Abstract in English:We combined two models to investigate the theoretical dynamics of five exotic and native blowfly species in response to the Allee effect by using demographic parameters estimated from experimental populations. Most of the results suggest stabilization of dynamic behavior in response to the Allee effect. However, the results depended on the magnitude of the demographic parameters of each species, and also indicated chaotic fluctuations and limit cycles. The results are discussed in the context of larval aggregation, an important biological process for blowflies, which naturally incorporates the Allee effect.
Abstract in English:Grapholita molesta (Busck) is one of the major pests of Rosaceae, causing significant damage to buds and fruits. In Southern Brazil, its population density is reduced during Rosaceae dormancy months. The present study evaluated the influence of different photoperiods (L:D) (10:14, 11:13, 12:12, 13:11, 14:10 and 16:8) at 25 ± 1ºC and 60 ± 10% RH on diapause induction of G. molesta eggs, larvae, prepupae, and pupae. The effects of the photoperiod on the life cycle of non-diapausing insects and on the second generation were also assessed. Prepupal diapause was observed only when eggs and neonates (< 12h-old larvae) were exposed to photophases from 10h to 14h long. Development of non-diapausing individuals and those from the second generation tended to be longer in photophases between 10h and 14h long.
Abstract in English:The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is the most important pest of brassicaceous crops worldwide. Since temperature is the major abiotic factor influencing insect development and thermal requirements may vary among insect populations, it is important to know the effect of temperature on development and survival of a subtropical strain of P. xylostella. Development and survival of the diamondback moth was evaluated under seven constant temperatures ranging from 10°C to 35°C. Development was completed between 10°C and 32.5°C, but at 35°C all individuals died in the larval stage. Data were fitted to one linear and five nonlinear models. Considering as criteria the goodness of fit and the ability to estimate parameters of biological significance, the models Briere-1 and Briere-2 were the most adequate to describe the relationship between temperature and development of P. xylostella. The linear model demonstrated that P. xylostella required 312.5 degree-days above a lower threshold of 6.3°C to complete development. The degree-day model showed that the number of diamondback moth generations in the tropical region of Brazil is nearly twice the number in the subtropical region of the country. This result explains, at least in part, the higher population levels of this species in the tropical region of Brazil, and also demonstrates that P. xylostella is tolerant to a wide range of temperatures (6.1-32.5°C). Therefore, temperature cannot be considered a limiting factor for the occurrence of diamondback moth throughout the year in most regions of Brazil.
Abstract in English:The search for factors shaping leaf-litter ant communities has received particular attention due to the essential role of these insects in many ecological processes. Here, we aimed to investigate how the number of leaves and leaf morphotypes affect the litter-ant species density at forest edge and interior in an Atlantic Forest remnant in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. This study was developed based on 28 litter plots (1m² each), 14 in the forest interior and 14 in the forest edge. As we early expected, ant species density increased with increasing both the number of leaves and the number of leaf morphotypes, but this result was clearly influenced by plot location. Contrasting with the forest interior, ant species density did not increase as the number of leaves increased in the forest edge. Possibly, factors such as plant species richness, vegetation structure and environmental conditions affect ant species density as well as promote a patchy distribution of species in ant communities along the edge-to-interior gradient. Our findings suggest that edge-affected forests present more simplified ant communities, with different factors shaping its structure. We encourage future studies to include leaf litter heterogeneity as one of the explanatory variables investigated.
Abstract in English:A communal dormitory of male orchid bees, Euglossa melanotricha Moure, was monitored over a one-year period, when they passed the night in the fronds of a Serpocaulon triseriale (Polypodiaceae) fern. The bees used the same fronds continuously, moving to neighboring fronds as senescence set in. As many as 49 males were observed together on any one night, clinging to the midribs on the abaxial surface of up to five fern blades with their mandibles. A number of males returned to the same site to pass the night continuously over a number of months, and were observed making physical contact with one another without provoking agonistic behavior. Males of E. melanotricha appeared to prefer sleeping at sites close to nests and potential sources of odoriferous essences, such as orchids (Orchidaceae).
Abstract in English:The wide range of morphological variations in the "loxurina group" makes taxa identification difficult, and despite several reviews, serious taxonomical confusion remains. We make use of DNA data in conjunction with morphological appearance and available information on species distribution to delimit the boundaries of the "loxurina" group species previously established based on morphology. A fragment of 635 base pairs within the mtDNA gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI) was analysed for seven species of the "loxurina group". Phylogenetic relationships among the included taxa were inferred using maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. Penaincisalia sigsiga (Bálint et al), P. cillutincarae (Draudt), P. atymna (Hewitson) and P. loxurina (C. Felder & R. Felder) were easily delimited as the morphological, geographic and molecular data were congruent. Penaincisalia ludovica (Bálint & Wojtusiak) and P. loxurina astillero (Johnson) represent the same entity and constitute a sub-species of P. loxurina. However, incongruence among morphological, genetic, and geographic data is shown in P. chachapoya (Bálint & Wojtusiak) and P. tegulina (Bálint et al). Our results highlight that an integrative approach is needed to clarify the taxonomy of these neotropical taxa, but more genetic and geographical studies are still required.
