Abstract in English:Abstract Fishes from the coastal basins of the Mid-Northeastern Caatinga ecoregion (MNCE) were first sampled by the Stanford expedition at the beginning of the 20th century, and published by Edwin C. Starks in 1913. This material included specimens from the Papary lake (= Papari lagoon) in the lower portion of the Trairí river basin, draining towards the eastern coast of Rio Grande do Norte State. In 1941, Henry Fowler provided a broad taxonomic study of the freshwater fishes from northeastern Brazil, including material from the Papari lagoon, besides describing four species assigned to this locality. However, these previous surveys focused only in the lower portion of the Trairí river basin and might be incomplete. Given this framework, the present study aimed at perform a wide ichthyofaunal inventory of Trairí river basin and compare with previously surveys performed in the regions. In 2013 and 2014, four expeditions along the whole basin, including the Papari lagoon itself, resulted in 28 species of fishes belonging to 17 families and seven orders. At Papari lagoon area 16 species were registered whereas 26 and 18 species were recorded by Starks and Fowler’s studies, respectively. Considering all records, 50 species were documented in the basin with 14 (28%) new records, including Serrapinnus potiguar, whose distribution was extended to the south. Two species described by Fowler, Pimelodella papariae and Pseudancistrus papariae, were not found in this study or in any fish collection, and are only known from their type-material. These two species can be naturally rare, locally extinct, or there were inaccuracies in their type-locality. However, species of these genera are only found in larger basins of the MNCE, which drains to the north, corroborating the latter assumption. Although not being a definitive list, the recent extensive fish surveys conducted in the MNCE’s coastal basins are helping to elucidate species’ geographic distribution and little knowing taxonomic issues.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper investigates the butterfly fauna of the ‘Serra do Rola-Moça’ State Park, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We evaluate i) the seasonal variation of species richness and composition; and ii) the variation in composition of the local butterfly assemblage among three sampling sites and between the dry and rainy seasons. Sampling was carried out monthly between November 2012 and October 2013, using entomological nets. After a total sampling effort of 504 net hours, 311 species were recorded. One of them is endangered in Brazil, and eight are probable new species. Furthermore, two species were new records for the region and eight considered endemic of the Cerrado domain. There was no significant difference in species richness between the dry and the rainy seasons, however the species composition varies significantly among sampling sites. Due to its special, heterogeneous environment, which is home to a rich butterfly fauna, its preservation is important for the conservation of the regional butterfly fauna.
Abstract in English:Abstract New records for Helicina schereri Baker, 1913, are reported. It was a species previously restricted to the states of Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Alagoas and Tocantins in Northeastern Brazil, and State of Santa Catarina, much further south. The new occurrences reported herein fill distribution gaps and also significantly expand the range of the species ca. 970 km westwards. The new records are from the following locations: Bahia State (Ituaçu and Itaquara municipalities) in Northeast Brazil; Mato Grosso do Sul State (Bonito Municipality) in the Midwest; and Minas Gerais (Lagoa Santa municipality) in the Southeast.
Abstract in English:Abstract Herein, we studied the occurrence of insect galls from natural vegetation around the Itambé Cave, Altinópolis, SP, Brazil. A sampling effort of 7.5 hours resulted in 41 gall morphotypes on 21 host plant species from 14 families. The richest families of host plants in morphotypes were Fabaceae (N = 11), Euphorbiaceae (N = 7), and Malpighiaceae (N = 5). Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (N = 8), Croton floribundus Spreng. (N = 7), Diplopterys pubipetala (A. Juss.) W.R. Anderson & C.C. Davis (N = 5), and Bauhinia holophylla (Bong.) Steud. (N = 4) were the super host plant species. Among the gall makers obtained, cecidomyiids were reared in 81% of cases and Hemiptera (Diaspididae), Hymenoptera (Eurytomidae), Coleoptera (Apion sp./Apionidae), and Lepidoptera in 4.5% of cases, each. The parasitoids belong to the Chalcidoidea superfamily (Hymenoptera). One new species of Camptoneuromyiia (Cecidomyiidae) was found in Smilax oblongifolia Pohl ex Griseb. (Smilacaceae) as inquiline and a new species of Lestodiplosis in Diplopterys pubipetala (Malpighiaceae) was a predator. We also present the first register of Bauhinia holophylla as host plants of Cecidomyiidae. We also present the first register of Bauhinia holophylla as host plants of Cecidomyiidae, and we expand the occurrence of Rochadiplosis tibouchinae Tavares, Lopesia spinosa Maia and Couridiplosis vena Maia to São Paulo State. The results of this paper are a continuation of the description of gall morphotypes from the vegetation in Northeastern São Paulo State, and they also increase knowledge about the diversity of host plant and gall-maker associations in the Neotropical region.
