A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the rio Doce basin, Brazil

Leonardo Oliveira-Silva Sérgio A. dos Santos Maridiesse Morais Lopes Angela Maria Zanata About the authors

Abstract

A new species of Characidium is described from the tributaries of the upper and middle rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is distinguished from most congeners, except C. cricarense, C. hasemani, C. helmeri, C. kalunga, C. pterostictum, C. schubarti, C. summus, and C. travassosi by lacking scales in the area between the anterior limit of the isthmus and the anterior margin of cleithrum. The new species differs from the aforementioned species by a series of characters, including the presence of the adipose fin, 2­–4 scales between the anus and anal fin, two rows of dentary teeth, presence of the parietal branch of the supraorbital canal, 4 scale rows above the lateral line, and absence of two conspicuous inclined dark bands on each caudal-fin lobe. The new species further differs from most congeners with an unscaled ventral surface of the isthmus by the presence of 33–34 pored scales on the lateral line and by the dark dashes on the caudal fin-rays not forming well-defined bands.

Keywords:
Characidiinae; Endemism; Environmental alteration; Isthmus scaleless; Taxonomy

Resumo

Uma nova espécie de Characidium é descrita de afluentes do alto e médio curso da bacia do rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil. A nova espécie se distingue da maioria das congêneres, exceto C. cricarense, C. hasemani, C. helmeri, C. kalunga, C. pterostictum, C. schubarti, C. summus e C. travassosi pela falta de escamas na área entre o limite anterior do istmo e a margem anterior do cleitro. A nova espécie difere das espécies acima mencionadas por uma série de caracteres, incluindo a presença de nadadeira adiposa, 2–4 escamas entre o ânus e a nadadeira anal, duas séries de dentes no dentário, ramo parietal do canal supraorbital presente, 4 séries de escamas acima da linha lateral e ausência de duas bandas escuras inclinadas em cada lobo da nadadeira caudal. A nova espécie difere ainda mais da maioria das congêneres com superfície ventral sem escamas no istmo por ter 33–34 escamas perfuradas na linha lateral e traços escuros nos raios da nadadeira caudal não formando bandas bem definidas.

Palavras-chave:
Alteração ambiental; Characidiinae; Endemismo; Istmo sem escamas; Taxonomia

INTRODUCTION

The rio Doce is a southeastern Brazilian river basin that runs through two biodiverse hotspots, the Atlantic Forest and the Brazilian Savanna (Myers et al., 2000Myers N, Mittermeier RA, Mittermeier CG, Da Fonseca GA, Kent J. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities. Nature. 2000; 403(6772):853–58). The surrounding areas of the river, as well as the basin itself, have suffered tremendous environmental destruction, such as riparian deforestation, mining disasters, dam building, loss of native fish species, and the introduction of at least 29 nonnative fish species (Vieira, 2010Vieira F. Distribuição, impactos ambientais e conservação da fauna de peixes da bacia do rio Doce. MG Biota . 2010; 2(5):5–22.; Salvador et al., 2018Salvador GN, Frederico RG, Pessali TC, Vieira F, Freitas TM. Length-weight relationship of 21 fish species from Rio Doce River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. J Appl Ichthyo. 2018; 34(5):1198–201. https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13734
https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13734...
). More dramatically, a tailings dam in this basin burst severely recently, spreading toxic mud along the main river course and affecting wild communities as well as local human populations (Fernandes et al., 2016Fernandes GW, Goulart FF, Ranieri BD, Coelho MS, Dales K, Boesche N et al. Deep into the mud: ecological and socio-economic impacts of the dam breach in Mariana, Brazil. Perspect Ecol Conserv. 2016; 14(2):35–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2016.10.003
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2016.10.0...
; Neves et al., 2016Neves ACO, Nunes FP, de Carvalho FA, Fernandes GW. Neglect of ecosystems services by mining, and the worst environmental disaster in Brazil. Perspect Ecol Conserv. 2016; 1(14):24–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2016.03.002
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ncon.2016.03...
). The historical environmental alteration impacting the rio Doce basin has been intensely discussed for decades (e.g., Vieira, 2010Vieira F. Distribuição, impactos ambientais e conservação da fauna de peixes da bacia do rio Doce. MG Biota . 2010; 2(5):5–22.; Pinto-Coelho et al., 2008Pinto-Coelho RM, Bezerra-Neto JF, Miranda F, Mota TG, Resck R, Santos AM et al. The inverted trophic cascade in tropical plankton communities: impacts of exotic fish in the Middle Rio Doce lake district, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Braz J Biol. 2008; 68(4):1025–37. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842008000500010
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-6984200800...
; Latini, Petrere, 2004Latini AO, Petrere Jr M. Reduction of a native fish fauna by alien species: an example from Brazilian freshwater tropical lakes. Fisheries Manag Ecol; 2004; 11(2):71–79. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2400.2003.00372.x
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; Fragoso-Moura et al., 2016Fragoso-Moura EN, Oporto LT, Maia-Barbosa PM, Barbosa FAR. Loss of biodiversity in a conservation unit of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: the effect of introducing non-native fish species. Braz J Biol. 2016; 76(1):18–27. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.07914
https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.07914...
; Sales et al., 2018Sales NG, Mariani S, Salvador GN, Pessali TC, Carvalho DC. Hidden diversity hampers conservation efforts in a highly impacted Neotropical river system. Front Genet. 2018; 9:271. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271...
; Vergilio et al., 2021Vergilio CS, Lacerda D, Souza TS, Oliveira BCV, Fioresi VS, Souza VV et al. Immediate and long-term impacts of one of the worst mining tailing dam failure worldwide (Bento Rodrigues, Minas Gerais, Brazil). Sci Total Environ. 2021; 143697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143697
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020...
), and the effects of the tailings dam disaster on the fish community have been assessed recently (e.g., Gomes et al., 2019Gomes LC, Chippari-Gomes AR, Miranda TO, Pereira TM, Merçon J, Davel VC et al. Genotoxicity effects on Geophagus brasiliensis fish exposed to Doce River water after the environmental disaster in the city of Mariana, MG, Brazil. Braz J Biol. 2019; 79(4):659–64. https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.188086
https://doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.188086...
; Ferreira et al., 2020Ferreira FF, de Freitas MBD, Szinwelski N, Vicente N, Medeiros LCC, Schaefer CEGR et al. Impacts of the Samarco tailing dam collapse on metals and arsenic concentration in freshwater fish muscle from Doce River, southeastern Brazil. Integr Environ Assess Manag. 2020; 16(5):622–30. https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4289
https://doi.org/10.1002/ieam.4289...
; Macêdo et al., 2020Macêdo AKS, Dos Santos KPE, Brighenti LS, Windmöller CC, Barbosa FAR, de Azambuja Ribeiro RIM et al. Histological and molecular changes in gill and liver of fish (Astyanax lacustris Lütken, 1875) exposed to water from the Doce basin after the rupture of a mining tailings dam in Mariana, MG, Brazil. Sci Total Environ. 2020; 735:139505. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.139505
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020...
; Weber et al., 2020Weber AA, Sales CF, de Souza Faria F, Melo RMC, Bazzoli N, Rizzo E. Effects of metal contamination on liver in two fish species from a highly impacted neotropical river: a case study of the Fundão dam, Brazil. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020; 190:110165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.110165
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2020.11...
; Vergilio et al., 2021Vergilio CS, Lacerda D, Souza TS, Oliveira BCV, Fioresi VS, Souza VV et al. Immediate and long-term impacts of one of the worst mining tailing dam failure worldwide (Bento Rodrigues, Minas Gerais, Brazil). Sci Total Environ. 2021; 143697. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143697
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020...
). At least 11 species of fishes occurring in the basin are categorized as endangered, four of them endemic (ICMBio, 2018Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção: Volume VI - Peixes. In: Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (Org.). Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção. Brasília: ICMBio; 2018. ).

