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Avifauna of the upper Purus River: relevant records for an area lacking ornithological surveys

Abstract

Birds are the best-known vertebrate group, although many localities in the world are considered to be knowledge gaps. This is the case of many little-known environments in the Amazon biome, the world’s largest tropical forest. Here, we present a survey of birds in the upper Purus basin, comprising the municipalities of Manoel Urbano and Feijó in the Brazilian state of Acre, and Boca do Acre and Pauini in the state of Amazonas. In this region, poorly-studied habitats, such as open rainforest dominated by palms or bamboo, still predominate. We recorded 452 bird species during 45 field trips between May and July in 2016, and June to August in 2017. Twenty-four of these species are associated with bamboo habitat, 28 are endemic to the southwestern Amazon basin, and seven are threatened with extinction. This high diversity is typical of the western Amazon basin, one of the richest regions in the world in the number of species, due to the heterogeneity of the local environments. The data presented here highlight the importance of the region for the conservation of birds, including species typical of the western Amazon, some of which are still poorly-known.

Keywords.
State of Acre; State of Amazonas; Bamboo habitat; Inambari endemism center

INTRODUCTION

Birds are the best-known vertebrate group in terms of the identification of species, natural history, and geographic distribution (Silva, 2002Silva, J.M.C. 2002. Caatinga. In: Maury, C.M. (Ed.). Biodiversidade Brasileira. Brasília, Ministério do Meio Ambiente - Secretaria de Biodiversidade e Florestas. p. 133-174.; Del Hoyo et al., 2019Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). 2019. Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). This is due to the relative ease of detection of these animals, typically without the need for capture, and the fact that birds occupy a wide range of niches in most environments around the world (Vielliard et al., 2010Vielliard, J.M.E.; Almeida, M.E.C.; Anjos, L. & Silva, W.R. 2010. Levantamento quantitativo por pontos de escuta e o Índice Pontual de Abundância (IPA). In: Matter, S.V.; Straube, F.C.; Accordi, I.A.; Piacentini, V.Q. & Cândido-Jr., J.F. (Eds.). Ornitologia e Conservação - Ciência Aplicada, técnicas de pesquisa e levantamento. Rio de Janeiro, Technical Books. p. 47-60.). Birds have raised human awareness since the time of ancient civilizations, which has also contributed to the accumulation of ornithological knowledge over the centuries. Today, amateur birdwatchers provide professional ornithologists with records as photographs and species lists on virtual platforms, adding to the knowledge of geographic distributions and seasonality (Greenwood, 2007Greenwood, J.J.D. 2007. Citizens, science and bird conservation. Journal of Ornithology, 148: 77-124.; Bonney et al., 2009Bonney, R.; Cooper, C.B.; Dickinson, J.; Kelling, S.; Phillips, T.; Rosenberg, K.V. & Shirk, J. 2009. Citizen science: a developing tool for expanding science knowledge and scientific literacy. BioScience, 59(11): 977-984.; Cottman-Fields et al., 2014Cottman-Fields, M.; Brereton, M.; Wimmer, J. & Roe, P. 2014. Collaborative extension of biodiversity monitoring protocols in the bird watching community. In: Participatory Design Conference on Short Papers, Industry Cases, Workshop Descriptions, Doctoral Consortium papers, and Keynote. 13º. Abstracts. PDC 14. New York, ACM Press. v. 2, p. 111-114.; Mason, 1990Mason, C.F. 1990. Assessing population trends of scarce birds using information in a county bird report and archive. Biological Conservation, 52(4): 303-320.; Sekercioglu, 2002Sekercioglu, C.H. 2002. Impacts of birdwatching on human and avian communities. Environmental Conservation, 29(3): 282-289.; Sullivan et al., 2009Sullivan, B.L.; Wood, C.L.; Iliff, M.J.; Bonney, R.E.; Fink, D. & Kelling, S. 2009. eBird: a citizen-based bird observation network in the biological sciences. Biological Conservation, 142(10): 2282-2292.; Horns et al., 2018Horns, J.J.; Adler, F.R. & Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. 2018. Using opportunistic citizen science data to estimate avian population trends. Biological Conservation, 221: 151-159.). While birdwatching continues to grow, worldwide, and ornithological inventories have increased progressively in recent years, there are still several regions, especially remote areas, in need of detailed inventory of bird species.

Many locations in the Amazon still lack reliable inventories, especially in the most remote regions, for example, in mountainous regions or difficult to access (Oren & Albuquerque, 1991Oren, D.C. & Albuquerque, H.G. 1991. Priority areas for new avian collections in Brazilian Amazônia. Goeldiana Zoologia, 6: 1-11.; Laranjeiras et al., 2019Laranjeiras, T.O.; Melinski, R.D.; Naka, L.N.; Leite, G.A.; Lima, G.R.; d’Affonseca-Neto, J.A. & Cohn-Haft, M. 2019. Three bird species new to Brazil from the Serra da Mocidade, a remote mountain in Roraima. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 27(4): 275-283.). The existence of this knowledge gap has been reinforced in recent years by the descriptions of 15 new Amazonian species, such as Nystalus obamai and Hemitriccus cohnhafti, which is a quite unusual development for this otherwise well-documented group (Del Hoyo et al., 2013Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. & Christi, D.A. 2013. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Special Volume: New Species and Global Index. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions.).

Due to the immense region and the difficulty of access in some places in the Amazon, the concentration of research has generally occurred close to urban centers (Cohn-Haft et al., 1997Cohn-Haft, M.; Whittaker, A. & Stouffer, P.C. 1997. A new look at the “species-poor” central Amazon: the avifauna north of Manaus, Brazil. Ornithological Monographs, 48: 205-235.; Borges & Guilherme, 2000Borges, S.H. & Guilherme, E. 2000. Comunidade de aves em um fragmento florestal urbano em Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Ararajuba, 8: 17-23.; Guilherme, 2001Guilherme, E. 2001. Comunidade de aves do Campus e Parque Zoobotanico da Universidade Federal do Acre, Brasil. Tangara, 1: 57-73.; Vasconcelos et al., 2007Vasconcelos, M.F.; Pacheco, J.F. & Parrini, R. 2007. Levantamento e conservação da avifauna na zona urbana de Marabá. Cotinga, 28: 45-52.) and on major rivers, such as the Amazon and Negro (Oren, 2001Oren, D.C. 2001. Biogeografia e conservação de aves na região Amazônica. In: Capobianco, J.P.R.; Veríssimo, A.; Moreira, A.; Sawer, D.; Ikeda, S. & Pinto, L.P. (Eds.). Biodiversidade na Amazônia brasileira: avaliação de ações prioritárias para a conservação, uso sustentável e repartição de benefícios. Estação São Paulo, Liberdade e Instituto Socioambiental. p. 97-109.; Cohn-Haft et al., 2007Cohn-Haft, M.; Naka, L.N. & Fernandes, A.M. 2007. Padrões de distribuição da avifauna da várzea dos rios Solimões e Amazonas. In: Albernaz, A.L. (Eds.). Conservação da várzea: identificação e caracterização de regiões biogeográficas. Manaus, Ibama/ProVárzea. p. 287-323.; Borges et al., 2019Borges, S.H.; Baccaro, F.; Moreira, M. & Choueri, E.L. 2019. Bird assemblages on Amazonian river islands: Patterns of species diversity and composition. Biotropica, 51: 1-10.). The avian fauna of the Amazon region is also quite heterogeneous, reflecting the diversity of habitats, with different flooding regimes and soil types (Braga, 1979Braga, P.I.S. 1979. Subdivisão fitogeográfica, tipos de vegetação, conservação e inventário florístico da floresta amazônica. Acta amazonica, 9: 53-80.; Nelson & Oliveira, 2001Nelson, B.W. & Oliveira, A. 2001. Estado do conhecimento florístico da Amazônia. In: Capobianco, J.P.R.; Veríssimo, A.; Moreira, A.; Sawer, D.; Ikeda, S. & Pinto, L.P. (Eds.). Biodiversidade na Amazônia Brasileira: avaliação e ações prioritárias para a conservação, uso sustentável e repartição de benefícios. São Paulo, Estação Liberdade e Instituto Socioambiental. p. 132-182.), as well as the existence of areas of endemism formed by large rivers that act as geographical barriers to dispersal (Hayes & Sewlal, 2004Hayes, F.E. & Sewlal, J.A.N. 2004. The Amazon River as a dispersal barrier to passerine birds: effects of river width, habitat and taxonomy. Journal of Biogeography, 31(11): 1809-1818.; Silva et al., 2005Silva, J.M.C.; Rylands, A.B. & Fonseca, G.A.B. 2005. The fate of the Amazonian areas of endemism. Conservation Biology, 19(3): 689-694.; Silva & Garda, 2010Silva, J.M.C. & Garda, A.A. 2010. Padrões e processos biogeográficos na Amazônia. In: Carvalho, C.J.B. & Almeida, E.A.B. (Eds.). Biogeografia da América do Sul: padrões e processos. São Paulo, Roca. p. 189-197.).

Since the beginning of the 20th century, the many inventories conducted at remote localities of the basin of the Purus River, in southwestern Amazonia, have revealed an increasingly rich and heterogeneous avian fauna (Snethlage, 1908Snethlage, E. 1908. Eine Vogelsammlung vom Rio Purús, Brasilien. Journal für Ornithologie, 56: 7-24.; Gyldenstolpe, 1951Gyldenstolpe, N. 1951. The ornithology of the Rio Purus region in western Brazil. Arkiv für Zoologi, 2: 1-320.; O’neill, 1974O’neill, J.P. 1974. the birds of Balta, a peruvian dry tropical forest locality, with an analysis of their origins and ecological relationships. LSU Historical Dissertations and Theses, 2626: 1-284.; Buzzetti, 2010Buzzetti, D. 2010. Avifauna. In: Brilhante, S.H.C. (Ed.). Plano de Manejo do Parque Estadual Chandless. SOS Amazônia. p. 3.111-3.121.; Guilherme & Dantas, 2011Guilherme, E. & Dantas, S.M. 2011. Avifauna of the Upper Purus River, State of Acre, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 19(2): 185-1999.). These studies consisted of sporadic observations and systematic collection of hundreds of copies for museums. Despite the efforts mentioned, no ornithological survey was carried out in the border region of the states of Acre and Amazonas, in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia (Oren, 2001Oren, D.C. 2001. Biogeografia e conservação de aves na região Amazônica. In: Capobianco, J.P.R.; Veríssimo, A.; Moreira, A.; Sawer, D.; Ikeda, S. & Pinto, L.P. (Eds.). Biodiversidade na Amazônia brasileira: avaliação de ações prioritárias para a conservação, uso sustentável e repartição de benefícios. Estação São Paulo, Liberdade e Instituto Socioambiental. p. 97-109.; Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). Therefore, this study is a pioneer in the region, and in this way, we provide an inventory of the avian fauna of the upper Purus, which straddles the border of the Brazilian states of Acre and Amazonas.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Study area