Abstract in English:Abstract Montane and submontane forest patches in the state of Bahia, Brazil, are among the few large and preserved Atlantic Forests remnants. They are strongholds of an almost complete elevational gradient, which harbor both lowland and highland bird taxa. Despite being considered a biodiversity hotspot, few ornithologists have surveyed these forests, especially along elevational gradients. Here we compile bird records acquired from systematic surveys and random observations carried out since the 1980s in a 7,500 ha private protected area: Serra Bonita private reserve. We recorded 368 species, of which 143 are Atlantic Forest endemic taxa. Some 16 and 13 species are threatened at the global and national levels, respectively. If one accounts for subspecies, the number of Brazilian threatened taxa raises to 21. Species composition differs between lower and higher elevations, in which case lowlands harbor Amazonia-related taxa, whereas highlands are the home of Atlantic Forest-related taxa.
Abstract in English:Abstract Belostomatidae is a family of giant water bugs with 52 valid species in Brazil. Here, we list 33 valid species housed in the Invertebrates Collection of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia - INPA, Manaus, Brazil. Of the total species examined, 26 had their distributional ranges increased (new records provided in parentheses): Belostoma amazonum Estévez & Polhemus (Mato Grosso and Roraima); B. aurivillianum (Montandon) (Rondônia); B. bosqi De Carlo (Maranhão); B. candidulum Montandon (Mato Grosso do Sul); B. carajaensis Ribeiro & Estévez (Amazonas); B. dallasi De Carlo (Bahia and Pará); B. dentatum (Mayr) (Roraima); B. denticolle Montandon (Roraima); B. dilatatum (Dufour) (Maranhão); B. discretum Montandon (Rio Grande do Sul); B. elongatum Montandon (Paraná); B. estevezae Ribeiro & Alecrim (Amazonas); B. fittkaui De Carlo (Roraima); B. gestroi Montandon (Pará); B. guianae Lauck (Brazil, in Roraima); B. micantulum (Stål) (Maranhão, Rio Grande do Norte, Rondônia and Roraima); B. minusculum (Uhler) (Brazil, in Amazonas, Pará and Rio Grande do Norte); B. parvum Estévez & Polhemus (Amazonas and Roraima); B. plebejum (Stål) (Roraima); B. pygmeum (Dufour) (Pará); B. ribeiroi De Carlo (Mato Grosso do Sul); B. stollii (Amyot & Serville) (Roraima); Horvathinia pelocoroides Montandon (Rondônia); Lethocerus annulipes (Herrich-Schaeffer) (Maranhão, Paraíba and Paraná); L. delpontei De Carlo (Amazonas and Pará) and L. maximus De Carlo (Acre, Amapá, Amazonas and Roraima). In addition, we provide a list of type and non-type specimens of Belostomatidae from INPA’s collection identified to the species level, photographs of these species and relevant taxonomic notes, when available.
Abstract in English:Abstract Seasonal fluctuations in the abundance of orchid bees have already been reported. The variations in population dynamics may be expected to occur in more predictable and pronounced manners in environments with a clear distinction between rainy and dry seasons, where climatic variables are regarded to be good predictors of populational patterns. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the seasonality of males of orchid bees in fragments of Seasonal Semideciduous Forest in southern Brazil. Data comprise bait samples from five one-year periods on four forest fragments. The seasonality of species abundance was tested with circular statistics. Results suggest two phenological patterns, one for Eufriesea violacea (Blanchard), Eulaema nigrita Lepeletier and Euglossa cordata (Linnaeus), whose abundances are concentrated in late spring and early-middle summer and another for Euglossa fimbriata Moure with a tendency to be collected in middle-late summer and early autumn. These patterns are discussed, as well the possible driven factors, (i) the species life cycle and nesting behavior, (ii) synchrony with resource, and (iii) climate. We can postulate an important impact of climate change in local euglossine assemblage due to the small populations and marked seasonality.