In contrast to the well documented environmental alterations of the rio Doce, part of the basin’s biodiversity remains unknown (Sales et al., 2018Sales NG, Mariani S, Salvador GN, Pessali TC, Carvalho DC. Hidden diversity hampers conservation efforts in a highly impacted Neotropical river system. Front Genet. 2018; 9:271. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271...
). In the last two decades, 14 new species of fishes from the basin have been described, attesting broad advance in the knowledge of its fish fauna and resulting in more than 80 native species in the basin (Vieira, 2010Vieira F. Distribuição, impactos ambientais e conservação da fauna de peixes da bacia do rio Doce. MG Biota . 2010; 2(5):5–22.; Salvador et al., 2018Salvador GN, Frederico RG, Pessali TC, Vieira F, Freitas TM. Length-weight relationship of 21 fish species from Rio Doce River basin, Minas Gerais, Brazil. J Appl Ichthyo. 2018; 34(5):1198–201. https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13734
https://doi.org/10.1111/jai.13734...
; Fricke et al., 2021Fricke R, Eschmeyer WN, Van der Laan R. Eschmeyer’s catalog of fishes: genera, species, references [Internet]. San Francisco: California Academy of Science; 2021. http:// researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. ). Recently, Sales et al., (2018)Sales NG, Mariani S, Salvador GN, Pessali TC, Carvalho DC. Hidden diversity hampers conservation efforts in a highly impacted Neotropical river system. Front Genet. 2018; 9:271. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271...
used genetic divergences to highlight the occurrence of hidden biodiversity within five genera of fish from the basin, along with cryptic and/or candidate species at least in four genera. Both cases implied the genus Characidium Reinhardt, 1867 as including unrecognized species.

Characidium includes 83 species of South American darters, distributed from eastern Panama to Argentina (Melo et al., 2021aMelo MRS, Bouquerel BB, Masumoto FT, França RS, Netto-Ferreira AL. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brazil. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2021a; 19(2):e200152. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0152
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0...
; Fricke et al., 2021Fricke R, Eschmeyer WN, Van der Laan R. Eschmeyer’s catalog of fishes: genera, species, references [Internet]. San Francisco: California Academy of Science; 2021. http:// researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ ichthyology/catalog/fishcatmain.asp. ). The literature indicates that only the species C. cricarense Malanski, Sarmento-Soares, Silva-Malanski, Lopes, Ingenito & Buckup, 2019 has been confidently identified from the rio Doce. However, studies listing species in the basin include several candidate species in the genus: identified as C. cf. timbuiense, Characidium sp., Characidium sp. A, Characidium sp. B and Characidium sp. C (e.g., Alves et al., 2008Alves CBM, Leal CG, Brito MFG, Santos ACA. Biodiversidade e conservação de peixes do Complexo do Espinhaço. Megadiversidade. 2008; 4(1–2):178–96.; Vieira, 2010Vieira F. Distribuição, impactos ambientais e conservação da fauna de peixes da bacia do rio Doce. MG Biota . 2010; 2(5):5–22.; Sales et al., 2018Sales NG, Mariani S, Salvador GN, Pessali TC, Carvalho DC. Hidden diversity hampers conservation efforts in a highly impacted Neotropical river system. Front Genet. 2018; 9:271. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271...
; Santos, Britto, 2021Santos SA, Britto MR. The ichthyofauna of a poorly known area in the middle-southern Espinhaço mountain range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: diagnostics and identification keys. ZooKeys. 2021; 1054:25–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1054.67554
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1054.675...
). This contribution describes formally one of these new Characidium, cited as Characidium sp. by Sales et al., (2018)Sales NG, Mariani S, Salvador GN, Pessali TC, Carvalho DC. Hidden diversity hampers conservation efforts in a highly impacted Neotropical river system. Front Genet. 2018; 9:271. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271...
and as Characidium sp. B by Santos, Britto, (2021)Santos SA, Britto MR. The ichthyofauna of a poorly known area in the middle-southern Espinhaço mountain range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: diagnostics and identification keys. ZooKeys. 2021; 1054:25–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1054.67554
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1054.675...
. This new taxon is apparently endemic to headwaters of tributaries in the upper and middle rio Doce basin.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

