This paper investigated the effect of cryoprotectant substances on Prochilodus lineatus embryos in an experimental incubator. The prospective study applied combinations of polyvinyl alcohol, hydroxyethyl cellulose, gelatin and fetal bovine serum with dimethyl sulfoxide and ethylene glycol in a new experimental incubator. The morphology of embryos, larval viability and the efficiency of experimental incubators in maintaining the quality of embryos were evaluated. This study demonstrates the efficient association between hydroxyethylcellulose and dimethyl sulfoxide as greater viability (p<0.05) was found for embryos (72.9 ± 23.9%). It should also be noted the permeation of cryoprotectants in embryos through the changes found in chorion diameter, embryo diameter and embryo volume comparing the treatments versus control group (water) (p<0.05), this results can help in future cryopreservation protocols. Although the temperature and oxygenation differed between the usual and experimental incubators (p<0.05), the results showed a high fertilization rate (79.6 ± 13.2%) for experimental incubators (p<0.05) which is sufficient for the maintenance of embryos in a cryoprotective environment and effectively allows experimentation for long periods with cryoprotectant substances. Cryopreservation of fish embryos has not been accomplished yet and new approaches are required for understanding the permeability of teleost embryos, especially in Brazilian native species.