Abstract in English:Abstract During the ontogenetic development of crustaceans, the relative growth of some structures may change, especially during the transition from juvenile to adult. This study describes the relative growth of body structures of Macrobrachium iheringi, and provides information on its population dynamics, such as structure, fecundity, and morphological sexual maturity. The sampling of M. iheringi was carried out in “Ribeirão da Hortelã”, in Botucatu (SP, Brazil). The length of the carapace (CL), abdomen (AL), and ischium (IL), merus (ML), carpus (CrL), propodus (PpL), and dactyl (DcL) of the second right pereopod were measured. In addition, the width of the second abdominal pleura (PW) and propodus height (PpH) were included in analyses. The relationships that best demonstrated the changes in the allometric coefficient were CL vs PpL in males and females. The CL, in which males and females reach morphological sexual maturity, was estimated as 13.3 mm and 11.1 mm, respectively. The sex-ratio differed from the expected 1:1 and was skewed towards females. Precipitation and temperature influenced the abundance of different demographic classes. Macrobrachium iheringi has few but large eggs, which is expected since this species has an abbreviated larval development. Based on these results, we conclude that the propodus are good indicators of the size at onset of morphological sexual maturity. In addition, important information was obtained on the biology of M. iheringi, including its life cycle pattern, reproduction and influence of abiotic factors.
Abstract in English:Abstract The genus Coeliaria Mulsant, 1850 of the tribe Chnoodini Mulsant, 1850 is recorded for French Guiana for the first time. One new species, Coeliaria monnei Churata & Almeida sp. nov. (holotype male deposited in MNHN: Montagne des Chevaux 04°44’56”N, 52°26’28”W, 75 m, 26.IX.2015, SEAG col.) is described and illustrated. The key published anteriorly is modified to include this new species. Currently, the genus is recorded for Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay and French Guiana.
Abstract in English:Abstract On this study, we used camera traps in a Semi deciduous Seasonal Forest, northeast of Brazil, to estimate the frequencies of occurrence of two Neotropical herbivorous mammals: the spotted paca (Cuniculus paca) and the tapeti (Sylvilagus brasiliensis), analyzing their seasonal variations of spatial distribution. We also characterized the activity pattern of the species and their seasonal variation. The herbivorous frequencies of occurrence were constant during all the seasons. In general, both species were mostly active at night. However, between the rainy and dry season, we identified differences in spotted paca activity peaks. Here we present one of the first studies on the tapeti, whose ecology is understudied. Our results also show a general view of the spotted paca and tapeti behavior strategies to seasonal variations. Due to the scarce food resource in the dry season, possibly these herbivorous need to search for different kinds of food available IFS around.
Abstract in English:Abstract Distress can be defined as a biological response of an individual to long-term threats to its homeostasis and it should be avoided from an animal welfare perspective. High levels of stress hormones and the expression of abnormal behaviours are responses normally observed in distressed animals. Captive environments can provoke distress, especially when inappropriate stimuli are provided to the animals. The concomitant use of behavioural and non-invasive hormonal measures is a means to evaluate captive animal welfare. Environmental enrichment is a tool that can reduce distress and minimize the expression of abnormal behaviour in captive animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate greater rheas’ responses (behavioral and hormonal) to food-based enrichment. Three birds from the Belo Horizonte Zoo, Brazil were studied. The study was divided into three phases (baseline, enrichment and post-enrichment): fruits scattered around the birds’ enclosure were used as enrichment. Behaviour and faecal sampling were undertaken in all phases of the study. Abnormal behaviours and faecal glucocorticoid metabolites (GCM) levels showed significant reduction during the environmental enrichment phase, and a significative positive correlation between GCM production and abnormal pacing was observed. From the results of this study, we conclude that the use of food as environmental enrichment should be encouraged because of its positive effects on animal welfare. Besides, studies with larger groups of greater rheas, with individuals of both sexes, should also be encouraged to evaluate if the results found in this pilot study are consistent and can be generalized to the species.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The mosaic of protected areas of Boqueirão da Onça (8.636 km²), created in the north of Bahia state, is located in the Caatinga, an exclusively Brazilian biome, but exposed to a range of anthropic impacts that threaten its species and natural resources. Few data are available for various zoological groups in Caatinga, including mammals. In order to characterize the community of mammals of this region, considering species richness, we installed 80 camera-trap stations. With a sampling effort of 10,370 camera-days we recorded 28 species (22 wild and six domestic). Opportunistically, we recorded four mammals, resulting in a total richness of 32 species, five of which are included in the global list of endangered species, and seven in the national list. The results are significant, since the richness of wild mammals of the Boqueirão da Onça (S = 26) presented a high value when compared to other Caatinga localities. During the study we found evidence of human activities threatening the conservation of the region, such as poaching and deforestation. Therefore, there is an urgent need in the publication of the Management Plan of the recently created Boqueirão da Onça National Park, to minimize negative impacts on biodiversity and ensure the maintenance of ecological processes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Oxylopsebus Clarke, 2008 is considered as a junior synonym of Oxycoleus Lacordaire, 1868. Equescollum is proposed as a new genus for E. birai sp. nov. from Costa Rica, which is described and illustrated.