After capture, specimens were anesthetized with eugenol solution (1 ml/L), then fixed in 10% formalin, and finally preserved in 70% ethanol. The field studies did not involve endangered species. Counts and measurements were taken according to Buckup, (1993a)Buckup PA. Review of the characidiin fishes (Teleostei: Characiformes), with description of four new genera and ten new species. Ichthyol Explor Fres. 1993a; 4(2):97–154., Melo, Oyakawa, (2015)Melo MRS, Oyakawa OT. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Characiformes, Crenuchidae) with a distinctively dimorphic male. Copeia. 2015; 103(2):281–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CI-14-073
http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CI-14-073...
, and Zanata et al., (2020)Zanata AM, Ohara WM, Oyakawa OT, Dagosta FC. A new rheophilic South American darter (Crenuchidae: Characidium) from the rio Juruena basin, Brazil, with comments on morphological adaptations to life in fast-flowing waters. J Fish Biol. 2020; 97(5):1343–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.1448
https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.1448...
. Measurements were taken with a digital caliper to the nearest 0.1 mm and expressed as percentages of standard length (SL), except subunits of head, which are given as percentages of head length (HL). In the list of paratypes, an asterisk indicates lots for which measurements were included in Tab. 1. In the lot MCNIP 4889, the LGC RD is the tissue voucher number deposited in the Laboratório de Genética e Conservação – LGC PUC Minas, and BOLD:ACS is the accession number to indicate the sample of the new species sequenced in Sales at al. (2018)Sales NG, Mariani S, Salvador GN, Pessali TC, Carvalho DC. Hidden diversity hampers conservation efforts in a highly impacted Neotropical river system. Front Genet. 2018; 9:271. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271...
. Meristic data are given in the description, an asterisk indicates counts of the holotype, and the frequency of each count is given in parentheses. Counts of vertebrae, ectopterygoid teeth, branchiostegal rays, procurrent caudal-fin rays, caudal-fin rays, epurals, and other osteological observations were made only in cleared and stained (cs) paratypes, prepared according to the method of Taylor, Van Dyke, (1985)Taylor WR, Van Dyke GC. Revised procedures for staining and clearing small fishes and other vertebrates for bone and cartilage study. Cybium. 1985; 9(2):107–19.. Dentary teeth were counted in cs specimens and were examined in the largest alcohol preserved specimens. One specimen was placed into an ethanol-based solution of alizarin (Springer, Johnson, 2000Springer VG, Johnson D. Use and advantages of ethanol solution of alizarin red S dye for staining bone in fishes. Copeia. 2000; (1):300–01. https://doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2000)2000[0300:UAAOES]2.0.CO;2
https://doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2000)2...
) for around 6 hours in order to stain the scales for a photo of the ventral squamation. The pattern of circuli and radii were observed on scales situated between the dorsal-fin base and lateral line, after being stained in alizarin. The pseudotympanum morphology was examined after the removal of the overlying skin, adipose tissue, and lateral-line nerve of alcohol-preserved specimens. Institutional abbreviations follow Fricke, Eschmeyer, (2021)Fricke R, Eschmeyer WN. Eschmeyer’s catalog of fishes: guide to fish collections. [Internet]. San Francisco: California Academy of Science; 2021. http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/research/ichthyology/catalog/collections.asp.
http://researcharchive.calacademy.org/re...
. Comparisons with species not cited in the ‘Comparative material examined’ were based on the literature information (e.g., Agudelo-Zamora et al., 2020aAgudelo-Zamora HD, Ortega-Lara A, Taphorn DC. Characidium chancoense, a new species of South American darter from the Río Cauca drainage, Colombia (Characiformes: Crenuchidae). Zootaxa. 2020a; 4768(2):249–63. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4768.2.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4768.2....
,bAgudelo-Zamora HD, Tavera J, Murillo YD, Ortega-Lara A. The unknown diversity of the genus Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) in the Chocó biogeographic region, Colombian Andes: two new species supported by morphological and molecular data. J Fish Biol. 2020b; 97(6):1662–75. https://doi. org/10.1111/jfb.14527
https://doi....
; Armbruster et al., 2021Armbruster JW, Lujan NK, Bloom DD. Redescription of the Guiana Shield darter species Characidium crandellii and C. declivirostre (Crenuchidae) with descriptions of two new species. Ichthyol Herpetol. 2021; 109(1):102–22. https://doi.org/10.1643/i2019299
https://doi.org/10.1643/i2019299...
; Buckup, 1992, 1993aBuckup PA. Review of the characidiin fishes (Teleostei: Characiformes), with description of four new genera and ten new species. Ichthyol Explor Fres. 1993a; 4(2):97–154.; Gomes, 1947Gomes AL. A small collection of fishes from Rio Grande do Sul Brazil. Misc Publ Mus Zool Univ Mich. 1947; 67:1–39; Melo, 1967; Melo et al., 2016Melo MRS, Buckup PA, Oyakawa OT. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt, 1867 (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) endemic to the Atlantic Forest in Paraná state, southern Brazil. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2016; 14(3):e160014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20160014
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2016...
; 2021aMelo MRS, Bouquerel BB, Masumoto FT, França RS, Netto-Ferreira AL. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brazil. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2021a; 19(2):e200152. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0152
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0...
,bMelo MRS, Ribeiro MCLB, Lima FCT. A new, narrowly distributed, and critically endangered species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Distrito Federal, Central Brazil. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2021b; 19(1):e200061. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0061
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0...
).

RESULTS

Characidium krenak, new species

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:4DC24B3B-8994-44CF-B536-C5456F8B5597

(Figs. 14; Tab. 1)

Characidium sp. —Sales et al., 2018Sales NG, Mariani S, Salvador GN, Pessali TC, Carvalho DC. Hidden diversity hampers conservation efforts in a highly impacted Neotropical river system. Front Genet. 2018; 9:271. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271...
:271 (DNA barcode analysis).

Characidium sp. B. —Santos, Britto 2021Santos SA, Britto MR. The ichthyofauna of a poorly known area in the middle-southern Espinhaço mountain range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: diagnostics and identification keys. ZooKeys. 2021; 1054:25–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1054.67554
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1054.675...
:37 (list of species).

Holotype. MZUSP 125896, 57.6 mm SL, Brazil, Minas Gerais, Caranaíba, rio dos Costas, tributary of rio Piranga sub-basin, upper rio Doce basin, 20º51’37”S 43º43’11”W, 9 July 2007, O. T. Oyakawa, E. Baena & M. Loeb.

