A new species of Astyanax is described from the arheic system of Río Sucuma, in Catamarca, Northwestern Argentina. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of characters including the presence of a broad vertical humeral spot, absence of maxillary teeth, and absence of circuli in posterior field of scales. Furthermore, this species is distinguished by the orbital diameter, head length, branched anal-fin rays, perforated lateral-line scales, transverse scales, dentary teeth with abrupt decrease in size. This species is, to date, the single known fish endemic of Río Sucuma basin.
Arheic system; Characiformes; Cryptic species; Endemic species; Phylogeny