We conducted the study in areas that includes parts of the municipalities of Boca do Acre and Pauini, in the state of Amazonas, and Feijó and Manuel Urbano, in state of Acre (Fig. 1). These municipalities are located within the Inambari area of endemism, a zoogeographic region that is limited by the Amazon and Solimões rivers to the north, and the Madeira River to the east, and includes neighboring parts of the Peruvian and Bolivian Amazon (Haffer, 1978Haffer, J. 1978. Distribution of Amazon forest birds. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 29: 38-78.; Cracraft, 1985Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemism. Ornithological Monographs, 36: 49-84.; Silva et al., 2019Silva, S.M.; Peterson, A.T.; Carneiro, L.; Burlamaqui, T.C.T.; Ribas, C.C.; Sousa-Neves, T.; Miranda, L.S.; Fernandes A.M.; d’Horta, F.M.; Araújo-Silva, L.E.; Batista, R.; Bandeira, C.H.M.M.; Dantas, S.M.; Ferreira, M.; Martins, D.M.; Oliveira, J.; Rocha, T.C.; Sardelli, C.H.; Thom, G.; Rêgo, P.S.; Santos, M.P.; Sequeira, F.; Vallinoto, M. & Aleixo A. 2019. A dynamic continental moisture gradient drove Amazonian bird diversification. Science Advances, 5(7): 1-11, eaat5752.). We established a sample polygon within radius of 55 km (~328,000 ha) from the intersection of the Purus River with the BR-364 federal highway in the municipality of Manoel Urbano, which was limited to the east by the left margin of the Purus (08°45′S, 68°50′W) and west by BR-364 (08°38′S, 68°48′W), with areas on the right margin of the river or to the south of the highway being disregarded (Fig. 1). The studied area comprises terra firme and várzea forest with bamboo and enclaves of forest with palms (Fig. 2) (Acre, 2000Acre, Governo do Estado. 2000. Programa estadual de Zoneamento Ecológico-Econômico do estado do Acre. Rio Branco, SECTMA.; IBGE, 2005Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE). 2005. Potencial Florestal do estado do Acre. Rio de Janeiro, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística.; Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.).

Figure 1
Study polygon, inserted in the zoogeographic zone of endemism Inambari (adapted from Silva et al., 2005Silva, J.M.C.; Rylands, A.B. & Fonseca, G.A.B. 2005. The fate of the Amazonian areas of endemism. Conservation Biology, 19(3): 689-694., Google Earth credits).

Figure 2
Phytophysiognomies of the study area: (A) várzea forest, upper Purus River, (B) terra firme forest with habitats dominated by bamboo, (C) terra firme forest with low bamboo and palms density (Photos: Diogo C. Casanova, Casa da Floresta collection) and (D) terra firme forest with habitats dominated by palms (Photo: Edson Guilherme).

Survey period and sampling methods

We conducted the research between the years 2016 and 2019 with opportunistic observations (photo and audio recordings) throughout this period, within the sampling polygon (Fig. 1). We obtained the opportunistic data through informal walks along the trails and the margin of the BR-364 highway, and motorboat surveys along stretches of the Purus River. In the eastern portion of the polygon, in May and July of 2016, and in June, July, and August of 2017, we used 48 points counts at 200-m intervals along 12 pre-established trails. The count lasted 15 min at each point. Twelve 1-km transects were also walked for 1 hour on average. We apply both procedures during the morning period, with four point counts and one transect being conducted per morning. We also record some species using playbacks, when there was a need for documentation or visualization, and we recorded audios with Tascam DR100 and Sony PX 820 recorders.

In September 2017, we sampled the western extreme of the polygon with 20 2.5 m × 12 m mist-nets (36 mm mesh). We placing the nets along two pre-established trails, covering an extension of 264 m, during two days, and opened between 6:30 a.m. and 11:00 a.m. (Fig. 1). The birds we capture, we measure the: beak length, tarsus length, wing length, rectrix length using a digital caliper (precision 0.01 mm), full length with ruler, and body mass with digital balance (precision of 0.1 g), following the protocol of Proctor & Lynch (1993Proctor, N.S. & Lynch, P.J. 1993. Manual of Ornithology. Avian structure and function. New Haven, Yale University Press.). We collected some individuals for scientific collection and prepared them using the traditional taxidermy method. All specimens collected during fieldwork are now housed at Federal University of Acre (UFAC) in Rio Branco, Acre (Brazil). Specimens were captured under ICMBio/SISBIO authorization № 23269-1. We capture and collect the birds by the Comitê de Ética no Uso dos Animais - CEUA (Committee on Animal Research an Ethics) of the Universidade Federal do Acre under process 23107.008809/2016-62. We deposit photographic and audio records on either the WikiAves (WA) or the Fonoteca Casa da Floresta (FCF) online platforms. All the vouchers are referenced in the Appendix.

Species classifications

We classify species in: (1) food guilds, according to Wilman et al. (2014Wilman, H.; Belmaker, J.; Simpson, J.; De La Rosa, C.; Rivadeneira, M.M. & Jetz, W. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world’s birds and mammals. Ecology, 95(7): Data Papers 2027. http://doi.org/10.1890/13-1917.1
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); (2) association with habitats dominated by bamboo Guadua ssp., according to Kratter (1997Kratter, A. 1997. Bamboo specialization by Amazonian birds. Biotropica, 29: 100-110.), Guilherme & Santos (2009Guilherme, E. & Santos, M.P.D. 2009. Birds associated with bamboo forests in eastern Acre, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 129(4): 229-240.), Lebbin (2013Lebbin, D.J. 2013. Nestedness and patch size of Bamboo-specialist bird communities in southeastern Peru: anidamiento y tamaño de parche en comunidades de aves especialistas de Bambú en el sudeste de Perú. The Condor, 115(2): 230-236.) and Guilherme (2012Guilherme, E. 2012. Birds of the Brazilian state of Acre: Diversity, zoogeography, and conservation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20(4): 393-442., 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.); (3) endemism, considering the endemism center Inambari and Andes Foothills or southern Amazon, according to Haffer (1978Haffer, J. 1978. Distribution of Amazon forest birds. Bonner Zoologische Beiträge, 29: 38-78.), Cracraft (1985Cracraft, J. 1985. Historical biogeography and patterns of differentiation within the South American avifauna: areas of endemism. Ornithological Monographs, 36: 49-84.), Guilherme (2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.) and Silva et al. (2019Silva, S.M.; Peterson, A.T.; Carneiro, L.; Burlamaqui, T.C.T.; Ribas, C.C.; Sousa-Neves, T.; Miranda, L.S.; Fernandes A.M.; d’Horta, F.M.; Araújo-Silva, L.E.; Batista, R.; Bandeira, C.H.M.M.; Dantas, S.M.; Ferreira, M.; Martins, D.M.; Oliveira, J.; Rocha, T.C.; Sardelli, C.H.; Thom, G.; Rêgo, P.S.; Santos, M.P.; Sequeira, F.; Vallinoto, M. & Aleixo A. 2019. A dynamic continental moisture gradient drove Amazonian bird diversification. Science Advances, 5(7): 1-11, eaat5752.); (4) risk of extinction, according to Lista Nacional Oficial das Espécies da Fauna Ameaçadas de Extinção (Brasil, 2014Brasil. 2014. Portaria № 444, de 17 de dezembro de 2014. Lista Nacional Oficial das Espécies da Fauna Ameaçadas de Extinção. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília, DF, № 245, seção 1, p. 121-126.) and Red List for Birds (IUCN, 2020International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). 2020. BirdLife International: Red List for Birds. Available: Available: http://www.birdlife.org . Access: 01/03/2020.
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); and (5) dependence on forest environment, being forest-dwelling species, forest generalists and non-forests (adapted from Parker III et al., 1996Parker III, T.A.; Stotz, D.F. & Fitzpatrick, J.W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. Chicago, The University Chicago Press.; Wilman et al., 2014Wilman, H.; Belmaker, J.; Simpson, J.; De La Rosa, C.; Rivadeneira, M.M. & Jetz, W. 2014. EltonTraits 1.0: Species-level foraging attributes of the world’s birds and mammals. Ecology, 95(7): Data Papers 2027. http://doi.org/10.1890/13-1917.1
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). Scientific nomenclature follows that of the Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos (Piacentini et al., 2015Piacentini, V.Q.; Aleixo, A.; Agne, C.A.; Maurício, G.N.; Pacheco, J.F.; Bravo, G.A.; Brito, G.R.R.; Naka, l N.; Olmos, F.; Posso, S.; Silveira, L.F.; Betini, G.S.; Carrano, E.; Franz, I.; Lees, A.L.; Lima, L.M.; Pioli, D.; Schunck, F.; Amaral, F.R.; Bencke, G.A.; Cohn-Haft, M.; Figueiredo, L.F.A.; Straube, G.C. & Cesari, E. 2015. Annotated checklist of the birds of Brazil by the Brazilian Ornithological Records Committee/Lista comentada das aves do Brasil pelo Comitê Brasileiro de Registros Ornitológicos. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 23(2): 91-298.).

RESULTS

We recorded a total of 452 bird species in 69 families and 26 orders (Appendix). The main food guilds we recorded were the insectivores (209 species), omnivores (99 species), and frugivores (55 species). Twenty-four of the species (5.31%) are specialists or have some degree of association with bamboo habitat. Overall, 37 of the species (8.19%) are considered to be endemic to the southern margin of the Solimões/Amazon River. Another even more restricted distribution classification refers to the Amazonian zoogeographic zones, with 28 (6.19%) recorded taxa belonging to the Inambari and Andes Foothils. Regarding the categories of forest environments, the predominate of forest-dwelling species (69%), followed by forest generalists (16%) and non-forest (15%). In addition, seven species we recorded are listed as vulnerable to extinction - Tinamus tao, Harpia harpyja, Morphnus guianensis, Patagioenas subvinacea, Ramphastos tucanus cuvieri, Ramphastos vitellinus culminatus, and Primolius couloni.

Species accounts

Crypturellus atrocapillus (Tschudi, 1844): It occurs in southeastern Peru, northern Bolivia and Brazil (Cabot et al., 2019Cabot, J.; Christie, D.A.; Jutglar, F.; Boesman, P. & Sharpe, C.J. 2019. Black-capped Tinamou (Crypturellus atrocapillus). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node . Access: 25/09/2019.
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), where it can be considered relatively common and with wide distribution (Aleixo & Guilherme, 2010Aleixo, A. & Guilherme, E. 2010. Avifauna da Estação Ecológica do Rio Acre, estado do Acre, na fronteira Brasil/Peru: composição, distribuição ecológica e registros relevantes Avifauna of the Estação Ecológica do Rio Acre, state of Acre, on the Brazil/Peru border: composition. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi: Ciências Naturais, 5(3): 279-309.). In Brazil, represented by subspecies C. a. garleppi (Berlepsch, 1892), the species was exclusive to Acre (Guilherme, 2009Guilherme, E. 2009. Avifauna do estado do Acre: composição, distribuição geográfica e conservação. (Doctoral Thesis). Universidade Federal do Pará, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém.), not appearing in the list of the Mapiá-Inauini National Forest (Silva, 2009Silva, S.S. (Org.). 2009. Plano de manejo da Floresta Nacional Mapiá-Inauini. Boca do Acre, IBAMA/Floresta Nacional Mapiá-Inauini.) and the Arapixi Extractive Reserve (Mendonça et al., 2010Mendonça, F.C.; Narahara, K.L. & Vasconcelos, V.O. (Org.). 2010. Plano de Manejo Participativo da Reserva Extrativista Arapixi. Instituto Boca do Acre, Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade - ICMBio.), both located in the municipalities of Boca do Acre and Pauini, in the Amazonas state. However, in the eastern portion of the sampled region, which includes the same municipalities, it was frequent, with records at several sampling points. These records are the first of the species for the Amazonas state, deposited in the WikiAves platform (WA2455992).

Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800): species of wide occurrence in South and Central America, however rare in all its geographic distribution due to its low density and because it occupies preferably primary forests (Sanaiotti et al., 2018Sanaiotti, M.; Banhos, Á.; Aguiar-Silva, F.H.; Martins, F.D.; Luz, B.B. da, Carvalho, A.S. & Ruiz, C.M. 2018. Morphnus guianensis (Daudin, 1800). In: ICMBio/MMA. Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção. Brasília, ICMBio/MMA. p. 121-124.). An individual was photographed on August 14, 2017 (WA2669908) in the western portion of the study area, on the border between the municipalities of Feijó and Manoel Urbano, state of Acre.

Accipiter poliogaster (Temminck, 1824): although widely distributed throughout South America (Ferguson-Lees & Christie, 2006Ferguson-Lees, J. & Christie, D.A. 2006. Raptors of the World. London, Princeton University Press.), in the region it seems to be uncommon, with records in Peru (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.), one record in Rondônia (WA3312535), and only one record in Acre known until then, the recording of an individual in the municipality of Xapuri by M. Melo and F.I. Godoy (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). We record an individual in the eastern portion, on July 6, 2016, in Manoel Urbano, state of Acre.

Laterallus fasciatus (Sclater & Salvin, 1868): Rare Amazonian species with very few records in Brazil. Its distribution extends from Colombia to Peru and northwestern Brazil on the Solimões and Purus rivers, in the Western Amazon (Pinto, 1978Pinto, O.M.O. 1978. Novo Catálogo das Aves do Brasil. Primeira Parte. Aves não Passeriformes e Passeriformes não Oscines, com exclusão da Família Tyrannidae. São Paulo, Empresa Gráfica Revista dos Tribunais.; Del Hoyo et al., 1996Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A. & Sargatal, J. (Eds.). 1996. Handbook of the birds of the world. Hoatzin to Auks. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions.; Sick, 1997Sick, H. 1997. Ornitologia Brasileira. Rio de Janeiro, Editora Nova Fronteira.). It’s found in the riparian forest, dense undergrowth of humid forests and grassy areas including river islands (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.). Three couples are recorded on the Purus river bank in the region near the bridge over BR-364 in the municipality of Manoel Urbano, state of Acre.

Phaethornis bourcieri (Lesson, 1832): The species is distributed along the north bank of the Amazon River, extending along the Guianas Shield, Northwestern Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and eastern Peru, reaching the Acre state (Hinkelmann et al., 2019Hinkelmann, C.; Kirwan, G.M. & Boesman, P. 2019. Straight-billed Hermit (Phaethornis bourcieri). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions,. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/55364 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). Although there are records in Acre territory (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.), it appears to be more easily recorded through captures with nets than through observation. In the eastern portion of the study area, we record only one individual, on July 23, 2017, through his vocalization.

Chrysuronia oenone (Lesson, 1832): forest hummingbird that occur from Venezuela to Bolivia, with few records in western Brazil (Stiles & Boesman, 2019Stiles, F.G. & Boesman, P. 2019. Golden-tailed Sapphire (Chrysuronia oenone). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/55473 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). Guilherme (2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.) mentions records for the species in Acre at Serra do Divisor and Juruá region. In our study the species was recorded in the eastern portion of the study area, foraging in semi-open areas over the years 2016 and 2017, both in portions in the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas and Manoel Urbano, Acre. We were not able to document the species with photographs or soud recordings, however the birds were undoubtedly identified by the males plumage pattern with a contrasting blue on the head, general greenish plumage, and golden rump and rectrices (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.; Stiles & Boesman, 2019Stiles, F.G. & Boesman, P. 2019. Golden-tailed Sapphire (Chrysuronia oenone). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/55473 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). Our records represent an extension of distribution of 400 km eastwards for the species.

Heliodoxa aurescens (Gould, 1846): species with wide distribution in the Amazon biome, but considered uncommon (Parker III et al., 1996Parker III, T.A.; Stotz, D.F. & Fitzpatrick, J.W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. Chicago, The University Chicago Press.; Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.). In the Inambari region in Brazilian territory, only two records are known for the Acre state, both on the border with Peru, one in the extreme west Acre (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.), and the other in the extreme south (Aleixo & Guilherme, 2010Aleixo, A. & Guilherme, E. 2010. Avifauna da Estação Ecológica do Rio Acre, estado do Acre, na fronteira Brasil/Peru: composição, distribuição ecológica e registros relevantes Avifauna of the Estação Ecológica do Rio Acre, state of Acre, on the Brazil/Peru border: composition. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi: Ciências Naturais, 5(3): 279-309.). Along our survey, three sightings were made in the eastern portion of the study area, two of which were on the same day (about 800 m apart), in a forest portion in which the species appears to be locally common.

Steatornis caripensis Humboldt, 1817: an individual was observed on the night of May 22, 2016, flying at about 3 m high along a road between the municipalities of Manoel Urbano, Acre and Boca do Acre, Amazonas. This nocturnal bird is associated with caves, where it remains at rest during the day, but during the night the bird can travel great distances in search of fruit (Cleere, 2010Cleere, N. 2010. Nightjars, Potoos, Frogmouths, Oilbird, and Owlet-nightjars of the World. Hampshire, Princeton University Press.). Roca (1994Roca, R.L. 1994. Oilbirds of Venezuela: Ecology and conservation. Publications of Nuttall Ornithological Club, 24: 1-83) in a study in Venezuela, verified through telemetry that the species moved 240 km between caves in a single night. This would justify the presence of the species in the region, which has no documented cave environment. It is one of the most unusual records, because in Brazil the species was only known for two localities, both in the Amazonas state, in Manaus (WikiAves, 2008A Enciclopédia das Aves do Brasil (WikiAves). 2008. Wiki Aves - A Enciclopédia das Aves do Brasil. Available: Available: http://www.wikiaves.com.br . Access: 05/03/2020.
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) and in Reserva Natural de Palmari (Whittaker et al., 2004Whittaker, A.; Antoine-Feill, S.A.H. & Scheiele Z, R. 2004. First confirmed record of Oilbird Steatornis caripensis for Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club, 124(2): 106-108.), the latter being approximately 460 km away from our study site. In addition to northern Amazonia and Central America (Trinidad and Panama), S. caripensis distribution perimeter extends from Colombian Andes to Bolivia (Thomas & Kirwan, 2019Thomas, B.T. & Kirwan, G.M. 2019. Oilbird (Steatornis caripensis). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/55131 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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), with some records in the Ucayali and Loreto departments in Peru, bordering the Acre state (Tello et al., 2008Tello, N.S.; Stojan-Dolar, M. & Heymann, E.W. 2008. A sight and video record of the oilbird, Steatornis caripensis, in Peruvian lowland Amazonia. Journal of Ornithology, 149(2): 267-269.), but ~500 km away from the study area.

Pyrrhura rupicola (Tschudi, 1844): species endemic in the Inambari area, considered exclusive of the Acre state in the Brazilian territory (Aleixo & Guilherme, 2010Aleixo, A. & Guilherme, E. 2010. Avifauna da Estação Ecológica do Rio Acre, estado do Acre, na fronteira Brasil/Peru: composição, distribuição ecológica e registros relevantes Avifauna of the Estação Ecológica do Rio Acre, state of Acre, on the Brazil/Peru border: composition. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi: Ciências Naturais, 5(3): 279-309.), with records only in the eastern and extreme western portions of Acre (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). It is one of the most common parrots in study area, both in the Acre and Amazon regions, recorded on almost every sampling day, with predominant records in slightly disturbed forest areas.

Forpus xanthopterygius (Spix, 1824): although widely distributed in South America, it has disjunct populations, and in the Amazon it is restricted to its western portion (Collar et al., 2019Collar, N.; Kirwan, G.M. & Boesman, P. 2019. Blue-winged Parrotlet (Forpus xanthopterygius). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/54686 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). Despite being quite common in northern and central Peru (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.), it appears to be rare in the Acre state, where there are only two records (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). A group of Forpus xanthopterygius was observed on 21st July 2017 in the eastern portion of our study area.

Nannopsittaca dachilleae O’Neill, Munn & Franke, 1991: little known species and of very restricted distribution, occurring only in northwestern Bolivia, eastern Peru and Brazil, exclusively in Acre state (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.; Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.; Collar & Boesman, 2019Collar, N. & Boesman, P. 2019. Amazonian Parrotlet (Nannopsittaca dachilleae). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/54700 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). Despite sparse records in the Acre state (DeLuca, 2012DeLuca, J.J. 2012. Birds of conservation concern in eastern Acre, Brazil: distributional records, occupancy estimates, human-caused mortality, and opportunities for ecotourism. Tropical Conservation Science, 5(3): 301-319.), their documentation in Brazilian territory came from specimens collected in the region of Mâncio Lima (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). A group was photographed on July 21, 2017 in the municipality of Pauini, constituting a new record for the Amazonas state, expanding its known distribution.

Celeus spectabilis Sclater & Salvin, 1880: species associated with bamboo habitats (Kratter, 1997Kratter, A. 1997. Bamboo specialization by Amazonian birds. Biotropica, 29: 100-110.; Lebbin 2013Lebbin, D.J. 2013. Nestedness and patch size of Bamboo-specialist bird communities in southeastern Peru: anidamiento y tamaño de parche en comunidades de aves especialistas de Bambú en el sudeste de Perú. The Condor, 115(2): 230-236.; Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.), previously considered exclusive to the Acre state in Brazilian territory (Guilherme, 2009Guilherme, E. 2009. Avifauna do estado do Acre: composição, distribuição geográfica e conservação. (Doctoral Thesis). Universidade Federal do Pará, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém.). It was recently recorded in Rondônia (Corrêa, 2013Corrêa, A.G. 2013. [WA1901281, Celeus spectabilis Sclater & Salvin, 1880]. Wiki Aves - A Enciclopédia das Aves do Brasil. Available: Available: http://www.wikiaves.com/1901281 . Access: 09/03/2020.
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). The species was recorded throughout the entire polygon, which shows that it is relatively common in the region.

