorge B; Bueno, Adeney F

    Abstract in English:

    The host selection for oviposition by Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) among corn, millet, cotton and soybean, and its relationship with the biological characteristics were investigated. Free and non-choice tests for oviposition using plots containing five plants each, from each host in plastic greenhouse, resulted in similar oviposition preference among the host plants. In addition, selected biological characteristics of S. frugiperda were determined in the laboratory with larvae feeding on host leaves, and the combination of leaf and cotton boll. Neonate larvae exhibited low success of colonization on cotton boll compared to the leaves of all other hosts. Spodoptera frugiperda fed only on cotton bolls exhibited longer larval and pupal development, and longer adult life span; however with similar egg production. Larvae fed cotton leaves during six days and then transferred to cotton bolls, however, exhibited development and reproduction similar to those reared on corn or only on cotton leaves. Therefore, the variations on immature stages of S. frugiperda were not related with host selection for oviposition which was similar among the studied hosts. Based on our data, the millet as a winter, rotational, and cover crop is a potential host for S. frugiperda, while leaves and cotton bolls were diets of intermediate suitability as compared to corn and soybean leaves.
  • Influence of trichomes on attractiveness and ovipositional preference of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on tomato genotypes Pest Management

    Oriani, Maria A de G; Vendramim, José D

    Abstract in English:

    Brazil is one of the world's largest tomato producer, but considerable part of the production is lost due to the attack of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) B biotype. Resistant germoplasm plants can be an important method for B. tabaci control in integrated pest management approaches. The attractiveness and ovipositional preference of B. tabaci for 17 tomato genotypes were evaluated in a free-choice test. Trials were set up in a randomized block design with ten replicates. Each replicate (one tomato plant per pot) was placed in a cage (80 x 50 x 50 cm) and infested with 1,000 adults during four days. Linear correlation tests were applied between the number of insects and eggs and number of trichomes in each tomato genotype. LA716, LA444-1 and PI134418 genotypes were the least attractive, while the 'Santa Clara' was the most attractive; PI134417 trapped the largest number of adults. LA716 genotype (4.1 eggs/leaflet and 2.1 cm²/eggs per leaflet) was the least preferred for whitefly oviposition; NAV1062, 'Fanny', LA1335, 'Santa Clara' and IAC294 were the most preferred genotypes. The glandular trichomes density was negatively correlated with whitefly's attractiveness and oviposition per leaflet and per leaf, and positively with the number of trapped insects. The non-glandular trichomes density was negatively correlated with the number of trapped insects and positively with whitefly's oviposition per cm²/leaflet andper cm²/leaf. LA716 had high antixenosis level (ovipositional nonpreference) toward B. tabaci B biotype related with type IV glandular trichome.
  • Resistência de cultivares de batata a Myzus persicae (Sulz.)(Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Salas, Fernando J S; Lopes, João R S; Fereres, Alberto

    Abstract in English:

    Aphids are the most important vectors of viruses infecting potato (Solanum tuberosum). We focused on the response of the aphid vector Myzus persicae (Sulzer) to five commercial potatocultivars: Ágata, Jaette Bintje, Mondial, Monalisa and Santè, by traditional antibiosis and antixenosis tests and by the EPG (Electrical Penetration Graph) technique, as a step forward to the design of effective management practices. Our aim was to identify plant factors involved in resistance of these cultivars against M. persicae, both at the surface and in deeper plant tissues. Results from the antixenosis test confirmed a strong preference of M. persicae for the Mondial cultivar. The antibiosis study indicated a lower population development of the aphid in 'Monalisa' when compared to 'Ágata' and 'Jaette Bintje'. EPG assays indicated that 'Santè' inhibited the initial feeding process of M. persicae, whereas 'Monalisa' showed a physical-type of resistance as demonstrated by a very high number of short probes. The cultivar Mondial showed average values for all EPG variables analyzed. The behavior in 'Jaette Bintje' indicated this cultivar was an ideal host for aphid feeding and reproduction. Together, the EPG data revealed the existence of pre and post-phloematics factors in the cultivars under study, which have important implications on the efficiency of transmission and spread of virus in potato by M. persicae.
  • Efeito da qualidade da água no ciclo de vida e na atração para oviposição de Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Beserra, Eduardo B; Fernandes, Carlos R M; Sousa, José T de; Freitas, Eraldo M de; Santos, Keliana D

    Abstract in English:

    The present research aimed at evaluating the influence of the water quality in the life cycle and attraction of Aedes aegypti (L.) females to oviposit using different sources of water (raw sewage, effluent of UASB reactor, effluent of polishing lagoon, effluent of anaerobic filter, rain water and de-chlorinated water). The immature development time and survivorship were evaluated on a daily basis in two distinct feeding systems (with and without food). The quality of the water was shown to affect the egg and larval stages, but not the pupal or the adult. In the absence of food, no development was observed in rain water and de-chlorinated water. Immature development was faster in water sources from raw sewage, although with the lowest survivorship (37.3%). Free-choice tests indicated that females preferred to lay most of their eggs on water collected from the effluent of a UASB reactor, achieving the highest oviposition activity index (OAI) of 0.57. In non-choice tests, females laid larger batches of eggs in water collected from anaerobic filters (204.8 eggs), with the lowest number of eggs being laid on de-chlorinated water (37.3 eggs). It can be concluded that A. aegypti does not demonstrate any particular preference to lay eggs on clean water. This has serious implications for developing strategies to manage populations of this important vector in urban areas as it was shown to lay eggs and successfully develop on several different sources of water.
  • Indicadores de infestación, colonización e infección de Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) en Campeche, México

    Hernández, Jorge L; Rebollar-Téllez, Eduardo A; Infante, Francisco; Morón, Alejandro; Castillo, Alfredo

    Abstract in English:

    Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille) is considered to be one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease in Southern Mexico and Central America. The objective of the present study was to obtain ecological information on T. dimidiata in two rural communities of Campeche, Mexico, where the vector is poorly studied. Our work consisted of monthly samplings carried out during one-year time at three levels: sylvatic, peridomestic and intradomestic, in order to estimate the population abundance of this species and its rate of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. Triatoma dimidiata was the unique vector of this disease collected in San Juan Bautista Sakcabchen (SJBS) and Crucero San Luis (CSL). The total of 145 individuals were captured in SJBS; from these, 26.9%, 20% and 53.1% were collected in the sylvatic, peridomestic and intradomestic area, respectively. In CSL captures yielded 108 individuals: 40.7% in the sylvatic area, 20.4% peridomestic and 38.9% intradomestic. We found no correlation between climatic variables and population abundance of T. dimidiata. Dataset obtained suggests that individuals from the sylvatic area exhibit a high rate of natural infection by T. cruzi, with monthly percentages up to 61.5% for SJBS and 50% for CSL. At the peri and intradomestic level, the reservoirs apparently play an important role in the transmission, as the seroprevalence in dogs was 61.5% y 65.4%, for SJBS y CSL, respectively. Based on these findings, it was concluded that inhabitants of both communities are at a high risk of Chagas disease infection.
  • Sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a cerrado area of the Maranhão state, Brazil Public Health

    Silva, Francinaldo S; Carvalho, Luis P C de; Cardozo, Francisco P; Moraes, Jorge L P; Rebêlo, José M M

    Abstract in English:

    The present paper aims to increase the knowledge on the sand fly fauna in the cerrado areas of Maranhão state in urban, rural and forest environments. The research was carried out from October 2007 to September 2008, between 18:00h and 06:00h, in the municipality of Chapadinha, northeast Maranhão. For insect sampling, CDC light traps were set up in peridomicile and domicile areas of urban and rural zones as well as in Cerrado and Gallery forests. The total of 1,401 specimens belonging to 17 species were sampled, all within the genus Lutzomyia. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (52.5%), Lu. evandroi (Costa Lima & Antunes) (18.3%), Lu. whitmani (Antunes & Coutinho) (12.1%), Lu. lenti (Mangabeira) (4.7%) and Lu. termitophila (Martins, Falcão & Silva) (4.0%) were the most frequently collected. From an epidemiological viewpoint, five from all of the collected species are vectors of leishmaniasis: Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani, Lu. flaviscutellata (Mangabeira), Lu. gomezi (Nitzulescu) and Lu. chagasi (Costa Lima). Lutzomyia chagasi was registered for the first time in Maranhão state and Lu. saulensis (Floch & Abonnenc), Lu. monstruosa (Floch & Abonnenc) and Lu. gomezi were found for the first time in the eastern part of the state, since they had been reported only in the Amazonian region of Maranhão. Regarding to the studied environments, the urban chicken house had the highest number of specimens collected (801), while the Gallery Forest was the most diverse (15 species). This study demonstrates that the northeast cerrado exhibits a mixed sand fly fauna characterized by an extremely important species vectors assortment involved in the epidemiological cycle of leishmaniasis in Maranhão state.
  • Mosquito Anthropophily: implications on malaria transmission in the northern Brazilian Amazon Public Health

    Barros, Fábio S M; Honório, Nildimar A; Arruda, Mércia E

    Abstract in English:

    Seasonal variation of adults and larvae of anophelines was studied during 2003 and 2004 in Roraima State, located in the Northern region of Brazilian Amazon. Species diversity increased with distance of capture to human dwellings. Greater diversity was found in extradomiciliary collections than in peridomiciliary or intradomiciliary. A significant association between Anopheles darlingi Root and An. albitarsis (s.l.) Arribálzaga (Diptera: Culicidae) breeding sites and the proximity to human dwellings was observed. Malaria Sporozoite Antigen Panel Assay (VectestTM Malaria) indicated An. albitarsis s.l. as one of the local vectors in the studied area. In this study, an index to describe the anthropophilic behavior of each anopheline species is proposed.
  • Alternative techniques to study characters of the genitalia in Lepidoptera Scientific Notes

    Dias, Fernando M S; Casagrande, Mirna M; Mielke, Olaf H H

    Abstract in English:

    The present note aims to describe two alternative methods for observing genitalia in Lepidoptera. The first one provides means to examine both male and female genitalia without spoiling the scales of the abdomen, preserving it attached to the thorax and aesthetically similar to an unexamined specimen. The second one provides ways of observing certain characters on the male genitalia in a non-destructive way, and does not depend on time-consuming removing and dissection of the abdomen. It is expected that the presented techniques will help on morphological studies and on identifying similar species which consistently differ in genitalic armatures.
  • Epipona media cooper (Hymenoptera: Vespidae), a social wasp new to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest Scientific Notes

    Menezes, Rodolpho S T; Carvalho Filho, Antonio F; Raw, Anthony; Costa, Marco A

    Abstract in English:

    An occupied nest of Epipona media Cooper was discovered and collected in a cabruca (cocoa plantation with native tree cover). This is the first record of E. media from Bahia State. We described the nest structure and compared the adults with the closely related species Epipona tatua Cuvier.
  • New host-plant records for the defoliator Ormiscodes amphimone (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) Scientific Notes

    Paritsis, Juan; Elgueta, Mario; Quintero, Carolina; Veblen, Thomas T

    Abstract in English:

    Ormiscodes amphimone (Fabricius) is a phytophagous moth species known to severely defoliate woody species in Chile and Argentina. Here we document new records of O. amphimonehost associations emphasizing the role of Nothofagus pumilio as its primary host in our study area. This new record for Argentina is highly significant given the economic importance of N. pumilio as a timber resource and the potential of O. amphimone to generate extensive outbreaks.
  • Frugivory by a stingless bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Scientific Notes

    Peruquetti, Rui C; Costa, Luena da S M da; Silva, Valdirene S da; Drumond, Patrícia M

    Abstract in English:

    Frugivory is not frequent among bees. Although stingless bees visit aged fruits for pulp, the use of fresh fruits is recorded only for Trigona hypogea Silvestri, a species that does not visit flowers. Here we report the occurrence of frugivory in Trigona amazonensis (Ducke), a flower-visiting stingless bee.
  • Distribution and host range of Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Eurytomidae) in Mexico Scientific Notes

    Castañeda-Vildózola, Alvaro; Nava-Díaz, Cristian; Váldez- Carrasco, Jorge; Ruiz-Montiel, César; Vidal-Hernández, Librado; Barrios-Matias, Santiago

    Abstract in English:

    The annona fruit borer wasp Bephratelloides cubensis Ashmead was recorded for the first time damaging "ilama" fruits Annona diversifolia (Anonaceae) in Coatlan del rio, Morelos, Cacahuamilpa and El Ocotillo, Guerrero, Mexico. Geographical distribution, hosts and damage are mentioned.
  • Azteca barbifex Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae): potential pest of citrus crops in eastern Amazon Scientific Notes

    Farias, Paulo R S; Harada, Ana Y; Silva, Anderson G; Monteiro, Bruno S; Rodrigues, Nara E L; Santos, Naira A

    Abstract in English:

    Damage caused by the ant Azteca barbifex (Forel) was identified in orange trees (Citrus sinensis), in Capitão Poço County, Guamá microregion, Pará State. The damage caused by the scraping of stems and branches lead to reduction in yield with subsequent death of the plant. These characteristics indicate A. barbifex as a potential pest of citrus crops in the eastern region of Amazon.
  • First record of Anastrepha pseudanomala Norrbom (Diptera: Tephritidae) and its host in Brazil Scientific Notes

    Jesus, Cristiane R de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Souza Filho, Miguel F de; Deus, Ezequiel G de; Zucchi, Roberto A

    Abstract in English:

    Anastrepha pseudanomala Norrbom was reared in fruits of Couma utilis (Apocynaceae), and also collected in McPhail traps in Ferreira Gomes county, State of Amapá, Brazil.
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