Paratypes. All from Brazil, Minas Gerais State, rio Doce basin. Rio Piranga sub-basin: MZUSP 94501*, 2, 35.2–36.1 mm SL mm SL, collected with holotype. Rio do Peixe, Santo Antônio sub-basin: MCNIP 976*, 3, 42.7–51.1 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, unnamed tributary, upstream from its confluence with córrego Ponte Nova, 18º59’23”S 43º23’01”W, 1 Nov 2011, S. A. Santos & B. C. Ramos. MCNIP 1026*, 3, 28.4–52.6 mm SL, Alvorada de Minas, ribeirão das Pedras, 18º45’16”S 43º26’50”W, 27 Oct 2012, S. A. Santos & B. C. Ramos. MCNIP 1993*, 1, 51.8 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, córrego Antonieta, 19º00’40”S 43º22’19”W, 23 Oct 2015, R. Ferreira. MCNIP 1994*, 1, 60.3 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, ribeirão Passa Sete, 18º52’10”S 43º20’03”W, 24 Oct 2015, R. Ferreira. MCNIP 2025*, 3, 37.4–48.3 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, córrego Antonieta, 18º58’27”S 43º22’19”W, 23 Oct 2015, R. Ferreira & S. Santos. MCNIP 2268, 2, 33.3–39.5 mm SL, Alvorada de Minas, ribeirão das Pedras, 18º45’10.04”S 43º26’05.03”W, B. Ferreira & L. Nogueira. MCNIP 3014*, 5, 43.3–51.1 mm SL, córrego Vermelho, tributary of right bank of ribeirão das Pedras, 18º46’27.0”S 43º26’16”W, 10 Aug 2013, S. Santos, T. Souza & D. Santana. MCNIP 3029*, 2, 38.7–41.4 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, córrego Antonieta, 19º00’40”S 43º22’19”W, 7 Aug 2013, S. A. Santos, T. Souza & D. Santana. MCNIP 3030*, 1, 34.2 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, córrego Trote Velho, 18º58’40”S 43º22’26”W, 8 Aug 2013, S. A. Santos, T. Souza & D. Santana. MCNIP 4889, 1, 33.3 mm SL, (LGC RD161, BOLD:ACS9348), Alvorada de Minas, córrego Escadinha, 18°45’14.4”S 43°26’49.2”W, 5 Nov 2013, S. A. Santos. MNRJ 48960, 5, 28.1–54.6 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, ribeirão Santo Antônio, 18º47’0.0”S 43º33’37”W, 30 Jul 2016, S. A. Santos, M. Britto & D. Moraes-Jr. MZUSP 104678, 4, 19.7–24.3 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, córrego Antonieta Norte, 19°00’40.3”S 43°22’19.7”W, I. Fichberg & M. Loeb. MZUSP 104679*, 3, 22.6–30.7 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, stream on the urban area of the district of Meloso, 19°04’33.3”S 43°20’25.7”W, I. Fichberg & M. Loeb. MZUSP 104694*, 9, 18.5–36.2 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, córrego Faia, tributary of ribeirão São João, 19°01’20.1”S 43°20‘39.0”W, I. Fichberg & M. Loeb. MZUSP 104697, 3, 21.8–37.0 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, ribeirão São João, 19°2’29.1”S 43°20’33.8”W, I. Fichberg & M. Loeb. MZUSP 104698, 3, 19.4–35.7 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, ribeirão São João, 19°3’33.0”S 43°10’21.3”W, I. Fichberg & M. Loeb. MZUSP 109301*, 4 (1 cs), 38.6–42.4 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, tributary of right bank of rio do Peixe, 18°43’50.0”S 43°26’8.0”W, T. C. Pessali. MZUSP 112265*, 6 (1 cs), 36.5–49.2 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, ribeirão São João, 19°02’30.6”S 43°20’24.0”W, 11 Jan 2011, M. Loeb. MZUSP 112275, 2, 35.2–41.1 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, tributary of ribeirão São João, 19°01’21.5”S 43°20’38.6”W, 11 Jan 2011, M. Loeb. MZUSP 112284*, 1, 47.3 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, córrego Meloso, 19°04’34.5”S 43°20’28.5”W, 12 Jan 2011, M. Loeb. UFBA 9129, 14, 35.7–50.7 mm SL, Serro, ribeirão das Pedras, 18°43’50.6”S 43°26’08.2”W, 12 Dec 2021, A. Zanata, L. Oliveira-Silva, T. Quadros & R. Burger. UFBA 9130, 3, 38.6–40.3 mm SL, Alvorada de Minas, ribeirão São José, 18°48’36.4”S 43°24’20.9”W, 12 Dec 2021, A. Zanata, L. Oliveira-Silva, T. Quadros & R. Burger.

FIGURE 1 |
Characidium krenak: A. holotype, MZUSP 125896, 57.6 mm SL. B. paratype, MZUSP 112284, 47.3 mm SL. C. paratype, MCNIP 2025, 45.6 mm SL. D. paratype, MCNIP 3029, 41.4 mm SL. E. paratype, MCNIP 3029, 38.7 mm SL. F. paratype, MCNIP 2025, 37.4 mm SL. All from Brazil, Minas Gerais State, rio Doce basin, rio Piranga and rio Santo Antônio sub-basins.

Diagnosis.Characidium krenak can be diagnosed from congeners, except C. alipioi Travassos, 1955, C. amaila Lujan, Agudelo-Zamora, Taphorn, Booth & López-Fernández, 2013, C. boavistae Steindachner, 1915, C. bolivianum Pearson, 1924, C. crandellii Steindachner, 1915, C. cricarense, C. declivirostre Steindachner, 1915, C. duplicatum Armbruster, Lujan & Bloom, 2021, C. fasciatum Reinhardt, 1867, C. gomesi Travassos, 1956, C. grajahuense Travassos, 1944, C. hasemani Steindachner, 1915, C. helmeri Zanata, Sarmento-Soares & Martins-Pinheiro, 2015, C. iaquira Zanata, Ohara, Oyakawa & Dagosta, 2020, C. japuhybense Travassos, 1949, C. kalunga Melo, Bouquerel, Masumoto, França & Netto-Ferreira, 2021, C. kamakan Zanata & Camelier, 2015, C. lauroi Travassos, 1949, C. macrolepidotum (Peters, 1868), C. nambiquara Zanata & Ohara, 2020, C. oiticicaiTravassos, 1967Travassos H. Três novas espécies do gênero Characidium Reinhardt, 1866 (Actinopterygii, Characoidei). Pap Avulsos Zool. 1967; 20(4):45–53., C. pterostictumGomes, 1947Gomes AL. A small collection of fishes from Rio Grande do Sul Brazil. Misc Publ Mus Zool Univ Mich. 1947; 67:1–39, C. purpuratum Steindachner, 1882, C. schubarti Travassos, 1955, C. summusZanata & Ohara, 2015Zanata AM, Ohara WM. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from headwaters of rio Pacaás Novos, rio Madeira basin, Rondonia, Brazil. Zootaxa. 2015; 4021(2):368–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4021.2.7
http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4021....
, C. tatama Agudelo-Zamora, Tavera, Murillo & Ortega-Lara, 2020, C. timbuiense Travassos, 1946, C. travassosi Melo, Buckup & Oyakawa, 2016, C. vidaliTravassos, 1967Travassos H. Três novas espécies do gênero Characidium Reinhardt, 1866 (Actinopterygii, Characoidei). Pap Avulsos Zool. 1967; 20(4):45–53. and C. wangyapoik Armbruster, Lujan & Bloom, 2021 by having the isthmus scaleless (vs. isthmus scaled). The new species differs from the aforementioned species, except C. cricarense, C. hasemani, C. helmeri, C. kalunga, C. pterostictum, C. schubarti, C. summus and C. travassosi, by lacking scales on the ventral surface only in the area between the anterior limit of the isthmus and the anterior margin of the cleithrum (Fig. 2) (vs. lacking scales on the isthmus and a large area surrounding the bases of the pectoral fins, or with the area between the contralateral pectoral-fin bases largely unscaled, or even the belly unscaled). Characidium krenak differs from C. helmeri, C. summus and C. travassosi by the presence of the adipose fin (vs. absence), from C. cricarense by having 2­–4 scales between the anus and anal-fin and a distance between the anus and anal-fin origin shorter than 9% of SL (vs. 5–7 scales between the anus and anal-fin and a distance from the anus to anal-fin origin longer than 11.0% of SL) and vertically elongated dark blotches on body or bars not distinctly wider dorsally nor connected across the dorsal midline (vs. 8 to 13 triangular bars, wider dorsally, thinner ventrally, with bars from opposite sides united across the dorsal midline). The new species differs from C. kalunga by having two rows of dentary teeth (vs. a single row) and dorsal and caudal fins with conspicuous dark dashes on the rays (vs. dorsal and caudal fins mostly hyaline, without dark dashes on the rays), from C. schubarti by having the parietal branch of the supraorbital canal (vs. parietal branch absent) and absence of small and rounded dark spots on laterals of body (vs. present). It differs from C. pterostictum by having 4 scale rows above the lateral line (vs. 5), 33–34 perforated scales in the lateral line (vs. 35­–38) and lacking a conspicuous dark band crossing the proximal third or midpoint of all dorsal-fin rays and membranes (vs. presence of a conspicuous dark band below the midpoint of all dorsal-fin rays and membranes). The new species differs from C. hasemani by lacking two inclined dark bands crossing each caudal-fin lobe (vs. possessing such bands) and by having 14 circumpeduncular scales (vs. 12).