Antrostomus sericocaudatus (Cassin, 1849): It has two disjunct populations. Antrostomus sericocaudatus mengeli (Dickerman, 1975) occurs in southeastern Peru, northwestern Bolivia and Brazil, with sparse records throughout the Amazon, especially in the Acre state (Cleere, 2019Cleere, N. 2019. Silky-tailed Nightjar (Antrostomus sericocaudatus). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/55191 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). In Acre the species has been recorded only in the eastern portion of the state, on the right bank of the Purus River (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). Our records are the first for the left bank of the Purus River in Brazil. In the eastern portion, it proves to be relatively common, easily recorded through its vocalization.

Picumnus subtilis Stager, 1968: endemic species in the Andes Foothills and adjacent lowlands, recently recorded in Brazil (Rego et al., 2009Rego, M.R.; Dantas, S. de M.; Guilherme, E. & Martuscelli, P. 2009. First records of Fine-barred Piculet Picumnus subtilis from Acre, western Amazonia, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 129(3): 182-185.). Considered restricted to the eastern portion of the Acre state, and associated with bamboo habitats (Melo et al., 2015Melo, T.N.; Olmos, F. & Quental, J. 2015. New records of Picumnus subtilis (Aves: Picidae), Cnipodectes superrufus and Hemitriccus cohnhafti (Aves: Rhynchocyclidae) in Acre, Brazil. Check List, 11: 1-4.; Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). The species was common in the Manoel Urbano region, and our records are the first for the left bank of the Purus River in Brazil. Despite being considered associated with bamboo habitats (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.), we recorded an individual in a secondary forest in the western portion in the municipality of Feijó (WA2849280), and a couple in semi-urban areas of Manoel Urbano (WA3726020), both records in the state of Acre. We do not rule out the possibility of expanding the species’ distribution after the suppression (e.g., deforestation, agriculture) in the forest.

Grallaria eludens (Lowery & O’Neill, 1969): one of the most poorly studied Amazonian bird species, it was known from few records imited to the border between Peru and Brazil (Krabbe & Schulenberg, 2019aKrabbe, N.K. & Schulenberg, T.S. 2019a. Elusive Antpitta (Grallaria eludens). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona. Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/56907 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). There are only four records for Brazil, all in the extreme west of the states of Acre and Amazonas (Whittaker & Oren, 1999Whittaker, A. & Oren, D.C. 1999. Important ornithological records from the Rio Juruá, western Amazonia, including twelve additions to the Brazilian. Bulletin of the British Ornithological Club, 119(4): 235-260.; Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). The species was recorded in the eastern portion of our study area in two occasions, on May 21st and 24th, 2016. Although not seen, it was documented through the recording of the song. Our records represent an expansion of distribution of 400 km to the east, although recent records were made at Chandless State Park (WA2939664), about 100 km from our study site.

Formicarius rufifrons Blake, 1957: terrestrial bird restricted to a few localities in southwestern Peru, Bolivia and Brazil (Krabbe & Schulenberg, 2019bKrabbe, N.K. & Schulenberg, T.S. 2019b. Rufous-fronted Antthrush (Formicarius rufifrons) In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/56863 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). In Brazil, the species range is restricted to the Acre state, where there were four records in the extreme south and extreme west of the state (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). More recently, it was recorded about 50 km west of Rio Branco (Ramal do Noca) (Melo, 2016Melo, T.N. 2016. Rapid Ecological Assessment of the birds on the upper Jurupari. Atualidades Ornitológicas, 189: 10-15.). During our survey, we record an individual in the eastern portion of the study site (FCF01683), on May 25, 2016, representing the first record for the Amazonas state. This record represents an extension of distribution of ~200 km to the east.

Myrmotherula brachyura (Hermann, 1783): although widely distributed in the Amazon, in Acre the species was previously recorded exclusively in the border with Peru, in the extreme west of the state (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). However, along our survey, M. brachyura was quite common in the eastern portion of the study area.

Myrmotherula assimilis Pelzeln, 1868: species associated with várzea forests, present on the margins of the largest Amazonian rivers, such as Purus (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.). The first record in Acre territory comes from a vocalization recorded in 2001, by Jeremy Minns, in the Alto Juruá Extractive Reserve (XC237143). The first and only specimen from Acre was collected in the western portion of the polygon (AC-936), by EG and DP in terra firme forest on 16th of August 2017, in the municipality of Feijó. The capture of this individual in terra firme forest reinforces the idea that the species can inhabit environments other than the várzea forest in this region of the Amazon.

Hypocnemis subflava Cabanis, 1873: Bamboo habitat specialist, with home range areas limited to bamboo patches of the genus Guadua spp. (Lebbin, 2013Lebbin, D.J. 2013. Nestedness and patch size of Bamboo-specialist bird communities in southeastern Peru: anidamiento y tamaño de parche en comunidades de aves especialistas de Bambú en el sudeste de Perú. The Condor, 115(2): 230-236.; Pedroza & Guilherme, 2019Pedroza, D. & Guilherme, E. 2019. Home range, population density, and foraging behaviour of the Yellow-breasted Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis subflava) in forest fragments in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Natural History, 53(31-32): 1905-1922.). The species was common throughout the study area, both in the Acre state and in the Amazonas state. We did not record its counterpart H. peruviana along our survey, probably a case of local substitution.

Xenops rutilans Temminck, 1821: species with wide distribution in Brazil, but scarce in the Amazon, whose occurrence predominates in its southeast portion, where the taxon X. r. purusianus Todd, 1925 ranges from eastern Peru to the Tapajós River (Remsen, 2019Remsen, J.V. 2019. Streaked Xenops (Xenops rutilus) In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/56591 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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). In Acre, is uncommon, with a predominance of records in the far west of the state (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). FIG recorded Xenops rutilans twice in the eastern portion of the study area (WA3484857).

Anabazenops dorsalis (Sclater & Salvin, 1880): uncommon species, scarce in the Amazonian lowlands (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.). In Brazil there are occasional records in the states of Mato Grosso, Rondônia and Acre (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). Although difficult to visualize, the species was relatively common in the eastern portion of the study area, before the bamboo fruiting in 2016. Anabazenops dorsalis was not detected past the bamboo fruiting period. Our records represent the first records for the central region of Acre, and for the Amazonas state.

Synallaxis cherriei Gyldenstolpe, 1930: poorly known species, considered rare, but can be locally common. In the Inambari region, it has restrict distribution (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.; IUCN, 2020International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN). 2020. BirdLife International: Red List for Birds. Available: Available: http://www.birdlife.org . Access: 01/03/2020.
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), with few known records, possibly of the subspecies S. c. saturata Carriker, 1934 (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). The records presented here are the first for the center of the Acre state and for the Amazonas state. We record the species in the eastern portion on two occasions, always in dense shrub formations at the edge of the forest.

Lepidothrix coronata (Spix, 1825): Two subspecies are recognized for the region of Inambari, L. c. coronata (Spix, 1825) to the west of the Purus River and L. coronata exquisita (Hellmayr, 1905) to the east, with a clear difference in plumage from the males (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). However, all records of the species were auditory, making it impossible to confirm which taxon occurs in the study area, believing that it corroborates with that described for the region.

Pachyramphus xanthogenys Salvadori & Festa, 1898: species considered exclusive to the Acre state in Brazil, where it was thought to occur only in the eastern portion of the state (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). One individual was recorded in the Amazonas state, municipality of Boca do Acre, extending the distribution of the species at ~200 km northwest.

Conioptilon mcilhennyi Lowery & O’Neill, 1966: species of distribution restricted to Peru, Bolivia and Brazil, where it was recorded exclusively in the Acre state (Guilherme, 2009Guilherme, E. 2009. Avifauna do estado do Acre: composição, distribuição geográfica e conservação. (Doctoral Thesis). Universidade Federal do Pará, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém.; Guilherme, 2012Guilherme, E. 2012. Birds of the Brazilian state of Acre: Diversity, zoogeography, and conservation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20(4): 393-442.). In our study sites, the species was fairly common, with records in almost all sites that had large trees, including sites in the Amazonas state.

Cotinga maynana (Linnaeus, 1766): a little documented species for the region and also uncommon in the study area. We recorded the bird twice in the eastern portion of the study area. Three males was observed on 25th July 2017. We photographed one individual (WA2960588) and we recorded its wing flap sounds (FCF02224).

Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema (Deville & Sclater, 1852): species with few documented records for Brazil. In the Acre state was known only from two localities (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). On 24th June 2017, FIG observed and photographed a couple birds on the eastern portion of our study area (WA2960587).

Hemitriccus iohannis (Snethlage, 1907): in Brazilian territory, H. iohannis was thought to occur only on the western and eastern portions of the Acre state (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.), being virtually absent in the Purus River region. Along our 2016 surveys, few individuals were occasionally recorded in Manoel Urbano, in the riparian forest of the Purus River (FCF01692).

Muscisaxicola fluviatilis Sclater & Salvin, 1866: uncommon species of open environments, such as sand banks on river edge (Schulenberg et al., 2007Schulenberg, T.S.; Stotz, D.F.; Lane, D.F.; O’neill, J.P. & Parker III, T.A. 2007. Birds of Peru. New Jersey, Princeton University Press.). There were only two records for the Acre state (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). We record an individual in the western portion in a deforested area covered by pioneer vegetation on the edge of BR-364. We collect this individual a voucher specimen (AC-948) and deposited in the UFAC ornithological collection.

Conopias trivirgatus (Wied, 1831): species with few records around the study area, in the Acre state they are concentrated on the border with Peru (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). The closest area to our study site where the bird was recorded before was the State Park Chandless (Buzzetti, 2009Buzzetti, D. 2009. Avaliação Ecológica Rápida para a Elaboração do Plano de Manejo do Parque Estadual Chandless, Estado do Acre - Relatório Técnico Final do Componente Avifauna. SOS Amazônia e SEMA - Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente do Acre (Relatório Técnico Não Publicado).). We record the species three times at different points in the eastern portion of our study area (FCF02141).

Sublegatus obscurior Todd, 1920: species of forest edge and semi-open environments, rare in the region, with only one record in the Acre state (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). We record one individual along our survey, by the road side at the edge of a high-density bamboo forest, in Manoel Urbano (Acre), on May 20, 2016 (WA2445534).

Polioptila plumbea (Gmelin, 1788): although this species has a wide distribution in South America (Atwood et al., 2019Atwood, J.; Lerman, S. & Kirwan, G.M. 2019. Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Barcelona, Lynx Edicions,. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/58986 . Access: 25/09/2019.
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), the subspecies that occur in the region, P. p. parvirostris Sharpe, 1885 appears to be uncommon, with few records in southeastern Peru (southern limit of taxon distribution) (Harvey et al., 2014Harvey, M.G.; Lane, D.F.; Hite, J.; Terrill, R.S.; Ramírez, S.F.; Smith, T.; Klicka, J. & Campos, W.V. 2014. Notes on bird species in bamboo in northern Madre de Dios, Peru including the first Peruvian record of Acre Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus cohnhafti). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science, Lousiana State University, 81: 1-38.) and in the Acre state, with only three records (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). However, in our study area it was locally common in almost all the extension of the eastern portion, always in the forest canopy of terra firme forest.

