Two new species of Leporinus are described from coastal rivers of southern Bahia, Brazil. One of the new species has a bright red blotch immediately dorsal to the pectoral-fin origin in life, three dark blotches along the lateral line that distinctly increase in size posteriorly, and dark longitudinal lines between scale rows on the side of body. The second new species possesses a single broad dark midlateral stripe, encompassing one or two scale rows of depth on the body and centered on the scale row below the lateral line, a dark adipose fin, and a conspicuous dark blotch on the caudal peduncle. The first new species is known only from the rio de Contas and the second from the rio das Almas and rio Jiquiriçá. In addition,Leporinus melanopleura is redescribed based on a designated lectotype and additional specimens collected in the rio Una. Leporinus melanopleura has a single broad dark midlateral stripe, encompassing one or two scale rows of depth on the body, centered on the scale row below lateral line, a hyaline adipose fin (red in life), and an inconspicuous dark blotch on the caudal peduncle.
Anostomoidea; Leporinus melanostictus; Neotropics; Ostariophysi; Taxonomy