FIGURE 2 |
Ventral squamation of Characidium krenak (MZUSP 112265, 36.9 mm SL, paratype) showing the lack of scales on a region of the isthmus not extending posterior to the anterior margin of the cleithrum (naked portion restricted to area anterior to the dotted line).

Description. Morphometric data of holotype and paratypes in Tab. 1. Body elongate. Highest body depth at vertical through dorsal-fin origin. Anterior portion of head convex in lateral view; dorsal profile convex from snout to vertical through anterior border of eyes, slightly convex from this point to posterior tip of supraoccipital, slightly convex from supraoccipital to end of dorsal-fin base, straight from that point to adipose fin and straight or slightly concave from adipose fin to origin of dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays. Ventral profile of body nearly straight near dentary symphysis, straight or slightly convex from that point to anal-fin origin, slightly concave along anal-fin base and straight or slightly concave from end of anal-fin base to ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays. Snout triangular-shaped in lateral view. Mouth subterminal, aligned or slightly lower than ventral margin of orbit. Distal tip of maxilla barely reaching anterior margin of orbit. Orbit approximately round, similar in size to snout length. Cheek somewhat broad, its depth approximately a third of orbit diameter. Nares separated, without distinctly raised margins; posterior naris approximately equidistant from anterior naris and from orbit. Supraorbital small; inner and outer border nearly parallel to each other. Nasal bones restricted to ossified canal. Parietal fontanel limited anteriorly by frontals or by parietals. Parietal branch of supraorbital canal present, extending well beyond limit between frontal and parietal bones.

TABLE 1 |
Morphometric data of holotype and paratypes of Characidium krenak, range includes the holotype. N = total number of specimens examined; SD = Standard deviation.

Dentary teeth in two rows; outer row with 7 (6), 8 (18) or 9* (5) teeth, uni- or tricuspid, rarely bicuspid; teeth decreasing in size and number of cusps from symphysis; inner row with several minute conical teeth inserted on edge of replacement tooth trench. Premaxilla with single row of 5 (2), 6* (15) or 7 (1) teeth decreasing in size from symphysis; larger teeth tricuspid with almost imperceptible lateral cusps, followed by bicuspid and posteriorly unicuspid teeth. Maxillary edentulous. Ectopterygoid with one row, with 10 (1), or 11 (1) teeth, minute and conical. Endopterygoid teeth absent. Branchiostegal rays 5 (2), 4 connected to anterior ceratohyal, 1 connected to posterior ceratohyal.

Scales cycloid; circuli absent on exposed portion of scales; up to 18 slightly divergent radii present on exposed portion of scales. Lateral line completely pored, with 33 (7) or 34* (25) scales; horizontal scale rows above lateral line 4 (30); horizontal scale rows below lateral line 4 (30). Scales along middorsal line between supraoccipital and origin of dorsal fin 8* (9), 9 (18), or 10 (5). Scale rows around caudal peduncle 14 (31). Two (3), 3* (27) or 4(2) scales between anus aperture and anal-fin insertion. Unscaled portion of body’s ventral surface restricted to area between anterior limit of isthmus and anterior margin of cleithrum. Pseudotympanum present, limited dorsally by lateralis superficialis, anteriorly and posteriorly by obliquus inferioris, and ventrally by obliquus superioris. Humeral hiatus divided into anterior and posterior chambers by pleural rib of fifth vertebra (Fig. 3).

FIGURE 3 |
Pseudotympanum of Characidium krenak (MZUSP 112265, 40.0 mm SL, paratype) in lateral view. Overlying skin, adipose tissue and lateral-line nerve removed. ls, lateralis superficialis; oi, obliquus inferioris; os, obliquus superioris. Asterisk indicates the rib of the fifth vertebra.

Dorsal-fin rays ii,9* (30) or ii,10 (1); distal margin of dorsal fin nearly straight or somewhat convex. Adipose fin well developed. Pectoral-fin with 12–13 total rays; iii,7,ii (7), iii,8,i* (15), iii,8,ii (5) or iii,9,i* (4); second and third branched pectoral-fin rays usually longest; posterior tip of pectoral fin reaching or almost reaching pelvic-fin origin in small specimens (approximately 30.0 mm SL) and pectoral-fin tip falling short of pelvic-fin insertion in larger specimens. Postcleithrum 1 absent. Pelvic-fin rays i,6,i (3), i,7 (3), i,7,i* (22); second to third branched pelvic-fin rays longest; posterior tip of pelvic fin falling short of anal-fin origin. Anal-fin rays ii,5 (2), ii,6* (27), ii6,i (3); posterior margin of anal fin slightly rounded, with second branched ray usually longest; last ray adnate (2). Caudal-fin rays i,9,8,i* (29). Dorsal procurrent caudal-fin rays 9 (2); ventral procurrent caudal-fin rays 7 (2). Total vertebrae 31 (2); precaudal vertebrae 17 (2); caudal vertebrae 15 (2). Supraneural bones 5 (2). Epural bones 2 (2). Uroneural bone 1 (2).