Parkerthraustes humeralis (Lawrence, 1867): uncommon species in the region, with only two previous records for the Acre state (Whittaker et al., 2002Whittaker, A.; Oren, D.C.; Pacheco, J.F.; Parrini, R. & Minns, J.C. 2002. Aves registradas na Reserva extrativista do Alto Juruá. In: Cunha, M.C. & Almeida, M.B. (Eds.). Enciclopédia da Floresta. O Alto Juruá: práticas e conhecimentos das populações. São Paulo, Companhia das Letras. p. 81-99.; Buzzetti, 2009Buzzetti, D. 2009. Avaliação Ecológica Rápida para a Elaboração do Plano de Manejo do Parque Estadual Chandless, Estado do Acre - Relatório Técnico Final do Componente Avifauna. SOS Amazônia e SEMA - Secretaria de Estado do Meio Ambiente do Acre (Relatório Técnico Não Publicado).). A group of three individuals was observed and photographed foraging in the canopy of terra firme forest in the eastern portion of the study area, on July 21, 2017.

DISCUSSION

The high bird species richness recorded along our survey is related primarily to the location of the study area, given that the Amazon Forest is the world’s biologically richest region (Boubli & Hrbek, 2012Boubli, J.P. & Hrbek, T. 2012. Introdução à biodiversidade amazônica. In: Marcon, J.L.; Menin, M.; Araújo, M.G.P. & Hrbek, T. (Eds.). Biodiversidade Amazônica: caracterização, ecologia e conservação. Manaus, EDUA. p. 11-18.), and that the Inambari center of endemism is one of its richest in bird species (Hawkins et al., 2006Hawkins, B.A.; Diniz-Filho, J.A.F.; Jaramillo, C.A. & Soeller, S.A. 2006. Post-Eocene climate change, niche conservatism, and the latitudinal diversity gradient of New World birds. Journal of Biogeography, 33(5): 770-780.). This region is also dominated by tracts of climax primary forest, which supports many birds typical of preserved environments, which occupy the different forest strata (canopy, medium, litter, understory, and edge), with a high level of landscape connectivity. There is also an ample diversity of environments, with the forest bird community including terra firme and várzea forest, and specialists in bamboo habitats, although a majority of the species are strict forest species. This group includes many species that depend on well-preserved forest and are sensitive to environmental change (Parker III et al., 1996Parker III, T.A.; Stotz, D.F. & Fitzpatrick, J.W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases for neotropical birds. Chicago, The University Chicago Press.). These species include the threatened Harpia harpyja and Tinamus tao, which are associated with large tracts of mature forest, disappearing rapidly from fragmented habitats and areas with intense hunting pressure (ICMBio, 2018Instituto Chico Mendes de Conservação da Biodiversidade (ICMBio). 2018. Livro Vermelho da Fauna Brasileira Ameaçada de Extinção. Brasília, ICMBio/MMA.).

The dominant vegetation of the study area, bamboo forest, is quite distinct from the typical Amazonian dense forest formations, with a continuous canopy, and shady understory. Thirty Amazonian bird species are recognized as bamboo habitat specialists (Guilherme & Santos, 2009Guilherme, E. & Santos, M.P.D. 2009. Birds associated with bamboo forests in eastern Acre, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 129(4): 229-240.; Harvey et al., 2014Harvey, M.G.; Lane, D.F.; Hite, J.; Terrill, R.S.; Ramírez, S.F.; Smith, T.; Klicka, J. & Campos, W.V. 2014. Notes on bird species in bamboo in northern Madre de Dios, Peru including the first Peruvian record of Acre Tody-Tyrant (Hemitriccus cohnhafti). Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural Science, Lousiana State University, 81: 1-38.), and the 24 were present in the study area. The association of insectivorous birds with bamboo habitat may guarantee the avoidance of competition with similar species for feeding resources and nest-building materials, such as insectivorous birds of dense edge shrub formations and understory (e.g., Thamnophilidae, Rhynchocyclidae, Furnariidae) (Lebbin, 2007Lebbin, D.J. 2007. Habitat specialization among Amazonian birds: why are there so many Guadua bamboo specialists? (Masters Dissertation). New York, Cornell University.; Pedroza & Guilherme, 2019Pedroza, D. & Guilherme, E. 2019. Home range, population density, and foraging behaviour of the Yellow-breasted Warbling-Antbird (Hypocnemis subflava) in forest fragments in southwestern Brazilian Amazonia. Journal of Natural History, 53(31-32): 1905-1922.). In addition, granivorous species such as the Amazonian Parrotlet (Nannopsittaca dachilleae) and the Slate-colored Seedeater (Sporophila schistacea) appear to accompany the fruiting of Guadua bamboo, to feed on its seeds (Collar & Boesman, 2019Collar, N. & Boesman, P. 2019. Amazonian Parrotlet (Nannopsittaca dachilleae). In: Del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J.; Christie, D.A. & De Juana, E. (Eds.). Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Available: Available: https://www.hbw.com/node/54700 . Access: 25/09/2019.
https://www.hbw.com/node/54700...
).

The fruiting of the bamboo may have a major impact on the structure of bird communities given that, following this event, the bamboo suffers massive mortality, provoking profound changes in local environments (Areta & Cockle, 2012Areta, J.I. & Cockle, K.L. 2012. A theoretical framework for understanding the ecology and conservation of bamboo-specialist birds. Journal of Ornithology, 153(Suppl. 1): 163-170.). Following the die off of the bamboo, there is an abrupt increase in the penetration of sunlight into the previously shaded understory, and an associated increase in temperature, with the whole stratum disappearing until the development of the new seedlings. Photophobic species of the leaf litter, such as the Elusive Antpitta (Grallaria eludens) and the Thrush-like Antpitta (Myrmothera campanisona), were absent from the sampling sites following the bamboo fruiting. By contrast, birds associated with clearings such as the Thrush-like Wren (Campylorhynchus turdinus) and the Olived-faced Flatbill (Tolmomyias flaviventris viridiceps) increased in abundance. Following the die off, bird species associated with bamboo stands became extremely scarce, which was expected - see Areta & Cockle (2012Areta, J.I. & Cockle, K.L. 2012. A theoretical framework for understanding the ecology and conservation of bamboo-specialist birds. Journal of Ornithology, 153(Suppl. 1): 163-170.). Habitat fragmentation may also limit the displacement or dispersal of these exclusively forest-dwelling species, which may be limited by the availability of native forest. Furthermore, many other specialist taxa forage in bamboo habitat, which means that it determines an important component of the biodiversity of the forest communities (Guilherme & Santos, 2009Guilherme, E. & Santos, M.P.D. 2009. Birds associated with bamboo forests in eastern Acre, Brazil. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club, 129(4): 229-240.).

The local avian fauna also includes a number of species typical of open environments, such as aquatic habitats (Purus River and local streams), roads, and other anthropogenic environments. In fact, a number of species that did not occur originally in the region, such as the Burrowing Owl (Athene cunicularia) and the White-tailed Hawk (Geranoaetus albicaudatus), have benefitted from the human colonization process, which has resulted in widespread deforestation, principally for the implantation of cattle pasture. The relatively recent phenomenon has become increasingly frequent throughout the region, and with the spread of deforestation (Souza et al., 2006Souza, C.J.; Veríssimo, A.; Costa, A.S.; Reis, R.S.; Balieiro, C. & Ribeiro, J. 2006. Dinâmica do desmatamento no Estado do Acre (1988-2004). Belém, IMAZON.), bird species adapted to open habitats have become progressively more widespread in the Amazon biome (Guilherme & Czaban, 2015Guilherme, E. & Czaban, R.E. 2015. First record of the Yellowish Pipit in Acre with notes on other grassland birds in southwestern Amazônia. Neotropical Biology and Conservation, 10: 169-176.).

The vast majority of the bird taxa that are endemic to the Inambari center of endemism were recorded in the area of the present study (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.). The Purus River also appears to play a role as a zoogeographic barrier, dividing the ranges of Lepidothrix coronata coronata and L. c. exquisita, for example (Guilherme, 2009Guilherme, E. 2009. Avifauna do estado do Acre: composição, distribuição geográfica e conservação. (Doctoral Thesis). Universidade Federal do Pará, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém.; Guilherme, 2012Guilherme, E. 2012. Birds of the Brazilian state of Acre: Diversity, zoogeography, and conservation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20(4): 393-442.). However, three taxa considered by Guilherme (2012Guilherme, E. 2012. Birds of the Brazilian state of Acre: Diversity, zoogeography, and conservation. Revista Brasileira de Ornitologia, 20(4): 393-442.) to be restricted to the right margin of the Purus were recorded on the left margin in the present study, Antrostomus sericocaudatus, Picumnus subtilis and Xiphorhynchus chunchotambo, which implies that this river may not be a very effective zoogeographic barrier for many taxa (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.).

The dynamics of the annual flooding, which inundates a number of parts of the local forest, also influences the composition of the local bird community (Haugaasen & Peres, 2008Haugaasen, T. & Peres, C.A. 2008. Population abundance and biomass of large-bodied birds in Amazonian flooded and unflooded forests. Bird Conservation International, 18: 87-101.), reinforcing the need to evaluate the response of the community, especially given the potential shifts in resource availability. Further research may include additional sampling procedures, including more systematic surveys along the seasonally flooded areas.

Overall, then, our results reinforce the need for further research in the Inambari center of endemism, in particular, in the central and western portions of Amazonas state. We would also recommend further research on the open bamboo habitats at other sites in southwestern Amazonia, in order to better understand the relationship between bamboo specialists and bamboo habitat. As most research in the Amazon basin has tended to focus on dense rainforest habitats (Barlow et al., 2007Barlow, J.; Mestre, L.A.M.; Gardner, T.A. & Peres, C.A. 2007. The value of primary, secondary and plantation forests for Amazonian birds. Biological Conservation, 136(2): 212-231.), the bamboo habitats of southwestern Amazonia is relatively poorly-understood. Further research is clearly needed to better understand the dynamics of the influence of the bamboo cycle on the local avian fauna and its occurrence patterns over the long term, as well as providing important insights for the development of effective conservation measures.