Abstract in English:Barbadocladius n. gen. is erected and described in larval, pupal and adult stages for two species: B. andinus sp. nov. and B. limay sp. nov., from Andean streams. The larva is distinctive by virtue of the very large ventromental 'beard' and the anterior parapods with a 'sleeve' of hooklets in addition to apical pectinate claws. The pupa has hooklets on some tergal and sternal intersegmental membranes. The adult, reported only in teneral specimens has hairy eyes, no antennal apical strong seta, no acrostichals, bare and unmarked wings, cylindrical 4th tarsomere subequal in length to the 5th, pulvilli about half the claw length, and hypopygium with anal point, lacking a virga. Molecular phylogenetic analysis eliminates relationships directly to the Eukiefferiella complex (which also have pupal hooklets), or to the Cricotopus group (adults also with hairy eyes), suggesting instead a sister group relationship to a suite of predominantly austral genera of Orthocladiinae.
Abstract in English:Mariner-like elements (MLE) are members from class II of transposable elements also known as DNA transposons. These elements have a wide distribution among different groups of organisms, including insects, which can be explained by horizontal and vertical gene-transfer. MLE families have been described in tephritid flies and other genera. During screening for Wolbachia bacteria in fruit flies of the genus Anastrepha, we discovered two sequences related to mariner-like elements. Based on these sequences, we designed primers that allowed us to isolate and characterize two new mariner-like elements (Anmar1 and Anmar2) in Anastrepha flies. These elements, which belong to the mellifera and rosa subfamilies have a low nucleotide diversity, and are probably inactive and acquired by vertical transfer. This is the first report of mariner-like transposons in flies found in South America.
Abstract in English:Epicauta includes two subgenera, and within the nominotypical subgenus several species groups. Analyzing species of southern South America, a set of species of Epicauta has the particularity to present two distinctive characters which separates this group from the other species groups of American Epicauta: color pattern of pubescence in elytra is not coincident with color pattern of tegument and endophalic hook robust. Based on these characters I propose a new group of species herein named bella group. This group includes the Neotropical species Epicauta bella Mäklin, E. brunneipennis (Haag-Rutemberg), E. diagramma (Burmeister), E. griseonigra (Fairmaire), E. luctifera (Fairmaire), E. riojana (Fairmaire) (new status), and E. zebra (Dohrn). This group is endemic of southern South America, inhabiting the Chaco biogeographical subregion, mainly in the arid northern areas of Argentina. Here we redefine the species of the bella group, consider new characters, illustrate the species in the group, provide maps of their distribution, and a key to identify them.
Abstract in English:This study investigated the level of morphometric and genetic variability among populations of Anastrepha pickeli Lima from several localities in Brazil, one locality in Bolivia and one in Paraguay. Traditional and geometric morphometric analyses were used, as well as sequencing of a fragment of the cytochrome oxidase gene (COI). Six variables were measured from the aculeus for traditional morphometric analysis and 14 landmarks from the right wing were used for geometric analysis, using 10 specimes/population. The aculeus tip length, aculeus width at the end of the cloaca opening, and the serrate part length contributed with 62.7% for grouping. According to the results from traditional morphometry, there was no significant difference, but the multivariate tests showed that the canonical variables were statistically significant, indicating a difference in the wing conformation among populations. Molecular phylogenetic analysis indicated that the populations clustered into three clades and revealed a high level of genetic variation within A. pickeli populations from various geographic regions. Anastrepha pickeli populations differed among them according to the methods used in this study, showing incongruence among the methods used.
Abstract in English:One new species of Riethia Kieffer, Riethia manauara n. sp., is described and figured as male, pupa and larva. The generic diagnosis for pupae and larvae are emended. The specimens were collected from water systems in the Amazon Rainforest in northern Brazil.
Abstract in English:Bacillus thuringiensis harbors genes encoding Cry proteins found in chromosomes or plasmids of different sizes (4-150 Mb). Although the smaller plasmids are more abundant in B. thuringiensis, their specific function is unknown. As for the megaplasmids, their main recognized function is to harbor cry genes, although the sequencing of some of these plasmids indicates the occurrence of other important genes. This work used a new protocol for practical and rapid extraction of plasmid DNA in order to characterize the plasmid patterns of Brazilian strains belonging to Embrapa Milho e Sorgo research center B. thuringiensis bank. We tried to further assess the relationship of plasmid patterns with strains belonging to the same serovars and strains causing 100% and no mortality to Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae. It was possible to characterize 59 strains based on the migration of bands in agarose gel. Strains belonging to the same serovars showed different plasmid sizes (from 1,636 bp to 23,200 bp), with the exception of two strains belonging to serovar galleriae. The strain T09 Bt tolworthi showed a plasmid migration pattern identical to strains belonging to serovar galleriae. Plasmid patterns differed for 46 strains, confirming that this is a useful tool to discriminate specific strains. However, it was not possible to associate the plasmid pattern or the occurrence of particular plasmids with the pathogenicity of a given species towards S. frugiperda larvae.
