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Neotropical Entomology, Volume: 40, Issue: 4, Published: 2011
  • Oviposition behavior of Grapholita molesta Busck (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) at different temperatures Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Silva, EDB da; Kuhn, TMA; Monteiro, LB

    Abstract in English:

    Cultivation of temperate-climate fruits is economically important for Brazil. Grapholita molesta Busck is a pest that causes damage to apples, peaches, plums, and pears growing in different micro-regions of southern Brazil, and understanding its reproductive behavior is essential to develop control strategies. The objective of this study was to ascertain the influence of different temperatures (13, 16, 19, 22, and 25ºC) on the oviposition behavior of G. molesta. Females of G. molesta were placed in individual plastic containers, and the pre-oviposition period and the number of eggs laid were assessed until adult death. Temperature influenced the pre-oviposition period, and females kept at 22º were the first to lay their eggs. Oviposition occurred over a longer period of time at 13ºC than at the higher temperatures. The highest total number of eggs was obtained at 19ºC, with the mean daily oviposition being directly proportional to the temperature. There was a negative interaction between the pre-oviposition period and the total number of eggs laid by females. The most suitable temperature for oviposition of G. molesta was 19ºC.
  • Haplotype identification within Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) corn and rice strains from Colombia Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Salinas-Hernandez, H; Saldamando-Benjumea, CI

    Abstract in English:

    The fall army worm Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith) is a migratory important pest of corn, sorghum, rice, grass and bermudagrass in North and South America. This species has diverged into two genetically differentiated but morphologically identical strains, "the rice" and "the corn". They have been analyzed by sequencing the genes cytochrome oxydase I, II and ITS1 from populations from the United States and Brazil. However, no such studies were performed in Colombia. In here, we identified 43 haplotypes by sequencing a fragment of the COI gene from 102 individuals, of which 40 had already been identified as the "corn" and "rice" strains or to their hybrids from Tolima, and the rest were collected from corn, cotton, sorghum, grass and rice fields in other regions of Colombia. The corn strain haplotype H1 was the most frequently found in this country, representing the main target for FAW monitoring programs. AMOVA analysis confirmed the population structure between Colombian and North American S. frugiperda haplotypes (F ST = 0.76812, P < 0.001), but not within the different Colombian regions, suggesting high gene flow within the country. The ML trees obtained for Tolima and for Colombia as a whole did not generate clustering amongst S. frugiperda sequences, neither via host-plant association nor by geographical areas. The minimum spanning network for Colombia corroborated our finding that the haplotype H1 has the highest frequency in the country. Our data suggest that haplotype frequency determination will be useful in the establishment of a monitoring system for this species.
  • Flower-visiting insects of five tree species in a restored area of semideciduous seasonal forest Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Fragoso, FP; Varanda, EM

    Abstract in English:

    The reinstatement of biodiversity and ecological processes must be the major goal in restoration projects, which requires the establishment of biological interactions in addition to native plant population recovery. Therefore, we assessed the flower visitors of five tree species in a restored area of Semideciduous Seasonal Forest, in Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil. The specimens were collected using entomological net on flowers of Acacia polyphylla, Aegiphila sellowianna, Croton floribundus, Croton urucurana and Schinus terebinthifolius from October 2007 to September 2008. A total of 139 insect species belonging to five orders were collected. Hymenoptera was the most diverse order collected. From a total of 37 families, Vespidae (15 species), Cabronidae (12), Apidae (10), Halictidae (10), Syrphidae (12), Tachinidae (6) and Hesperidae (7) were the richest ones. Schinus terebinthifolius flowers presented the most abundant and diverse insect visitors (60), suggesting it is an important attractive species to the fauna in restoration programs. Our data suggest that mutualistic interactions between some of these plants and their flower-visiting insects may be in a reinstatement process, and will support the design and monitoring of future restoration efforts.
  • Nutrient flux associated with the emergence of Quesada gigas Olivier (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) in an urban ecosystem Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Aoki, C; Lopes, FS; de Oliveira, AMR; Souza, FL de; Marques, MR