CONCLUSIONS

The presence of threatened species and the high level of endemism found at the study site reinforces the ecological importance of the studied area and the need for its conservation. While the eastern portion of the Acre state, in the vicinity of the capital, Rio Branco, is the most deforested (Guilherme, 2016Guilherme, E. 2016. Aves do Acre. Rio Branco, Editora da Universidade Federal do Acre.), the study region, which is located further west is also now beginning to suffer the effects of these impacts. Deforestation in the study region was initially limited to the occupation of areas along rivers and roads by smallholders, although it has accelerated in recent years, mainly through highway construction and the expansion of cattle ranching operations. This implies that the region of the upper Purus River may resemble the east of the state of Acre, in terms of habitat fragmentation, which will increase the risk of the local extinction of many of the species recorded in the present study that are sensitive to environmental impacts.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

F.I.G. thanks the support of Arthur Macarrão, Diogo C. Casanova, Marcelo Ducatti, Vagner Gabriel, Rodrigo Bernando (layout), Barbara R. Barbosa (layout) and Lys Pereira de Souza. We are grateful to Agrocortex Madeiras do Acre. E.G. and D.P. would like to thank TECMAN - consultoria ambiental e manejo florestal and Secretaria de Meio Ambiente do Estado do Acre - SEMA for the logistical support during this study. We also thank the UFAC Ornithology Laboratory team for the preparation and cataloging of the collected specimens. We are grateful to prof. Stephen Ferrari for suggestions and English translation.

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Appendix

List of bird species recorded in the study area, belonging to the region of the upper Purus River. Voucher: FCF = recording deposited at Fonoteca Casa da Floresta; WA = image or recording deposited on the WikiAves website; AC = specimen collected and deposited in the collection of the Ornithology Museum of the Federal University of Acre. ¹ Nomenclature and taxonomy follow CBRO (2015). ² Forest dependence: FS = forest-dwelling species; FG = forest generalists; NF = non-forests. ³ Feeding guilds: O = omnivorous; G = gramnivorous, F = frugivores; C = carnivores, S = scavengers; I = insectivores; M = malacophagous; P = piscivores; H = herbivores; N = nectarivorous. 4 Bamboo specialists. 5 Endemic species of Inambari center (Inamb), Andes Foothils (AF) or South Amazonia (AMS). 6 Endangered species at nacional (BR) or global level (G). 7 Voucher (documentations): WA = Wiki Aves (photography); FCF = Fonoteca Casa da Floresta (audio recording). 8 Recording type: O = visual observation; V = vocalization; C = specimen collected; MN = mist net. Municipality: BA = Boca do Acre (AM); PA = Pauni (AM); MU = Manoel Urbano (AC); FE = Feió (AC).