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Colombian Orinoquia region is characterized by a high diversity of mammals, which is associated with complex ecosystems that include large extensions of Neotropical savannas (known locally as “Llanos Orientales”). Despite accelerated anthropogenic transformations in savanna ecosystems, the knowledge to design effective conservation strategies, such as the distribution of mammal assemblages, is still lacking for this region. In this paper, we evaluate if assemblages of medium and large mammals (i.e., species richness, relative abundance and the contribution of the different trophic guilds) are homogeneous across the Colombian Llanos by comparing three savanna ecosystems: floodplains savannas associated with an Andean river, aeolian floodplains savannas and highland savannas. After a sampling effort of 3,150 camera trap/days, we recorded 16 mammal species from the three savanna ecosystems. We compared the three assemblages and their constituent trophic guilds by ANOSIM and SIMPER non-parametric permutation tests. The three assemblages differed in composition, structure and trophic guilds. The floodplains savannas, associated to an Andean river, present the highest diversity, contrastingly, the high-plain associated with the Guyanese Shield presents the lowest diversity. This pattern could be explained due to the greatest floristic diversity, complex vegetation structure and more fertile soils present in the riparian forests of the floodplains savannas, despite being the most anthropogenically transformed. The carnivores were the most variable category and herbivores were the most abundant. Our results show that the diversity of medium and large mammals is heterogeneously distributed in the Colombian Llanos. Therefore, it is necessary to implement targeted conservation strategies according to the characteristics, local fragility of each ecosystem in the territory and each species response by local conditions.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT Three new species and one new genus are described: Psyrassa lisitskyi sp. nov., from Peru (Elaphidiini); Ophtalmibidion antonkozlovi sp. nov., from Colombia (Neoibidionini); and Nappella gen. nov., is proposed to N. antonkozlovi sp. nov., from Peru (Calliini). Epectasis mexicana Breuning, 1954 is redescribed, and figured for the first time, and recorded for Colombia. Psyrassa lisitskyi is included in a modified couplet from a previous key. A key to species of Ophtalmibidion and genera of Calliini are provided. Chorenta biramiguelus is recorded for Peru.
Abstract in English:Abstract Type material of 11 species from seven genera of Cercopoidea is housed at the Entomology Division of the Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata. The types listed herein correspond to species described by C. Berg (10 spp.) and Lallemand (1 sp.). The collection contains 24 type specimens. Lectotype and paralectotypes of Deois (Deois) knoblauchii (Berg), Kanaima katzensteinii (Berg), Mahanarva (Ipiranga) aguirrei (Berg), Tomaspis argentina Berg [= Deois terrea (Germar)], T. perezii Berg [= Deois terrea (Germar)] and T. platensis Berg are designated. Comparison of their original descriptions with the label information supports the existence of 2 holotypes, 6 lectotypes, 10 paralectotypes and 6 syntypes. The following information is given for each species: original species names, taxonomic catalogue, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector’s name, and hosts). Information about subsequent nomenclatural changes with corresponding references, the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and pictures of each species are also provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract This catalogue lists the type specimens of Crabronidae and Sphecidae (Hymenoptera: Apoidea) deposited in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil (MZUSP). The collection includes a total of 83 type specimens (17 holotypes, 66 paratypes), 82 of which belong to nine genera and 35 species of Crabronidae and only one of Sphecidae. All labels contents and additional information obtained from other available sources are presented. High resolution photographs of the primary types are also provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Rove beetles belonging to the genus Corotoca (Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae) are termitophiles exclusively found in nests of Constrictotermes (Isoptera: Termitidae). We observed the reproductive behavior of Corotoca melantho and C. fontesi during host (Constrictotermes cyphergaster) foraging events. The reproductive behaviors of both species are similar. The variables collected for analysis were distance traveled, the time of larval deposition, nest return time, and locomotion speed. The fact that the female stops in the middle of the foraging trail to deposit the larva