Abstract in English:This study assessed the cost and effectiveness of an integrated pest management (IPM) program using hydramethylnon gel baits compared with conventional spraying for controlling the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) (Blattodea: Blattellidae), in two residential buildings in Yasuj, Iran. The IPM approach was based on educational programs using pamphlets, posters and lectures, sanitation using vacuuming and application of hydramethylnon gel baits. Conventional approach used cypermethrin (10% EC) on baseboard and cracks-and-crevices. Sticky traps were used as tools for monitoring cockroach population densities. The IPM approach reduced (943%) the rate of insecticide application compared to the conventional spray. Cockroach populations in the IPM treatment were significantly reduced from an average of 12.2 ± 3.01 cockroaches per unit before treatment to zero cockroach per unit by week four and thereafter. Cockroach populations in the conventional spray treatment were reduced from an average of 11.5 ± 4.43 cockroaches per unit before treatment to an average of 3.4 ± 0.99 cockroach per unit after 11 weeks of post treatment. The IPM treatment improved 100% of infested units compared to 78% for spray treatment to obtain a clean level of infestation (< 1cockroach per trap per unit). The results suggest that the intervention by IPM using hydramethylnon gel baits significantly reduced cockroach infestation compared to cypermethrin spray throughout the 11 weeks of post-treatment period. However, within the study period, the IPM system involving gel baits, educational program and sanitation was 363.2% more expensive than the conventional method.
Abstract in English:The objectives of this work were to assess the infestation of ten genotypes of cassava by the shoot fly Neosilba perezi (Romero & Ruppell) and to investigate effects of plant age, temperature or precipitation on cassava plants infestation by the shoot fly. Thirty-two individuals of each cassava genotype were planted and analyzed every two weeks in order to calculate the percentage of plants infested by shoot fly larvae at each sampling event and per genotype. Infestation by the fly was different across the genotypes. Genotype IAC Caapora 105-66 and genotype IAC Cascuda were resistant to shoot fly infestation, whereas the genotype IAC 15 was the most susceptible to this insect. Plant age may have an influence on infestation by shoot flies. Advanced plant age apparently favors lower or even inexistent infestation rates. However, infestation rate does not seem to be affected by temperature or precipitation.
Abstract in English:Egg parasitoids of the stink bug Edessa meditabunda (F) were studied on rattlepod Crotalaria spectabilis used in soybean crop rotation in Campo Novo do Parecis, Mato Grosso state, central western Brazil. Seven species of parasitoids were found: two Encyrtidae, one Eurytomidae, and four Platygastridae. The occurrence of Trissolcus euchisti (Ashmead) and Trissolcus elimatus Johnson (Platygastridae) on eggs of E. meditabunda is recorded for the first time. Moreover, this is the first record of T. elimatus and T. euchisti from Brazil.
Abstract in English:Asopines are predators of insects, with several species with potential as biocontrol agents of a number of pests. Metrogaleruca obscura (Degeer), a neotropical species of Galerucini, was introduced in Malaysia, Asia, and Mauritius, Africa, to control the spread of Cordia curassavica (Boraginaceae), a native plant of the neotropics. The occurrence of Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) preying on M. obscura is recorded, and Cordia verbenacea (Boraginaceae) is mentioned as a host plant for M. obscura. A list of Chrysomelidae attacked by asopines in the neotropical region is also presented.
Abstract in English:The mite Oxycenus maxwelli (Keifer) (Eriophyidae) is reported for the first time in Brazil infesting olive trees, Olea europaea. Specimens were found on seedlings at Maria da Fé, state of Minas Gerais, in 2007. Although minor symptoms were not noticed, significant damage to plants were observed. There is no reliable evidence of when the mite could have been introduced. It is believed that the mite occurs since the first introductions of olive trees, around 1820, through vegetative propagating material, but the mite remained unnoticed due to the lack of studies with olive trees in Brazil.
Abstract in English:The shrub Pluchea chingoyo is mentioned as the first host plant record for larvae of the little known moth Pero obtusaria Prout.
Abstract in English:This study reports four thrips species from Brazil for the first time: the terebrantians Aptinothrips rufus (Haliday) and Echinothrips caribbeanus Hood; and the tubuliferans Androthrips ramachandrai Karny and Gynaikothrips uzeli (Zimmermann). New data about biological aspects of some of these new records are presented.