Families Species1 Dep2 Guild3 Bamboo4 Endemism5 Red list6 Voucher7 Rercording8 Municipality BR G Tinamidae Crypturellus atrocapillus FS O AMS (AF) NT FCF01662, WA2455992 O, V BA, PA, MU, FE Crypturellus bartletti FS O AMS (Inamb) FCF01663 V BA, MU Crypturellus cinereus FS O FCF01665 V BA, PA, FE Crypturellus obsoletus FS O FCF02143 V BA, FE Crypturellus soui FS O FCF02144 V BA, FE Crypturellus undulatus FS O V BA, MU, FE Crypturellus variegatus FS O V BA Tinamus guttatus FS O NT FCF01765 V BA, PA Tinamus major FS O NT WA3717225 O, V BA, FE Tinamus tao FS O VU VU FCF02260, FCF02261, WA3717226 O, V BA Anhimidae Anhima cornuta NF O O MU Anatidae Amazonetta brasiliensis NF P O MU, FE Cracidae Aburria cumanensis FS F WA2965224 O BA Ortalis guttata FG F WA2968821 O, V BA, MU, FE Pauxi tuberosa FS O WA2969460 O BA Penelope jacquacu FS O O, V BA, PA Odontophoridae Odontophorus stellatus FS O WA3717224 O, V BA, FE Podicipedidae Tachybaptus dominicus NF P WA2669959 O FE Ciconiidae Mycteria americana NF P WA2446772 O BA, MU, FE Anhingidae Anhinga anhinga NF P O FE Phalacrocoracidae Nannopterum brasilianus NF P O BA Ardeidae Ardea alba NF P O BA, MU, FE Ardea cocoi NF P O BA, MU Bubulcus ibis NF I O BA, MU, FE Butorides striata NF P O BA Egretta thula NF P O BA, FE Pilherodius pileatus NF P WA2453561 O, V BA, FE Tigrisoma lineatum FG P O BA, MU, FE Threskiornithidae Mesembrinibis cayennensis NF M O MU Cathartidae Cathartes aura NF S O BA, MU, FE Cathartes melambrotus FS S WA2968926 O, V BA, MU, FE Coragyps atratus NF S O BA, MU, PA, FE Sarcoramphus papa FG S NT O BA, PA Accipitridae Accipiter poliogaster FS C DD NT O, V MU Accipiter superciliosus FS C O BA Busarellus nigricollis FG M O MU Buteo albonotatus NF C O, BA, MU Buteo brachyurus FG C O BA Buteo nitidus FG C O, V BA, MU, FE Buteogallus schistaceus FS C FCF02217/ WA2580203 O, V BA, MU Elanoides forficatus NF C O BA, FE Geranoaetus albicaudatus NF C O MU Geranospiza caerulescens FG C O BA Harpagus bidentatus FS C WA2966608 O, V BA, FE Ictinia plumbea FG C O, V BA, FE Leptodon cayanensis FS C FCF02235 O, V BA Pseudastur albicollis FS C WA2455990 O BA Rostrhamus sociabilis NF M O BA Harpia harpyja FS C VU NT O MU Helicolestes hamatus FS M WA2904859 O MU, FE Rupornis magnirostris NF C FCF01752 O, V BA, MU, FE Urubitinga urubitinga FG O WA1683501 V MU Morphnus guianensis FS C VU NT O FE Spizaetus melanoleucus FS C O BA Spizaetus tyrannus FS C O, V BA Eurypygidae Eurypyga helias FS C FCF02229 O, V MU Psophiidae Psophia leucoptera FS O AMS (Inamb) NT FCF02252, WA3717231 O, V BA, MU, FE Rallidae Aramides cajaneus FG O V BA, FE Laterallus melanophaius FG O WA2671711 O, V FE Laterallus exilis NF O V FE Laterallus fasciatus NF O LC WA2939709, WA3082943 O, V MU Porphyrio martinicus NF O O FE Laterallus viridis FG O V BA Charadriidae Vanellus cayanus NF I WA2446767 O BA, MU Vanellus chilensis NF I O, V BA, MU, FE Jacanidae Jacana jacana NF O O, V BA, FE Sternidae Phaetusa simplex NF P WA2455973 O BA Sternula superciliaris NF P WA3355908 O BA, MU Scolopacidae Calidris fuscicollis NF M O MU Calidris melanotos NF M O MU Tringa solitaria NF M WA2671698 O FE Rynchopidae Rynchops niger NF P WA3355912 O BA, MU Columbidae Columbina talpacoti NF G O, V BA, MU, FE Leptotila rufaxilla FS F FCF02159, FCF02207 V BA, FE Leptotila verreauxi FG F V BA, PA, FE Geotrygon montana FS F MN FE Patagioenas plumbea FS F WA2445561 O, V BA, PA Patagioenas subvinacea FS F VU FCF01731 O, V BA, PA, FE Opisthocomidae Opisthocomus hoazin FS Fo WA2446768/WA2474281 O, V BA, MU, FE Cuculidae Coccycua minuta FS I FCF02692 V BA Coccyzus melacoryphus FG I O, V BA Crotophaga ani NF I O, V BA, MU, FE Crotophaga major FG I O FE Dromococcyx pavoninus FS I x FCF02226 V BA Dromococcyx phasianellus FS I FCF02227 V BA Piaya cayana FG I O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Piaya melanogaster FS I FCF01736 V BA Strigidae Athene cunicularia NF C WA2968819 O BA, MU Glaucidium brasilianum FG C O, V BA Tyto furcata NF C O FE Asio clamator NF C O FE Glaucidium hardyi FS C V BA Lophostrix cristata FS C WA3484853 O, V BA Megascops usta FS C FCF02237 O, V BA Nyctibiidae Nyctibius aethereus FS I FCF02175, WA2967595 O, V MU Nyctibius grandis FG I WA2973499 O, V BA, MU Nyctibius griseus FG I O, V BA, FE Steatornithidae Steatornis caripensis FS F O MU Caprimulgidae Antrostomus sericocaudatus FS I FCF02214 O, V BA, MU Chordeiles rupestris NF I O MU Hydropsalis climacocerca FG I O BA Hydropsalis parvula NF I V BA, FE Lurocalis semitorquatus FS I O, V BA Nyctidromus albicollis FG I FCF02176 O, V BA, MU, FE Nyctiphrynus ocellatus FS I FCF02244, AC-972 O, V, MN, C BA, FE Apodidae Chaetura brachyura FG I WA2966613 O, V BA, MU, FE Chaetura cinereiventris FG I FCF01656, FCF02222 O, V BA, MU, FE Chaetura egregia FS I FCF02138, WA2966616 O, V BA Chaetura viridipennis FS I FCF02139, WA2446773 O, V BA, FE Panyptila cayennensis FS I O, V BA, FE Tachornis squamata NF I MN FE Trochilidae Amazilia lactea bartletti FS N AMS (Inamb) FCF02211, WA2453560 O, V BA Anthracothorax nigricollis FG N O, V BA Chlorostilbon mellisugus FG N FCF01657 O, V BA, FE Chrysuronia oenone FS N O BA, MU Florisuga mellivora FS N O BA Glaucis hirsutus FS N WA2973502, AC-973 O, V, MN, C BA, MU, PA, FE Heliodoxa aurescens FS N O, V BA Heliomaster longirostris FS N WA2446770 O, V BA Phaethornis bourcieri FS N FCF02248, WA2960614, AC-930, 960, 974 O, V, MN, C PA, FE Phaethornis hispidus FS N FCF02179, WA2969462, AC-931 O, V, MN, C BA, MU, PA, FE Phaethornis malaris FS N O, V BA, PA, FE Phaethornis ruber FS N FCF02249 O, V, MN BA, PA, FE Thalurania furcata FG N WA3484851 O BA, FE Threnetes leucurus FS N FCF01764, WA2961269, AC-932 O, V, MN, C BA, PA, FE Trogonidae Trogon collaris FS O WA2960594 O, V BA, PA Trogon curucui FS O FCF02263, WA2974471 O, V BA, PA, MU, FE Trogon melanurus FS O O, V BA, PA, FE Trogon ramonianus FS O WA2968823 O, V BA, FE Trogon rufus FS O XC386032 V FE Trogon viridis FS O O, V BA, PA, FE Alcedinidae Chloroceryle americana FG P O, V BA, FE Chloroceryle amazona NF P O FE Chloroceryle inda FS P O FE Megaceryle torquata FG P O BA, FE Momotidae Baryphthengus martii FS O V BA, FE Electron platyrhynchum FS O FCF02151, WA2973501 O, V BA, PA Momotus momota FS O FCF02167, AC-962 V, MN, C BA, PA, FE Galbulidae Galbalcyrhynchus purusianus FS I AMS (Inamb) FCF01685, WA2972491, WA2474264 O, V BA, MU, FE Galbula cyanescens FS I AMS (Inamb) FCF01686 / WA2974473 O, V, MN BA, PA, FE Galbula dea FS I WA2446771 O BA Jacamerops aureus FS I FCF02157 O, V BA, PA, FE Bucconidae Bucco macrodactylus FS I FCF02216 / WA3187712 V BA, MU, FE Bucco capensis FS I O FE Chelidoptera tenebrosa FG I O, V BA, FE Malacoptila semicincta FS I AMS (Inamb) O BA Monasa flavirostris FS I FCF01714, WA2974475 O, V BA, PA Monasa morphoeus FS I WA2965233 O, V BA, FE Monasa nigrifrons FS I FCF01715, WA2445540 O, V BA, FE Nonnula sclateri FS I x AMS (Inamb) O, MN FE Nonnula ruficapilla ruficapilla FS I x AMS (Inamb) FCF02174, AC-940 V, MN, C BA, FE Notharchus hyperrhynchus FS I WA2455221 O BA Notharchus tectus FS I O BA Nystalus obamai FS I FCF01728, WA2966606 O, V BA, PA Capitonidae Capito auratus FS O FCF01653, WA2973500, AC-963 O, V, MN, C BA, FE Eubucco richardsoni FS O FCF01677, WA2974474 O, V BA, PA Ramphastidae Aulacorhynchus atrogularis FS O FCF02129, WA2969457 O, V BA, FE Pteroglossus beauharnaesii FS O AMS O BA Pteroglossus castanotis FS O FCF01745 O, V BA, PA, FE Pteroglossus inscriptus FS O FCF02187 O, V BA Ramphastos tucanus cuvieri FS O VU WA2967594 O, V BA, PA, FE Ramphastos vitellinus culminatus FS O VU WA3188466 O, V, MN BA, MU, PA, FE Selenidera reinwardtii langsdorffii FS O AMS (Inamb) V BA, PA, FE Picidae Campephilus melanoleucos FS I FCF02132 O, V BA, PA, FE Campephilus rubricollis FS I FCF01651, WA2966612 O, V BA, PA Celeus elegans FS I FCF02220, WA2617188 O, V BA, PA, FE Celeus flavus FS O O, V BA Celeus grammicus FS I O BA Celeus spectabilis FS I x AMS (AF) FCF01654, WA2453569 O, V BA, FE Celeus torquatus FS O FCF01655, WA2455217 O, V BA, PA, FE Colaptes punctigula FG I FCF01660 O, V BA, FE Dryocopus lineatus FG I O, V BA, MU, FE Melanerpes cruentatus FG I WA3484855 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Piculus flavigula FS I V BA Piculus laemostictus FS I WA2973496 O, V BA Piculus leucolaemus FS I DD WA2616184 O, V BA Picumnus rufiventris FS I x FCF01737 O, V BA, FE Picumnus subtilis FS I x AMS (AF) WA2849280 O, V MU, FE Veniliornis affinis FS I O BA, FE Veniliornis passerinus FG I FCF02265 O, V BA, PA Falconidae Daptrius ater FS O WA2584161 O, V BA, MU, FE Caracara plancus NF C O MU, FE Falco deiroleucus FS C NT WA2455971 O MU Falco rufigularis FS C O BA, FE Herpetotheres cachinnans FG C O, V BA, MU, FE Ibycter americanus FS O FCF01704, WA2961264 O, V BA Micrastur buckleyi FS C V MU Micrastur gilvicollis FS C FCF02161-2164, AC-929 V, MN, C BA, FE Micrastur mirandollei FS C V PA Micrastur ruficollis FS C FCF02165 V BA, MU, PA Micrastur semitorquatus FG C V BA Psittacidae Amazona farinosa FS F NT FCF01635-1636 O, V BA, PA, FE Amazona ochrocephala FG F FCF01637-1638, WA2967596 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Ara ararauna FG F WA2455991 O, V BA, FE Ara chloropterus FS F NT WA3208314 O, V BA, MU Ara macao FS F FCF01643, WA2973498 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Ara severus FG F WA2455970 O, V BA Aratinga weddellii FG F FCF01644, WA2455219 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Brotogeris cyanoptera FS F FCF01649, WA2972497 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Brotogeris sanctithomae FS F V BA, MU Forpus sclateri FS F O, V BA, FE Forpus xanthopterygius NF F O, V BA Nannopsittaca dachilleae FS G x AMS (Inamb) NT WA2961270 O PA Orthopsittaca manilatus FG F O, V BA Pionites leucogaster FS F AMS FCF01738, WA2455222 O, V FE Pionus menstruus FS F O, V BA, PA, FE Primolius couloni FS F AMS (Inamb) VU FCF01742, WA2453557 O, V BA, FE Psittacara leucophthalmus FG F FCF01744, WA2965239 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Pyrilia barrabandi FS F NT WA2969464 O PA Pyrrhura rupicola FS F AMS (Inamb) NT FCF01746, WA2972492 O, V BA, MU, FE Touit sp. FS F O BA Thamnophilidae Akletos goeldii FS I x AMS (Inamb) FCF02209-2210 O, V, MN BA, PA, MU, FE Cercomacra cinerascens FS I V BA, MU, PA, FE Cercomacra manu FS I x V BA Cercomacra serva FS I FCF02221, WA2960591 O, V BA, PA, FE Cercomacroides fuscicauda FS I AMS FCF02137 O, V BA, MU, FE Cymbilaimus lineatus FS I FCF01669, FCF02146 O, V BA, MU, PA Cymbilaimus sanctaemariae FS I x AMS FCF01670-1671, WA2455225 O, V BA, MU, FE Epinecrophylla leucophthalma FS I FCF01674, WA2969459, AC-927, 935 O, V, MN, C BA, PA, FE Epinecrophylla ornata FS I x FCF01675, AC-941, 942, 956, 971 O, V, MN, C BA, FE Euchrepomis humeralis FS I FCF02152, WA2631121 O, V PA Hafferia fortis FS I FCF01718, FCF01771 V BA, FE Hylophylax naevius FS I FCF01702, FCF02230, AC-967, 970 O, V, MN, C BA, PA, FE Hypocnemis subflava FS I x AMS (Inamb) FCF01703, WA2972494, AC-937, 943, 944, 975 O, V, MN, C BA, MU, PA, FE Isleria hauxwelli FS I WA2445541 O, MN BA, FE Microrhopias quixensis FS I x FCF01713, FCF02166, WA2904869 O, V BA, MU, PA Myrmelastes humaythae FS I AMS FCF02169 V BA, FE Myrmelastes hyperythrus FS I FCF01719-1720, WA2445538 O, V BA, MU, FE Myrmoborus