leads to a discussion of how its physiological or voluntary mechanisms function to determine the correct stopping time and the importance of speed when returning to the nest as a strategy to avoid predation. This study provides new information concerning the life cycle of Corotoca spp., although complete understanding of host-termitophile relationships, their evolutionary history, and the significance of viviparity will require additional studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Viviparity is characterized by the retention of fertilized eggs in reproductive tract of the female. This condition is very common in vertebrates, but relatively rare in invertebrates, including insects. The present work presents a review on viviparity in Staphylinidae, with special attention on genus Corotoca Schiødte, 1853. The genus is composed by six termitophilous species with neotropical distribution, and together with Spirachtha Schiødte, 1853 are the only to genera with species confirmed as viviparous in the family. Also, information and discussion are presented on the life cycle of Corotoca species based on dissection of females in laboratory and field observations. During the dissection of females of four species of Corotoca we observed that each female carries three eggs at the same time. The embryos present asynchronous development: when one is located at apex of abdomen, the other two are at IV segment, on abdomen curvature. These observations are complementary with those obtained in field observation, when the female deposits a larva outside the nest, on the foraging trail of termite Constrictotermes cyphergaster (Silvestri, 1901). The strategy of Corotoca species focused on the immature as dispersing agent is derived and probably favor the fitness in relation to a hypothetical condition in which the adult is the dispersive agent.
Abstract in English:Abstract The composition and potential hosts of mycophagous Drosophilidae from a section of the Brazilian Amazon forest in the Caxiuanã National forest were investigated. Sampling was performed in three different periods at long the wet season (January (beginning) and July (end) 2013 and May (middle) 2014). The samples were collected from existing trails by actively searching for fungal fruiting bodies where Drosophilidae were present. We present composition and richness analysis over two years of sampling sampling Drosophilidae and Fungi. We evaluate sampling completeness using asymptotic species richness estimators. Out of 159 fruiting body samples and 64 fungal species, 5,124 drosophilids belonging to 55 species and 5 genera were collected. The mycophagous Drosophilidae richness values estimated by Jackknife 1 and Bootstrap were 69 and 61, respectively. The estimated fly richness correlated positively with fungal richness and abundance. Among the Drosophilidae species identified in this study, approximately 5% represent new occurrences for Brazil and 56% represent new species. Four genera belonging to the Zygothrica genus group are found in the Amazon region, and these genera represent 80% of the fungus-associated fauna known to date for the tropics. In conclusion, our results show that the fungal richness and abundance were the factors that determined the high diversity of mycophagous Drosophilidae.
Abstract in English:Abstract The presence of the rotifer species Brachionus rotundiformis from the B. plicatilis species complex in Lake Arcturo, a saline lake in the Genovesa Island of the Galápagos Islands, is here reported. This is the first record of the species for the rotifer fauna of Ecuador as well as of the species complex to the Galápagos Islands. This finding is consistent with the idea of high dispersion capacity, and of cosmopolitan distribution of this species complex. Because Genovesa Island is uninhabited, passive transport by wind currents and zoochory by migrant birds seem to emerge as the most plausible factors in this process of colonization. Integrative studies on the morphological variations, genetic, molecular, and ecological aspects are still required to further understand the process of dispersion and the ecology of this member of the B. plicatilis species complex in this remote and isolated locality, and the exact taxonomical position of the island’s population to the other members of the complex.
Abstract in English:Abstract Dragonflies and damselflies (Insecta: Odonata) are widely distributed among freshwater ecosystems of tropical and temperate environments. They are also particularly sensitive to anthropogenic changes. The objective of this study was to inventory the odonate fauna of a section of the Sucupira Reservoir on Rio Uberabinha, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to document the species composition of the odonate fauna during the dry and rainy seasons. The study also aimed to describe the distribution of the sampled species in Brazilian states. Sampling took place in August and September of 2017 (dry season) and in February and March of 2018 (rainy season), and recorded 860 individuals of 43 species belonging to 26 genera and six families. Six new records representing the families Gomphidae, Libellulidae and Coenagrionidae were recorded for the state of Minas Gerais. Seventeen species were collected only during the rainy season and eight only during the dry season, while 18 species were found in both seasons. The rainy season had greater abundance, with four times as many individuals as the dry season. This study increases the number of records for Odonata in the Minas Gerais state, and reinforces the trend for greater predominance of this group during the rainy season in this biome.