Coloration in alcohol. Ground color of head and body pale brown (Fig. 1). Dorsal surface of head with dark patches of pigmentation, usually not forming conspicuous blotches; area between nares and slightly anterior to them usually clearer and area posterior to eyes darker. Dorsal half of head darker than ventral half, except in a few more darkly pigmented specimens. Dorsal half of head with sparsely distributed melanophores of with patches of dark pigmentation bordered by clear areas; a dark stripe present from anterior margin of snout to anterior margin of eye, less conspicuous in largest specimens examined; an inconspicuous dark blotch posterior to eye, somewhat aligned with stripe of snout, but usually with its anterior portion slightly elongated ventrally. Ventral half of head with variable pigmentation; melanophores sparsely distributed and not forming spots or completely absent in a few specimens; skin covering laterosensory canal on infraorbital 3, 4 and 5 usually without dark pigmentation, resulting in pale curved line posterior to eye. Ventral surface of head with sparsely distributed melanophores; isthmus pale or with a few melanophores. Opercle mostly dark, with pale bordering membranes. Humeral region with rounded humeral blotch, somewhat merged with midlateral stripe and imperceptible in some specimens. A continuous narrow (approximately half scale wide) dark stripe extending from humeral blotch to end of caudal peduncle; stripe usually more conspicuous anterior to last blotch or bar on caudal peduncle. Dorsal half of body usually with up to three horizontal series of dark spots formed by concentration of melanophores on dorsal half of exposed portion of scales. Occurrence, position and form of blotches or bars on flanks highly variable; variation apparently not ontogenetically influenced or sexually dimorphic. Majority of specimens with vertically elongate irregular blotches or bars, without sharply defined borders (Figs. 1A–E); blotches or bars usually not solidly dark, resulting in chain-like pattern. Blotches with variable height, usually not crossing entire body, restricted to its dorsal half in some specimens, limited to central portion or ventral half of body in others. When present, bars number up to 10, variable in form and position, inclined or not; some specimens with bars divided in two inconspicuous branches (MZUSP 104694, 30.0 mm SL; MCNIP 3014, 51.1–43.3 mm SL). Number of bars not necessarily equal on contralateral sides of specimen; one side may have bars while other side displays diffuse blotches; bars not connected dorsally to each other. Bars present in small (MZUSP 104679, 19.7–24.3 mm SL) and large (MCNIP 1993, 51.8 mm SL) specimens. A few specimens with homogeneous coloration on body (MZUSP 109301, 40.0–42.5 mm SL; MCNIP1026, 28.4 mm SL), with melanophores equally distributed or concentrated on border of scales and without conspicuous dark blotches or bars on flanks (Fig. 1F). Basicaudal spot usually well marked; spot poorly visible in some specimens (MZUSP 109301, 40.0–42.5 mm SL). Ventral surface of body usually with melanophores sparsely distributed throughout, more conspicuous posterior to anus; some specimens with preanal region completely pale. All fin rays display dark pigmentation, represented mainly by black dashes, more evident on dorsal and caudal fins. Dorsal fin with dark pigment on basal portion of rays and interradial membranes; some specimens with dark dashes arranged in one inconspicuous band at midlength of fin and others with up to three series of dashes restricted to rays. Caudal fin usually with conspicuous dark dashes on rays, loosely organized in up to three series following contour of fin; some specimens with caudal fin homogeneously pigmented and without well-defined dark dashes. Anal fin usually devoid of dark pigmentation in smaller specimens; fin of medium and large specimens with inconspicuous concentration of melanophores on its anterior half or with a series of dashes at its midlength. Pectoral and pelvic fins with dark dashes on dorsal surface of rays, not forming bands, or somewhat homogeneously darkened. Adipose fin usually with melanophores on its central portion.

Coloration in life. Ground color slightly olivaceous dorsally and white ventrally (Fig. 4). Conspicuous black stripe on snout continuous with narrow black midlateral stripe on flanks; golden line extending along dorsal portion of black midlateral stripe. Parts of iris, infraorbitals, and opercle with silvery and golden hues. Black rounded and vertically elongate blotches distributed along midlateral line of body of some individuals (Fig. 4A), with that coloration less conspicuous in others (Fig. 4B). Pigmentation on fins similar to that of preserved specimens.

FIGURE 4 |
Lateral views of uncatalogued aquarium specimens of Characidium krenak, showing the variable color patterns in life. A. Distinct black, rounded and vertically elongate blotches distributed along midlateral line of body. B. Inconspicuous blotches on midlateral line of body. All from Brazil, Minas Gerais State, Conceição do Mato Dentro, rio Santo Antônio sub-basin, rio Doce basin.

Sexual dimorphism. No sexually dimorphic traits were observed.

Geographical distribution.Characidiumkrenak is known to occur in tributaries of the upper and middle rio Doce basin, Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Fig. 5).

FIGURE 5 |
Map of the rio Doce basin, Brazil, showing the type locality (red star) and collection sites (yellow circles) of Characidium krenak from rio Piranga and rio Santo Antônio sub-basins; each symbol may represent more than one locality.

Ecological notes.Characidium krenak was collected in clear and dark water tributaries at 600 to 900 m above sea level. It inhabits slow to turbulent flowing streams, with rocky, sandy or clayish substrate (Figs. 6A, C). Those environments are in different degrees of preservation, ranging from sites with intact riparian vegetation (Figs. 6A, B, E) to areas highly impacted by direct anthropogenic interference, such as mining and deforestation for agriculture, eucalyptus plantations and livestock (Figs. 6C, D, F).

Etymology. The specific name krenak honors the Krenák indigenous people (also known as Aimorés, Grén or Krén), that nowadays inhabit a small area on the left margin of the rio Doce. The Krenák were victims of constant massacres in the past and are currently impacted by severe environmental alterations. A noun in apposition.

Conservation status. The rio Doce basin has been considered highly impacted in the last decades due to a series of anthropogenic activities. Mining is one of the most striking, and occurs throughout most of the known range of C. krenak. One of the major recent catastrophes reported in the rio Doce basin was a burst of the ore-disposal dam in November 2015, in the municipality of Mariana, Minas Gerais State, with incalculable impacts on the whole aquatic biota that critically endanger all of its biodiversity (Reis et al., 2019Reis VJ, de Pinna MC, Pessali TC. A new species of Trichomycterus Valenciennes 1832 (Trichomycteridae: Siluriformes) from the Rio Doce drainage with remarkable similarities with Bullockia and a CT-scan survey. J Fish Biol. 2019; 95(3):918–31. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14089
https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14089...
). Though the known range of occurrence of C. krenak does not include the portion of the main channel of the rio Doce impacted directly by the aforementioned burst of the dam, the species is present in tributaries that have been impacted indirectly. Deforestation due to agriculture and livestock ranching generate different environmental impacts in streams where C. krenak occurs. Such streams drain the municipalities of Alvorada de Minas and Conceição do Mato Dentro and include córrego Ponte Nova, ribeirão das Pedras, córrego Antonieta, ribeirão Passa Sete, Córrego Vargem Grande, córrego Vermelho, córrego Trote Velho and other tributaries of the rio Santo Antônio. In particular, streams from the rio Santo Antônio sub-basin near Conceição do Mato Dentro are more likely to suffer from agricultural or ranching impacts than are the tributaries of the rio Piranga sub-basin. Siltation can be observed in some tributaries of the rio Santo Antônio sub-basin (Fig. 6E), in the surroundings of urban areas and downstream from ongoing mining projects. Dam construction is also particularly damaging to the rheophilic fauna (Agostinho et al., 2008Agostinho AA, Pelicice FM, Gomes LC. Dams and the fish fauna of the Neotropical region: impacts and management related to diversity and fisheries. Braz J Biol. 2008; 68(4):1119–32. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-69842008000500019
https://doi.org/10.1590/S1519-6984200800...
; Hrbek et al., 2018Hrbek T, Meliciano NV, Zuanon J, Farias IP. Remarkable geographic structuring of rheophilic fishes of the lower Araguaia River. Front Genet. 2018; 9:295. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00295
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00295...
), and such enterprises exist within the area of occurrence of C. krenak (ANA, 2015Agência Nacional das Águas (ANA). “Encarte especial sobre a bacia do rio Doce—Rompimento da barragem em Mariana/MG”. Conjuntura dos Recursos Hídricos no Brasil—Informe 2015, 50. Brasília, Brazil: Superintendência de Planejamento de Recursos Hídricos. 2015; 50 p. https://arquivos.ana.gov.br/RioDoce/EncarteRioDoce_22_03_2016v2.pdf
https://arquivos.ana.gov.br/RioDoce/Enca...
; fig. 10). Although one of the authors (SAS) has witnessed a decline in abundance of C. krenak in recent years, no adequate information is available to make direct or indirect assessments of extinction risk based on the distribution and/or population status of the species. Therefore, we recommend that C. krenak be classified as Data Deficient (DD), according to the guidelines published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature Standards and Petitions Committee (IUCN, 2019International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Guidelines for Using the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. 2019; Version 14. https://www.iucnredlist.org/resources/redlistguidelines
https://www.iucnredlist.org/resources/re...
).