    Abstract in English:

    Large-bodied arthropods, such as cicadas, can be able to reallocate significant amounts of nutrients during adult emergence. Evidence suggests that Quesada gigas Olivier emergence constitutes an important nutrient flux from belowground to aboveground. The purpose of this study was to estimate the amount of nitrogen, proteins, and lipids resulting from the emergence of Q. gigas in an urban ecosystem in Central Brazil. Adult specimens captured from September to November 2006 were weighed and submitted to biochemical analysis. Population density was approximately 4,200 individuals per hectare. Mean individual dry mass was 1.03 g and contained 12.6% proteins, 8.4% lipids, and 5% nitrogen. Total biomass input from the species was 4.3 kg ha-1 y-1, with a consequent annual reallocation of approximately 545 g of proteins, 363 g of lipids, and 216 g of nitrogen per hectare. The data obtained suggest that Q. gigas emergence can cause significant translocation of nutrients from belowground to aboveground, and is therefore an important biological event for ecosystem function.
  • Relocation of Croton sonderianus (Euphorbiaceae) seeds by Pheidole fallax Mayr (Formicidae): a case of post-dispersal seed protection by ants? Ecology, Behavior And Bionomics

    Lôbo, D; Tabarelli, M; Leal, IR

    Abstract in English:

    Although seed dispersal by ants might reduce seed predation near the parent plants, predation on discarded seeds clustered on nest refuse piles may reduce any initial benefit provided by seed removal. Here we examine the fate of Croton sonderianus seeds that were discarded by Pheidole fallax Mayr ants on their nest refuses in caatinga vegetation of northeast Brazil. We collected all seeds discarded in refuse piles of 20 nests and within a radius of 50 cm from their borders, and examined them for evidence of predation. A total of 3,017 seeds were recorded either located in the P. fallax refuse piles (89.1%) or nest vicinity (10.9%). Predation was three fold higher in nest vicinity as compared to refuse piles. By removing seeds from beneath parent plants and relocating then to refuse piles, P. fallax is possibly providing double protection services for C. sonderianus seeds. Our findings represent the first evidence for predator-avoidance as benefit for plants resulting from ant seed-dispersal in the neotropics.
  • Description and key to the fifth-instars of some Cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) associated with coffee plants in Brazil Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Maccagnan, DHB; Martinelli, NM

    Abstract in English:

    Fifth-instars of the cicada species Dorisiana drewseni (Stål), Dorisiana viridis (Olivier), Fidicina mannifera (Fabricius), Fidicinoides pronoe (Walker) and Carineta fasciculata (Germar) are described and illustrated. Moreover, a key to the nymphs of these species along with Quesada gigas (Olivier) is also provided.
  • New species of Tetramorium Mayr (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Puebla State, Mexico Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Vásquez-Bolaños, M; Castaño-Meneses, G; Guzmán-Mendoza, R

    Abstract in English:

    Tetramorium notomelanum sp. n. is described from the Tehuacán Valley, state of Puebla, México. Its distribution and relation with other species of the tortuosum-group is discussed. The new species of Tetramonium is described from workers, and distinguished from others of the group by several characters: i) black coloration of the body; ii) size: T. notomelanum sp. n. is smaller than T. hispidum (Wheeler), T. mexicanum Bolton and T.spinosum (Pergande), but larger than T. bicolorum Vásquez-Bolaños and T. placidum Bolton; iii) length of the hairs of the dorsal of the head are equal to the diameter of eye; iv) the length of the hairs on the scape and tibiae less than the width of the appendage where they are located. This is the second species of the tortuosum group of Tetramorium found in the State of Puebla, and the fourth recorded in Mexico.
  • Changes in the fat body during the post-embryonic development of the predator Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) (Diptera: Culicidae) Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Pascini, TV; Albeny, DS; Ramalho-Ortigão, M; Vilela, EF; Serrão, JE; Martins, GF