Abstract in English:Abstract In recent years, an increase in knowledge about the diversity and biogeography of Brazilian Cladocera fauna has been evident. To keep up with these changes, it is opportune to carry out an update of the taxonomy and biogeography for the main cladoceran groups. Since 2008, some progress has been observed in Ilyocryptidae, with reports of four new taxa. In this study, an updated checklist of Ilyocryptidae from Brazil is provided, with a diagnosis for each cited taxon, as well as an identification key. Some of these taxa are considered rare; however, this issue might be an artifact of sampling. As this is the first in a series of papers compiling current information about Brazilian Cladocera, an identification key to orders and families occurring in Brazil is also provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Since early 2000 years, the knowledge about the taxonomy of Aloninae (Cladocera: Chydoridae) has been in rapid progress. For this reason, the most of Brazilian fauna was affected concerning nomenclature, besides an increase in the number of known genera and species. Thus, in this study, we bring an updated species list of Aloninae in Brazil, as well as identification keys based in current nomenclature and morphological standards. Our finding pointed to the occurrence of 46 valid species, belonging to 21 genera and three groups of Alona sensu lato. Two of these genera are endemic to Brazil. So far, South-East Asia and Brazil have the most well-studied Aloninae fauna in the entire planet.
Abstract in English:Abstract Previously known only from Argentina and Uruguay, Anacalliax argentinensis is herein reported for the first time from Rio de Janeiro, representing the first occurrence of genus Anacalliax in the Brazilian coast and the northernmost record of the species in the Atlantic Ocean. Morphological variations on the third maxilliped and first pereopods are discussed based in our material.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cavity-nesting bees are enigmatic because they are difficult to observe in the wild, hence trap-nests (man-made cavities) provide the means by which these bees may be studied. Trap-nests is an efficient methodology to study these bees and are common worldwide. These traps have been used for a variety of reasons, including inventories, to examine pollen load, to study habitat disturbance, and bee conservation. However Neotropical trap-nesting bees’ taxonomy and biology are still poorly known and here we provide a review about these subjects. We searched for trap-nest bee studies in the Neotropical Region using Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science at any time in the past to December 2017. We found 109 independent studies, most of which were from Brazil (87 studies), followed by Argentina (10 studies), and other countries had fewer than five studies each. A total of 140 species, 24 genera, 10 tribes and three subfamilies were reported in trap-nests. Nest architecture was described for only 49 species. Taxonomy is only well-known for 14 genera, somewhat known for seven and is essentially unavailable for three genera. Construction material, closing plug and cell shape are similar among species in the same tribes and genera. Vestibular and intercalary cells, and the preliminary plug are variable, even at the specific level. Apinae is the most studied group with available data for all genera recorded in trap-nests. Colletinae is the least-studied group and nothing is known for their nesting biology. Megachilinae is intermediate, with some studies of taxonomy and nesting. We suggest that further trap-nest studies should provide more detailed information on nest architecture and construction materials, including explicit mention of structures that are absent. All Neotropical bees need more taxonomic studies, but some, such as Hylaeus and Megachile, require more attention since Hylaeus is essentially unknown and Megachile is very common on trap-nests.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, we record for the first time the genus Notocyrtus (Heteroptera, Reduviidae) from Argentina based on three species: Notocyrtus dorsalis (Gray), Notocyrtus dispersus Carvalho & Costa, and Notocyrtus foveatus Stål. We also describe and illustrate a mimetic complex comprising the three Notocyrtus species and Tetragona clavipes (Fabricius) (Apidae, Meliponini), that were collected on Bahuinia forficata Link (Leguminosae: Caesalpinioideae). We include biological comments on the plant-reduvid-bee interaction and hypothesize about the functionality of the mimetic complex described.