FIGURE 6 |
Sampling localities of Characidium krenak, Brazil, Minas Gerais State, rio Santo Antônio sub-basin, rio Doce basin: A. Unnamed stream tributary of the right bank of córrego Ponte Nova; B. Ribeirão das Pedras, a tributary of the right bank of rio do Peixe, near its confluence with Córrego Vermelho; C. Unnamed stream, before the meeting with córrego Ponte Nova; D. Córrego Escadinha, at right bank of ribeirão das Pedras, with deforested riparian vegetation for livestock activities; E. Córrego Vargem Grande, undergoing siltation process due to anthropogenic activities; F. Mining activities around the streams that flow into rio do Peixe, tributary of the rio Santo Antônio sub-basin, area of occurrence of C. krenak.

Remarks. The new species shares all putative synapomorphies of the Clade C1 proposed by Buckup, (1993b)Buckup PA. Phylogenetic interrelationships and reductive evolution in the neotropical characidiin fishes. Cladistics. 1993b; 9(3):305–41. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1993.tb00227.x
https://doi....
, including the absence of postcleithrum 1, the naked area of ventral squamation and the reduced cranial fontanel limited antero-laterally by the parietals. However, in C. krenak the bordering of the cranial fontanel is variable, being limited anteriorly by the frontals in one cs specimen examined herein and by the parietals in the other. According to Buckup, (1993b)Buckup PA. Phylogenetic interrelationships and reductive evolution in the neotropical characidiin fishes. Cladistics. 1993b; 9(3):305–41. https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1096-0031.1993.tb00227.x
https://doi....
, the size of the fontanel is variable among species included in the Clade C1, but no intraspecific variation was cited by the author. Such variation is almost always absent in original descriptions of species of Characidium, possibly due to the small number of conspecific specimens typically examined for the feature. The recent description of C. onca Melo, Ribeiro & Lima (i.e., 2021), provides an exception, and those authors report two specimens in which the cranial fontanel is limited antero-laterally by the parietals and posteriorly by the supraoccipital in two specimens, and one specimen in which the fontanel extends anteriorly to contact the frontals (Melo et al., 2021bMelo MRS, Ribeiro MCLB, Lima FCT. A new, narrowly distributed, and critically endangered species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Distrito Federal, Central Brazil. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2021b; 19(1):e200061. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0061
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0...
). This variation is similar to that observed here in C. krenak. Examination of this feature in a large number of conspecific specimens is desirable in future species descriptions in order to provide an overview of its variation within Characidium.

Variation in color pattern within Characidium has been recently discussed (see Zanata, Ohara, 2020Zanata AM, Ohara WM. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the rio Madeira basin, Brazil. J Fish Biol. 2020; 97(6):1681–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14531
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14531...
), including examples of variation putatively linked to sexual dimorphism (e.g., C. satoi Melo & Oyakawa, 2015; Melo, Oyakawa, 2015Melo MRS, Oyakawa OT. A new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Characiformes, Crenuchidae) with a distinctively dimorphic male. Copeia. 2015; 103(2):281–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CI-14-073
http://dx.doi.org/10.1643/CI-14-073...
), ontogenetic variation (e.g., C. tapuia Zanata, Ramos & Oliveira-Silva, 2018; Zanata et al., 2018Zanata AM, Ramos TPA, Oliveira-Silva L. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the rio Parnaíba basin, northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa. 2018; 4514(1):77–86. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1....
) and phenotypic plasticity [e.g., C. cacah Zanata, Ribeiro, Araújo-Porto, Pessali & Oliveira-Silva, 2020 (Zanata et al., 2020Zanata AM, Ohara WM, Oyakawa OT, Dagosta FC. A new rheophilic South American darter (Crenuchidae: Characidium) from the rio Juruena basin, Brazil, with comments on morphological adaptations to life in fast-flowing waters. J Fish Biol. 2020; 97(5):1343–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.1448
https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.1448...
) and C. nambiquara (Zanata, Ohara, 2020Zanata AM, Ohara WM. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the rio Madeira basin, Brazil. J Fish Biol. 2020; 97(6):1681–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14531
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14531...
)]. The variation observed in C. krenak is apparently not related to ontogeny nor to sexual dimorphism, with similar-sized specimens of the same sex having distinct color patterns. The variation of coloration in the species is more likely due to phenotypic plasticity, similar to that observed C. cacah and C. nambiquara.

Two other species of Characidium are known to occur in the rio Doce basin: C. cricarense and C. cf. timbuiense (Sales et al., 2018Sales NG, Mariani S, Salvador GN, Pessali TC, Carvalho DC. Hidden diversity hampers conservation efforts in a highly impacted Neotropical river system. Front Genet. 2018; 9:271. https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271
https://doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2018.00271...
; Malanski et al., 2019Malanski E, Sarmento-Soares LM, Silva-Malanski ACG, Lopes MM, Ingenito LFDS, Buckup PA. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from coastal basins in the Atlantic Rainforest of eastern Brazil, with phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into the Characidium alipioi species group. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2019; 17(2):e180121. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20180121
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-201801...
). The presence of C. cricarense in the basin is unquestionable (Malanski et al., 2019Malanski E, Sarmento-Soares LM, Silva-Malanski ACG, Lopes MM, Ingenito LFDS, Buckup PA. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from coastal basins in the Atlantic Rainforest of eastern Brazil, with phylogenetic and phylogeographic insights into the Characidium alipioi species group. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2019; 17(2):e180121. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20180121
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-201801...
), and is syntopic with C. krenak, from which it differs by a series of morphological features (see diagnosis). Conversely, the occurrence of C. timbuiense in the rio Doce has yet to be confirmed, and will depend on a detailed study that clearly delimits the species taxonomically and geographically. Aside from the distinct ventral squamation that C. krenak and C. timbuiense share (see diagnosis), the former differs from the congener by the presence of 4 scale rows above the lateral line (vs. 5), lacking of a conspicuous dark band crossing the proximal third to midlength of all dorsal-fin rays and membranes (vs. possessing such a band) and possessing conspicuous dark dashes on the caudal-fin rays that do not form continuous bands, or uniformly pigmented caudal-fin rays (vs. possessing dark bands or blotches on the caudal fin formed by dark pigmentation on the rays and membranes).