leucophrys FS I FCF01721, WA2972496 O, V, MN BA, MU, PA, FE Myrmoborus lophotes FS I x AMS (Inamb) NT FCF01722 O, V, MN BA Myrmoborus myotherinus FS I FCF01723, AC-957, 969 O, V, MN, C BA, MU, PA, FE Myrmophylax atrothorax FS I FCF01724 O, V BA, MU, FE Myrmotherula axillaris FS I WA2960596, AC-955, 966 O, V, MN, C BA, PA, FE Myrmotherula brachyura FS I FCF01725-1727, WA2969458 O, V BA, MU, PA Myrmotherula longipennis FS I AC-926, 933, 934 V, MN, C BA, PA, FE Myrmotherula menetriesii FS I FCF02172-2173, WA2966615 O, V BA, PA, FE Myrmotherula multostriata FS I V BA Myrmotherula assimilis FS I AC-936 MN, C FE Neoctantes niger FS I V BA Oneilornis salvini FS I AMS (Inamb) O, V, MN PA, FE Phlegopsis nigromaculata FS I FCF01734-1735, WA2965234 O, V, MN BA, PA, FE Sciaphylax hemimelaena FS I FCF01757, WA2974480 O, V, MN BA, MU, PA, FE Taraba major FG I FCF01761-1762, AC-964 O, V, MN, C BA, MU, FE Thamnomanes ardesiacus FS I V, MN BA, PA, FE Thamnomanes saturninus FS I AMS V BA Thamnomanes schistogynus FS I AMS (Inamb) FCF02198-2200, WA3155295 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Thamnophilus aethiops FS I FCF02705 V BA, PA, FE Thamnophilus doliatus FG I O, V BA, FE Thamnophilus murinus FS I V BA, PA Thamnophilus schistaceus FS I FCF02259, WA2960597 O, V BA, PA Dichrozona cincta FS I V FE Willisornis poecilinotus FS I FCF01000 O, V, MN BA, PA, FE Grallariidae Grallaria eludens FS I AMS (Inamb) FCF01687 V BA, PA Hylopezus berlepschi FS I FCF01697 V BA, PA, FE Myrmothera campanisona FS I FCF01691 V BA, PA Rhinocryptidae Liosceles thoracicus FS I FCF01709 O, V BA, PA, FE Formicariidae Formicarius analis FS I FCF01680 O, V, MN BA, PA, FE Formicarius colma FS I FCF01682 V, MN BA, FE Formicarius rufifrons FS I AMS (AF) NT FCF01683 V BA Scleruridae Sclerurus macconnelli FS I O, MN FE Sclerurus caudacutus FS I O, MN FE Dendrocolaptidae Campylorhamphus trochilirostris FS I x FCF01652 O, V BA, PA, FE Certhiasomus stictolaema FS I V PA Deconychura longicauda FS I O, V BA Dendrexetastes rufigula FS I FCF01673, WA2965227 O, V BA Dendrocincla fuliginosa FS I O, MN BA, FE Dendrocincla merula FS I MN FE Glyphorynchus spirurus castelnaudii FS I AMS (AF) MN FE Dendrocolaptes juruanus FS I AMS FCF02148, WA2974476 O, V BA, PA, FE Dendrocolaptes picumnus FS I FCF02149 O, V BA, PA, FE Dendroplex picus FG I FCF02295 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Lepidocolaptes fatimalimae FS I AMS FCF01707, WA2973495 O, V BA, PA, FE Nasica longirostris FS I O, V BA Sittasomus griseicapillus FS I FCF01759 O, V BA, PA, FE Xiphocolaptes promeropirhynchus FS I FCF02266, WA2969465 O, V BA Xiphorhynchus elegans FS I FCF01004 O, V. MN BA, MU, PA, FE Xiphorhynchus chunchotambo FS I AMS (AF) FCF02707 V BA Xiphorhynchus guttatoides FS I FCF01001, WA2967601 O, V, MN BA, PA, FE Xenopidae Xenops minutus FS I V, MN BA, FE Xenops rutilans FS I WA3484857 O, V BA, PA Furnariidae Anabazenops dorsalis FS I x FCF01639 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Ancistrops strigilatus FS I FCF02212 O, V BA, PA Automolus infuscatus FS I FCF01647 V BA, PA Automolus melanopezus FS I x FCF01648 V BA Automolus ochrolaemus FS I FCF02131 O, V, MN BA, PA, FE Automolus rufipileatus FS I AC-947, 949 V, C, MN BA, FE Automolus subulatus FS I FCF01696, WA2968822 O, V BA, PA, FE Clibanornis watkinsi FS I x AMS (Inamb) FCF01658 V BA Cranioleuca gutturata FS I O, V BA Furnarius leucopus FG I FCF01684, AC-965 O, V, MN, BA, MU, FE Philydor erythrocercum FS I WA2968818 O, V PA, FE Philydor erythropterum FS I WA2973497 O, V BA, PA, FE Synallaxis cherriei FS I x NT FCF02194, AC-939 V, MN, C BA, MU, FE Synallaxis gujanensis FS I V BA, FE Syndactyla ucayalae FS I x DD NT FCF01760, WA3024890 O, V BA, PA, FE Pipridae Dixiphia pipra FS F AC-938 V, MN, C BA, FE Lepidothrix coronata coronata FS F V. MN BA Machaeropterus pyrocephalus FS F FCF01770 V BA, FE Pipra fasciicauda FS F FCF02250 O, V, MN BA, PA, FE Tyranneutes stolzmanni FS F V PA Onychorhynchidae Onychorhynchus coronatus FS I MN FE Terenotriccus erythrurus FS I MN FE Tityridae Iodopleura isabellae FS F WA2967600 O, V BA, PA Pachyramphus castaneus FS O V BA Pachyramphus marginatus FS O V BA Pachyramphus minor FS O FCF01729, WA2965228 O, V BA, PA Pachyramphus polychopterus FG O V BA, PA, FE Pachyramphus xanthogenys FG O FCF01730 V BA Schiffornis major FS F FCF01755 O, V BA, MU Tityra cayana FS O O, V BA, FE Tityra inquisitor FS O O BA Tityra semifasciata FS O FCF01766 O, V BA, FE Cotingidae Conioptilon mcilhennyi FS F AMS (Inamb) FCF01661 O, V BA, PA, FE Cotinga cayana FS F O BA Cotinga maynana FS F FCF02224, WA2960588 O, V BA, PA Gymnoderus foetidus FS F WA2969461 O, V BA, FE Lipaugus vociferans FS F V BA, PA Porphyrolaema porphyrolaema FS F WA2960587 O BA Querula purpurata FS F FCF01747 O, V BA, PA, FE Pipritidae Piprites chloris FS I FCF01739 O, V BA, PA, FE Rhynchocyclidae Cnipodectes subbrunneus FS I FCF01659 O, V, MN BA, FE Corythopis torquatus FS I FCF02142, WA2969463 O, V, MN PA, FE Hemitriccus flammulatus FS I x V, MN BA, FE Hemitriccus iohannis FS I FCF01692 O, V, MN BA, MU Hemitriccus sp. I V BA Leptopogon amaurocephalus FS I FCF01708 V BA, FE Lophotriccus eulophotes FS I x AMS (Inamb) FCF01711, WA2455230 O, V, MN BA, FE Mionectes oleagineus FS O V, MN PA, FE Myiornis ecaudatus FS I V BA Rhynchocyclus olivaceus FS I FCF02702 V BA Todirostrum chrysocrotaphum FS I FCF01767 O, V BA, PA, FE Todirostrum maculatum FG I WA2445562 O, V BA, FE Poecilotriccus latirostris FS I FCF02700 V FE Tolmomyias assimilis FS I FCF01768 O, V BA, PA Tolmomyias flaviventris viridiceps FS I WA3484859 O, V BA Tolmomyias poliocephalus FS I FCF00994, AC-945 O, V, MN, C BA, PA, FE Tolmomyias sulphurescens FS I FCF02262, WA2968820 O, V BA Tyrannidae Attila bolivianus FS I V BA, PA, FE Attila spadiceus FS I FCF01646 V, MN BA, FE Camptostoma obsoletum NF I O, V BA, FE Colonia colonus FS I FCF02140 O, V BA Conopias trivirgatus FS I FCF02141 O, V BA Elaenia spectabilis FS O FCF02150, AC-946 O, V, MN, BA, MU, FE Elaenia parvirostris NF O AC-950, 968 MN, FE Griseotyrannus aurantioatrocristatus FG I WA2974478 O, V BA Lathrotriccus euleri FS I V BA Legatus leucophaius FG I FCF02234 O, V BA, PA, FE Megarynchus pitangua FG O O, V BA, MU, FE Myiarchus ferox FG O O, V BA, FE Myiarchus tuberculifer FG I V BA Myiarchus tyrannulus FG O V BA Myiodynastes maculatus FS O O, V BA, MU, FE Myiopagis caniceps FS I V BA Myiopagis gaimardii FS I O, V BA, PA Myiophobus fasciatus NF I V BA, FE Myiozetetes cayanensis FS O FCF02168 O, V BA, MU, FE Myiozetetes granadensis FG O FCF01716, WA2446761 O, V BA, MU, FE Myiozetetes luteiventris FS I V BA Myiozetetes similis FG O O, V BA, FE Ochthornis littoralis NF I FCF02246 O, V BA, MU Ornithion inerme FS I V BA, FE Philohydor lictor FS I FCF01733 O, V BA, FE Pitangus sulphuratus NF O FCF01740 O, V BA, FE Pyrocephalus rubinus NF I O BA, FE Ramphotrigon fuscicauda FS I x FCF01749, WA2455228, AC-959 O, V, MN, C BA, PA, FE Ramphotrigon megacephalum FS I x FCF01750 O, V BA, PA, FE Ramphotrigon ruficauda FS I V BA, FE Rhytipterna simplex FS I FCF02190, WA2973503 O, V BA, PA, FE Muscisaxicola fluviatilis NF I AC-948 C FE Sirystes albocinereus FS I FCF01758, WA2960595 O, V BA, PA, FE Phaeomyias murina NF O V FE Sublegatus obscurior FS I WA2445534 O MU Tyrannulus elatus FS I V BA, MU, FE Tyrannus albogularis NF I O BA Tyrannus melancholicus NF O O, V BA, MU, FE Tyrannus savana NF I WA2679292 O, V FE Zimmerius gracilipes FG I WA2960590 O, V BA, PA Vireonidae Cyclarhis gujanensis FG O FCF01667 V BA, PA, FE Hylophilus thoracicus FS I FCF01701 V BA Pachysylvia hypoxantha FS I FCF01700 V BA, PA Vireo chivi FS O O, V BA, PA Vireolanius leucotis FS O V BA, PA, FE Corvidae Cyanocorax violaceus FG O O, V BA, FE Hirundinidae Atticora fasciata FG I FCF01645 O, V BA, MU, FE Progne chalybea NF I O, V BA, MU, FE Progne tapera NF I O, V FE Stelgidopteryx ruficollis NF I O, V BA, MU, FE Tachycineta albiventer NF I O, V BA, MU, FE Troglodytidae Campylorhynchus turdinus FS I FCF02218, WA2455989 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Cantorchilus leucotis FS I FCF02135 V BA, MU Cyphorhinus arada modulator FS I AMS (Inamb) FCF01672 V BA Microcerculus marginatus FS I O, V BA, PA, FE Pheugopedius genibarbis FS I AC-958 O, V, MN, C BA, MU, PA, FE Troglodytes musculus NF I FCF02201 O, V BA, MU, FE Donacobiidae Donacobius atricapilla NF I WA3592768 O MU, FE Polioptilidae Polioptila plumbea FG I FCF01741, WA2455216 O, V BA, MU Turdidae Turdus amaurochalinus FG O FCF00999 O, V BA Turdus hauxwelli FS O FCF02706 V PA Turdus ignobilis FS O WA3484858 O, V BA, FE Turdus albicollis FS O AC-928 C FE Passerelidae Ammodramus aurifrons NF G WA2453563 O, V BA, MU, FE Parulidae Myiothlypis fulvicauda FS I O BA, FE Icteridae Cacicus cela FS O FCF01650 O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Cacicus haemorrhous FG O V BA Icterus cayanensis FS O FCF02232, WA2972498 O, V BA Icterus croconotus FG O FCF01705 O, V BA, FE Molothrus bonariensis NF O O, V BA Molothrus oryzivorus NF O O BA, FE Psarocolius angustifrons FS O FCF02184 O, V MU Psarocolius bifasciatus FS O FCF01743, WA2455988 O, V BA, FE Psarocolius decumanus FS O FCF02185 O, V BA, PA, FE Psarocolius viridis FS O O BA Procacicus solitarius FG O WA2672491 V FE Sturnella militaris NF I O, V MU, FE Mitrospingidae Lamprospiza melanoleuca FS F FCF01706 O, V BA, FE Thraupidae Chlorophanes spiza FS O O BA Cissopis leverianus FS O O, V BA, MU, FE Dacnis cayana FG O O BA, FE Dacnis flaviventris FS F O BA Dacnis lineata FS F WA2965226 O, V BA Hemithraupis flavicollis FS I O, V BA Hemithraupis guira FS I O, V BA Lanio luctuosus FS O WA2972493 O, V, MN BA, FE Lanio versicolor FS O AMS FCF02233, WA2961267 O, V, MN PA, FE Nemosia pileata FS O WA3208250 O BA, MU Parkerthraustes humeralis FS O FCF02233, WA2965223 O, V BA Paroaria gularis FG O WA2474270 O BA, MU, FE Ramphocelus carbo FG O O, V, MN BA, MU, FE Ramphocelus nigrogularis FS O FCF01748, WA2445536 O, V BA, MU, FE Saltator coerulescens azare FG O O, V BA, MU, FE Saltator grossus FS O O, V BA, PA Saltator maximus FS O O, V BA, MU, FE Sporophila angolensis NF G O, V, MN MU, FE Sporophila bouvronides NF G FCF02193, WA2445535 O, V BA Sporophila caerulescens NF G O BA, MU, FE Sporophila castaneiventris NF G O BA, FE Sporophila lineola NF G WA2904900 O BA, MU Tangara callophrys FS F WA2455227 O, V BA, MU Tangara chilensis FS F FCF02255 O, V BA, PA, MU, FE Tangara episcopus FS F FCF02256 O, V BA, MU, FE Tangara mexicana FS F FCF02197, WA2967599 O, V BA, MU Tangara nigrocincta FS F FCF02257, WA2961265 O, V BA Tangara palmarum FG O O, V BA, MU, FE Tangara schrankii FS F O, MN BA, FE Tangara velia FS F WA3484698 O, V BA, FE Tersina viridis FS F O, V BA, PA Volatinia jacarina NF G O, V. MN BA, MU, FE Cardinalidae Cyanoloxia rothschildii FS O FCF02145, FCF02225 V BA, PA, FE Fringillidae Euphonia chlorotica FG F V FE Euphonia chrysopasta FS F FCF01678, O, V BA, MU, PA, FE Euphonia minuta FS F V BA, PA Euphonia rufiventris FS F WA3484861 O, V BA, PA, FE

Edited by: Luís Fábio Silveira

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    16 Apr 2021
  • Date of issue
    2021

History

  • Received
    25 May 2020
  • Accepted
    13 Nov 2020
  • Published
    18 Feb 2021
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