Abstract in English:Abstract The White-collared Kite (Leptodon forbesi) is an endemic and threatened raptor of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Here we present the known records of the species, describe the vegetation types where it was found and show Ecological Niche Models generated using Maxent algorithm. Most of the presence data were recorded in open ombrophilous forest and seasonal semideciduous forest in the states of Alagoas and Pernambuco. Maxent model had a good performance (AUC = 0.982 ± 0.004 SD), showing higher suitability for the species from Paraíba to Alagoas states. Maxent average model revealed a distribution range of 20,344 km² and an area of occupancy of 1,636.89 km². The most suitable areas for the species are those near watercourses and streams. We suggest the creation of protected areas, including private ones, and possible restoration actions to connect the most suitable forest fragments, along with the captive breeding, as the most appropriate strategies for the conservation of the White-collared Kite.
Abstract in English:Abstract Knowledge about the diet of anurans in different environments is essential to understanding important aspects of their trophic ecology. The bromeliad-frog Phyllodytes luteolus inhabits tank bromeliads in sandy coastal plains and lowland forests on the mainland, as well as a continental island in southeastern Brazil. In this work, we describe and analyze the diet of P. luteolus in three environments. We obtained the consumed prey items of 92 frogs (32 from sandy coastal plain, 32 from lowland forest and 28 from the island) via a stomach-flushing procedure. We found some variations in consumed prey composition and prey volume across populations, but ants represented the most important consumed prey in all environments. Only ants had a relative importance greater than 50%, which may suggest a specialized diet that transcends the sandy coastal plain environment.
Abstract in English:Abstract A catalogue of type specimens of Psocoptera (Insecta: Psocodea) deposited in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, is presented and updated to February, 2019. 45 holotypes and 47 paratypes of 52 species were found, included in the suborders Psocomorpha and Trogiomorpha, and listed in the families Amphipsocidae, Asiopsocidae, Caeciliusidae (infraorder Caeciliusetae); Lachesillidae and Pseudocaeciliidae (infraorder Homilopsocidea); Philotarsidae (infraorder Philotarsetaea) Hemipsocidae, Myopsocidae and Psocidae (infraorder Psocetae); Ptiloneuridae (infraorder Epipsocetae), and Lepidopsocidae (infraorder Atropetae). The taxa are presented alphabetically by suborders, infraorders, families, subfamilies, tribes and genera, followed by species (updated to the valid name), bibliographic citation, type category, description of the type condition with collection number and method of preservation. When necessary, comments are added.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the present study, we inventoried gall-inducing arthropod species and evaluated the effects of habitat anthropization, vegetation structure and seasonality on this group in areas of deciduous seasonal forest of Parque da Sapucaia, Montes Claros, MG, Brazil. The gall-inducing fauna was sampled between April 2017 and February 2018 from 20 plots distributed in anthropized and preserved habitats. A total of 29 morphospecies of gall-inducing arthropods and 21 species of host plants were recorded. The Fabaceae plant family had the highest number of gall morphospecies (n = 10), while the Cecidomyiidae (Diptera) insect family induced the most galls (41.3%). Mean gall richness did not differ between preserved and anthropized plots, but was negatively affected by mean vegetation height and density. The total number of gall morphospecies recorded during each sampling did not differ between dry and rainy seasons, but the mean richness of galls per plot was higher in the rainy season. In conclusion, natural factors, such as vegetation structure and seasonality, were more important for the distribution of gall-inducing species than anthropic factors, such as vegetation anthropization level.
Abstract in English:Abstract Malformations in animals have long been known. In gastropod, natural and induced malformations are mentioned in different systems and in ocular tentacles, mainly linked to cases of parasitism and exposure to pollutants (molluscicides and chemicals). In this study we present a new malformation not documented in the ocular tentacles of slug Deroceras reticulatum that could be due to the action of pesticides. This malformation in D. reticulatum is the first malformation to be mentioned for South America in nursery gardens.