    Abstract in English:

    Several studies have focused on understanding the biochemistry and morphology of the fat body of the hematophagous mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae). In contrast, few studies, if any, have focused on morphological characters of the fat body in other mosquitoes, especially non-hematophagous taxa such as the culicid Toxorhynchites. Larvae of Toxorhynchites prey upon the larvae of other mosquito species and are used in vector mosquito control. We investigated aspects of the fat body trophocytes, including the morphometric analyses of the lipid droplets, protein granules and nuclei, during Toxorhynchites theobaldi (Dyar & Knab) post-embryonic development. Following the body weight increase from larval stage L2 to L4, the size of lipid droplets within the trophocytes also increase, and are likely the result of lipogenesis. Lipid droplets decrease in size during L4 to the female pupal stage and increase once again during the period from newly-emerged to mature adult females. Protein granules are observed for the first time in female pupae, and their appearance might be related to protein storage during metamorphosis. The size of the nucleus of trophocytes also increases during larval development, followed by a decrease during metamorphosis and an additional increase as adult female ages. In conclusion, the morphology of the fat body of T. theobaldi changes according to the developmental stage. Our study provides for the first time important insights into T. theobaldi fat body development and contributes to understand this species biology.
  • Allometry and ontogeny in Callibia diana Stål (Mantodea: Acanthopidae) Systematics, Morphology And Physiology

    Avendaño, J; Sarmiento, CE

    Abstract in English:

    The life-cycle of Callibia diana Stål is described and linear and geometric morphometrics are used for studying allometrics and shape changes throughout this neotropical mantid species' life-cycle. Significant changes were expected in the allometry and shape of the raptorial leg and abdomen, given the importance of hunting and reproduction. The allometric slopes were obtained by using total length as the independent variable. Geometric morphometrics of landmarks were used for frontal femur and tibia. Hunting and reproduction-related structures had the steepest slopes and positive allometries. Negative growth of both disc width and head width found in the last moulting event may be a consequence of prothoracic muscle growth which is responsible for predatory strike strength. The tibial claw and femur of the raptorial leg become larger, while their spines become more orthogonal to the longitudinal axes which may facilitate prey retention. These changes in mantid shape throughout ontogeny were consistent and suggested the resource allocation and development programming of the body that improved reaching distance and prey retention.
  • Cage and field assessments of Beauveria bassiana-based Mycoinsecticides for Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) control in cabbage Biological Control

    Michereff Filho, M; Oliveira, SOD; de Liz, RS; Faria, M
  • Host quality of different aphid species for rearing Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) Biological Control

    Silva, RJ; Cividanes, FJ; Pedroso, EC; Sala, SRD

    Abstract in English:

    This study aimed to evaluate the quality of the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach) and Brevicoryne brassicae (L.) as hosts for the parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh). Parasitization by D. rapae was higher on M. persicae than on L. erysimi and B. brassicae. The time of development of D. rapae from egg to mummy or egg to adult male or female were shorter on M. persicae than on L. erysimi and B. brassicae. Moreover, D. rapae showed no significant differences in the emergence rate, sex ratio and longevity when reared on the three aphid species. Myzus persicae was the largest aphid host, with B. brassicae and L. erysimi being of intermediate and of small size, respectively. Diaeretiella rapae reared on M. persicae was larger than when reared on L. erysimi and B. brassicae, and females of D. rapae were significantly larger than males on M. persicae, but males of D. rapae were larger than females when reared on L. erysimi. No difference in size was detected between males and females in parasitoids reared on B. brassicae. Among the aphid species studied, M. persicae was found to be the most suitable to D. rapae.
  • Economic damage level for leaf-cutting ants in function of the productivity index of eucalyptus plantations in an Atlantic Forest region

    Souza, A; Zanetti, R; Calegario, N

    Abstract in English:

    The production and quality of eucalyptus plantations have been studied in areas with different densities of ant nests, being important to estimate losses caused by leaf-cutting ants. The effects of leaf-cutting ant on wood production in differents productivity sites were studied in eucalyptus plantations in the region of Atlantic Forest, Minas Gerais State, Brazil from 2003 to 2006. Data of plots of the continuous forest inventory and data of leaf-cutting ant monitoring in eucalyptus plantations were obtained. Each unitary increment in the area of Atta spp. nests per hectare reduced the wood production of the eucalyptus forest between 0.04 and 0.13 m³.ha-1, resulting in a level of economic damage for leaf-cutting ants between 13.4 and 39.2 m².ha-1, in this region. Moreover, this study innovated when using indices of forest productivity (site index) that promote better adjustment of the models and produce estimate more accurate of the level of economic damage for leaf-cutting ants in cultivated forests, allowing to conclude that the increase of the total area of ant nests reduces the wooden volume of eucalyptus, proportionally to the productive potential of the forest.
  • Resistance of citrus genotypes to Phyllocnitis citrella Stainton (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) Pest Management

    Santos, MS; Vendramim, JD; Lourenção, AL; Pitta, RM; Martins, ES

    Abstract in English:

    The development and reproduction of the citrus leafminer (CLM), Phyllocnistis citrella Stainton, were evaluated in six citrus genotypes in order to identify genotypes with resistance traits that could be applied in a program for the development of citrus varieties resistant to the citrus leafminer. Tests were conducted under controlled laboratory conditions (25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH, and 14h photophase). Seedlings of each genotype tested were infested with eggs obtained from a stock colony of CLM maintained on 'Cravo' lemon (Citrus limonia L. Osbeck), and the duration and survival of the eggs, larval and pupal stages, pupal size and weight, fecundity and longevity of adults, and sex ratio were evaluated. No influence was observed on the duration and survival of eggs, larvae and pupae of P. citrella. However, pupae obtained in the hybrid C x R4 were significantly smaller and lighter than pupae from the remaining treatments. Adult females from the hybrids C x R4 and C x R315 were the least fecund. However, the lowest value for the corrected reproductive potential (CRP) was recorded in the hybrid C x R315, suggesting that this genotype is the least favorable for the development and reproduction of CLM. On the other hand, the highest CRP value obtained in the 'Rugoso' lemon confirms the susceptibility of this genotype, indicating it as the most suitable for CLM.
  • Silicon influence on resistance induction against Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) and on vegetative development in two soybean cultivars Pest Management

    Ferreira, RS; Moraes, JC; antunes, CS

    Abstract in English:

    The potential of populations of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) to become resistant to insecticides has stimulated research into alternative tactics of integrated pest management such as the induction of host-plant resistance. Recent data have shown that silicon can increase the degree of resistance of host plants to insect pests. Therefore the aim of our work was to study the effects of silicon application on the vegetative development of soybean plants and on the induction of resistance to the silverleaf whitefly, B. tabaci biotype B. We performed choice and no-choice tests of oviposition preference on two soybean cultivars, IAC-19 (moderately resistant to B. tabaci biotype B) and MONSOY-8001 (susceptible), with and without application of silicon. Silicon did not affect silverleaf whitefly oviposition preferences, but caused significant mortality in nymphs. Thus, silicon increased the degree of resistance to silverleaf whitefly. Silicon decreased the production of phenolic compounds, but did not affect lignin production. However, when applied to cultivar IAC-19, it increased the production of non-protein organic nitrogen. Silicon had no effect on the vegetative development of soybean plants, but it increased the degree of resistance to the silverleaf whitefly. We conclude that silicon applications combined with cultivar IAC-19 can significantly decrease silverleaf whitefly populations, having a positive impact both on the soybean plant and on the environment.
  • Genetic differentiation in natural populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva) (Diptera: Psychodidae) with different phenotypic spot patterns on tergites in males Public Health

    Silva, MH; Nascimento, MDSB; Leonardo, FS; Rebêlo, JMM; Pereira, SRF

    Abstract in English:

    Entomological surveys in the state of Maranhão have recorded morphologically distinct populations of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva). Some populations have one pair of spots (1S) on the fourth tergite, while others have two pairs (2S) on the third and fourth tergites of males. In the present study we investigated the degree of genetic polymorphism among four populations in the municipalities of Caxias, Codó and Raposa, in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, by using RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers. A total of 35 loci were identified, of which 30 were polymorphic. The highest polymorphism was observed with primer OPA 4, which produced 11 different profiles. Genetic diversity was assessed using grouping methods that produced a dendrogram in which the genotypes could be clearly separated into two main clades according to the number of spots on the male abdominal tergites. One cluster contained the populations from Caxias and Codó, and the other was formed by the populations from Raposa and Codó. The results of our RAPD analysis showed a clear separation between the populations with one and two pairs of spots. The epidemiologic significance of this genetic differentiation should be investigated in future studies.
  • Nasal mites (Gamasida: Rhinonyssidae) of Paroaria coronata (Miller) (Passeriformes: Emberezidae) Scientific Notes

    Mascarenhas, CS; Coimbra, MAA; Müller, G; Brum, JGW

    Abstract in English:

    With the aim of identifying the species of nasal mites of Paroaria coronata (red-crested cardinal), the nasal cavity of 40 birds were examined. The nasal mites were identified as Ptilonyssus sairae de Castro and Sternostoma pirangae Pence, with 50% and 7.5% of prevalence, respectively. This is the first record of these mite species parasitizing P. coronata. This report also amplifies the area of occurrence of S. pirangae for Brazil and that of P. sairae for Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.
  • Amblyomma dissimile Koch (Acari: Ixodidae) attacking Primolius maracana Vieillot (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae) in the Amazon region, state of Pará, Brazil Scientific Notes

    Scofield, A; Bahia, M; Martins, AL; Góes-Cavalcante, G; Martins, TF; Labruna, MB

    Abstract in English:

    The tick Amblyomma dissimile Koch feeds preferentially on reptiles (Squamata), although amphibians (Anura) also seem to be important hosts. We report an A. dissimile nymph infesting a blue-winged macaw, Primolius maracana, held in captivity in the Mangal das Garças Park, State of Pará, Brazil. Environmental observations suggest that free-living iguanas (Iguana iguana), which used to walk on the bird enclosure in the park, were the source of the A. dissimile tick that infested the blue-winged macaw. We provide the second world record of a bird host for A. dissimile, and the first bird record for this species in South America.
  • New host plant records for Oenomaus ortygnus (Cramer) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) in Mexico Scientific Notes

    Castañeda-Vildózola, A; Nava-Díaz, C; Duarte, M; Franco-Mora, O; Hernández-Fuentes, LM

    Abstract in English:

    This is the first record of Oenomaus ortygnus (Cramer) damaging fruits of ilama (Annona diversifolia) and extends the butterfly distribution for three states in Mexico.
  • First report of Elasmus polistis Burks (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) recovered from Polistes versicolor (Olivier) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae) nests in Brazil Scientific Notes

    Dorfey, C; Köhler, A

    Abstract in English:

    The first record of Elasmus polistis Burks in Polistes versicolor (Olivier) nests in the Rio Grande do Sul state and in Brazil is provided. A total of 173 specimens of P. versicolor and 790 specimens of E.polistis were collected from two nests from Gramado and Santa Cruz do Sul, RS, Brazil.
  • First Record of Anastrepha flavipennis Greene (Diptera: Tephritidae) and of its Host in the Brazilian Amazon Scientific Notes

    Corrêa, EC; Silva, NM; Silva, FCC; Pena, MR

    Abstract in English:

    Anastrepha flavipennis Greene was obtained from Pouteria glomerata (Sapotaceae) fruits, known as "abiurana-da-várzea" in the Brazilian Amazon. This is the first record of A. flavipennis for the state of Amazonas and of P. glomerata as a host for this fruit fly in the Amazon Basin.
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