A second inseminating species bearing club cells organized into an anal-fin gland in sexually active males belonging to the genus Bryconadenos was recently discovered in the rio Xingu drainage and is described as new. It is distinguished from B. tanaothoros by the presence of a conspicuous dark blotch at the humeral region, and fewer scale rows between dorsal-fin origin and anal-fin origin. Males of B. weitzmani have longer pelvic fins at sizes beyond 30 mm SL. Bryconadenos weitzmani is further distinguished from B. tanaothoros by the cup shape of the anal-fin gland, its lower part much more developed than the upper, whereas in B. tanaothoros there is just a slit separating the almost equally developed upper and lower parts.
Freshwater fish; South America; Neotropical; Insemination; Systematics; Taxonomy