The new species possesses morphological adaptations (e.g., streamlined body, distal portion of the four first pectoral-fin rays protruded beyond the margin of the inter-radial membrane and scaleless isthmus) present in congeners that inhabit fast-flowing water environments, as described originally in C. cf. timbuiense (Buckup et al., 2000Buckup PA, Zamprogno C, Vieira F, Teixeira RL. Waterfall climbing in Characidium (Crenuchidae, Characidiinae) from eastern Brazil. Ichthyol Explor Fres. 2000; 11:273–78.) and recorded later in various congeners [e.g., C. iaquira (Zanata et al., 2020Zanata AM, Ohara WM, Oyakawa OT, Dagosta FC. A new rheophilic South American darter (Crenuchidae: Characidium) from the rio Juruena basin, Brazil, with comments on morphological adaptations to life in fast-flowing waters. J Fish Biol. 2020; 97(5):1343–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.1448
https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.1448...
), C. kamakan (Zanata, Camelier, 2015Zanata AM, Camelier P. Two new species of Characidium Reinhardt (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from northeastern Brazilian coastal drainages. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2015; 13:487–98. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-20140106
https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-201401...
) and C. nambiquara (Zanata, Ohara, 2020Zanata AM, Ohara WM. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the rio Madeira basin, Brazil. J Fish Biol. 2020; 97(6):1681–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14531
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14531...
)]. These modifications possibly provide adherence, resistance and strength to avoid being swept downstream in the fast-flowing water (Buckup et al., 2000Buckup PA, Zamprogno C, Vieira F, Teixeira RL. Waterfall climbing in Characidium (Crenuchidae, Characidiinae) from eastern Brazil. Ichthyol Explor Fres. 2000; 11:273–78.). So far, C. krenak is known from tributaries of the upper and middle rio Doce basin on the Serra do Espinhaço, where it occurs most commonly in middle- to fast-flowing habitats. The literature mentions this region as poorly known despite its species richness, and as capable of harboring several endemic and/or endangered species (Alves et al., 2008Alves CBM, Leal CG, Brito MFG, Santos ACA. Biodiversidade e conservação de peixes do Complexo do Espinhaço. Megadiversidade. 2008; 4(1–2):178–96.; Santos, Britto, 2021Santos SA, Britto MR. The ichthyofauna of a poorly known area in the middle-southern Espinhaço mountain range, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil: diagnostics and identification keys. ZooKeys. 2021; 1054:25–66. https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1054.67554
https://doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.1054.675...
). The presence of a newly discovered and apparently endemic species of Characidium in the rio Doce highlights the need to include specimens from this region in other taxonomic studies. Furthermore, the extensive anthropogenic activities that have altered the environment of this basin potentially threaten the endemic fish species that occur there and highlight the need for focused conservation policies.

Comparative material examined. Comparative material was obtained from the list of species provided by Zanata et al., (2018)Zanata AM, Ramos TPA, Oliveira-Silva L. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the rio Parnaíba basin, northeastern Brazil. Zootaxa. 2018; 4514(1):77–86. https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1.6
https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4514.1....
, with addition of Characidium amaila: Guyana: MZUSP 109096, 3, 36.2–68.4 mm SL. Characidium cacah: Brazil: MZUSP 125765, 1, 36.5 mm SL, holotype. Characidium hasemani: Brazil: MPEG 4568, 10, 35.5–41.4 mm SL; MZUSP 97283, 10, 37.9–59.6 mm SL. Characidium iaquira: Brazil: MZUSP 125780, 1, 64.6 mm LS, holotype. Characidium mirim: Brazil: MZUSP 111123, 1, 20.2 mm SL, holotype. Characidium nambiquara: Brazil: MZUSP 118566, 1, 67.7 mm LS, holotype. Characidium pterostictum: Brazil: MCP 54059, 5, 52.4–63.3 mm SL. Characidium satoi: Brazil: MZUSP 115059, 17, 26.2–44.3 mm SL, paratypes. Characidium summus: Brazil: MZUSP 116105, 11, 14.0–42.3 mm SL, paratypes. Characidium tapuia: Brazil: UFBA 8511, 3, 29.8–32.1 mm SL, 1 cs, 30.8 mm SL, paratypes.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

For the loan or permission to examine material we thank Marcelo R. Britto (MNRJ), Osvaldo T. Oyakawa (MZUSP), and Gilmar B. Santos (Museu de Ciências Naturais PUC Minas). We thank Marcos dos Santos (IEF-MG) for his help in obtaining collecting permits, Tiago Pessali for his help in the loan of the lots from MCNIP, to Instituto Estadual de Florestas (IEF-MG), Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (IBAMA), and Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBIO) for providing the collecting permits. LOS and SAS are funded in part by the Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – Brasil (CAPES) – Finance Code 001.

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    » http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfb.14531
  • Zanata AM, Ohara WM, Oyakawa OT, Dagosta FC. A new rheophilic South American darter (Crenuchidae: Characidium) from the rio Juruena basin, Brazil, with comments on morphological adaptations to life in fast-flowing waters. J Fish Biol. 2020; 97(5):1343–53. https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.1448
    » https://doi.org/10.1111/jfb.1448
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ADDITIONAL NOTES

  • HOW TO CITE THIS ARTICLE

    Oliveira-Silva L, Santos SA, Lopes MM, Zanata AM. A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the rio Doce basin, Brazil. Neotrop Ichthyol. 2022; 20(1):e210125. https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-2021-0125
  • ERRATUM

    Neotrop. Ichthyol. 20(1) 2022 https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-0224-202201er
    This erratum amends the document:
    10.1590/1982-0224-2021-0125
    In the article “A new species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the rio Doce basin, Brazil”, with DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-2021-0125, published in the journal Neotropical Ichthyology, 20(1):e210125, page 4 (Paratypes):
    Where read: “MNRJ 48960, 5, 28.1–54.6 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, ribeirão Santo Antônio, 18º47’0.0”S 43º33’37”W, 30 Jul 2016, S. A. Santos, M. Britto & D. Moraes-Jr”.
    Should read: “MNRJ 48460, 5, 28.1–54.6 mm SL, Conceição do Mato Dentro, ribeirão Santo Antônio, 18º47’0.0”S 43º33’37”W, 30 Jul 2016, S. A. Santos, M. Britto & D. Moraes-Jr”.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    21 Mar 2022
  • Date of issue
    2022

History

  • Received
    3 Aug 2021
  • Accepted
    24 Jan 2022
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E-mail: neoichth@nupelia.uem.br