Abstract in English:Abstract The malacofauna bycatch of sea-bob shrimp Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller, 1862) trawl fisheries on the coast of Sergipe was studied for 5 years. The malacofauna bycatch considered was obtained in nine oceanographic sampling campaigns carried out between May 1999 and June 2003 in 18 stations distributed in six transects along depths of 10, 20 and 30 m. A total of 2,669 individuals of mollusk belonging to 54 species were captured on the 18 sea-bob shrimp trawl stations carried out along the coast of Sergipe. The considerable richness of mollusks was composed by 19 families and 31 species of gastropods, 12 families and 19 species of bivalves and 2 families and 4 species of cephalopods. The highest abundance were observed at stations 13 (373 individuals) and 16 (685 individuals) that represents the lowest depth (10 m) and the richness was higher at stations 15 and 12 (17 and 11 species, respectively) both located at the highest depth (30 m). Cephalopods had high frequency of occurrence being collected in all the stations and by far the most abundant group with a total of 2,488 individuals captured. On the other hand, gastropods (with 142 individuals found in 83.3% of stations) and bivalves (about 1% of the individuals collected) contribute with a much smaller percentage of individuals captured. Lolliguncula brevis (Blainville, 1823) was most representative cephalopod in number and frequency of occurrence. Arcidae, Conidae, Muricidae and Strombidae were the families with the higher number of species in the trawl-fishery. Among bivalves, Pitar arestus (Dall & Simpson, 1901) and Spathochlamys benedicti (Verrill & Bush [in Verrill], 1897) were the species with higher frequency of occurrence. Although the considerable sample effort and a number of mollusks captured as bycath, the richness estimators indicated that the species richness could increase with additional sampling effort in the study area. The present study expands the taxonomic alpha knowledge on the mollusk bycatch of sea-bob shrimp trawl fisheries on the northeastern coast of Brazil. However, it is of crucial importance to assess urgently the negative impacts of the sea-bob shrimp trawl fisheries on the benthic community of the entire coast of Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Parque Estadual do Tainhas - PET (Tainhas State Park) is a protected area with significant extensions of natural grasslands located in highland grasslands of northeastern Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, and recognized as an Important Bird Area. Our aim was to record the bird species richness of PET with a greater sampling effort than previous studies at the site, including unpublished data such as occurrence status of most species and evidence of breeding of some of them in the park. We surveyed birds between 2012 and 2018 performing aleatory trails covering mainly the central portion of PET (1,500 ha). We also added records from published studies. We listed 208 species, of which 203 were recorded during our fieldwork (including 18 species of conservation concern). The estimated richness was 222.22 (SD = 10.91) species, according to Jackknife 1 method. This result represents a 58% increase in the species richness of the park and shows that long-term monitoring of the bird community allows to access more accurate richness and to identify the regular species (core avifauna) of the park. The presence of 55 breeders and threatened species shows the importance of this protected area for breeding and conservation of grassland birds, such as Urubitinga coronata, Cinclodes pabsti, Xolmis dominicanus, Anthus nattereri, Xanthopsar flavus, and Sporophila melanogaster.
Abstract in English:Abstract The new species Oiovelia shepardi is described based on macropterous specimens from the departments of La Guajira and Antioquia in northwestern Colombia, and is compared to its presumed closest relative. The female of Paravelia cunhai Rodrigues & Moreira, 2016 and the male of P.polhemusi Rodrigues, Moreira, Nieser, Chen & Melo, 2014 are described for the first time. The specimens of the two species of Paravelia Breddin were collected in waters inside caves in the State of Pará, northern Brazil. Further, the micropterous form of Steinovelia vinnula (Drake, 1951) is described, compared with S.virgata (White, 1879), and new distributional records are provided. Illustrations and a geographic distribution map of all species treated here are presented.
Abstract in English:Abstract Here we provide descriptions of gynandromorphs of two species oil-collecting bees: Lophopedia nigrispinis and Epicharis iheringii, both with partial bilateral phenotypic asymmetry. The bees have a female phenotype predominantly on mesosoma and metasoma. The specimen of L. nigrispinis has distinct characteristics on legs, suggesting a mosaic pattern of gynandromorphism. The pollen and oil loads on legs suggest that the bee was foraging normally. The gynander specimen of E. iheringii has mostly a female phenotype, except for head, with right half female type and left half male type. The specimen of L. nigrispinis was collected foraging on flowers of Bidens sp. at Parque Nacional Iguazú, Argentina with loads of pollen on legs suggesting it was reproductive and was provisioning a nest. The specimen of Epicharis iheriingi has no evidence of any oil or pollen collection, despite its mostly female phenotype.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two species of bopyrid isopods from the subfamily Athelginae are recorded from new localities in northeastern Brazil. Parathelges foliatus Markham, 1972 was recorded for the first time from Brazil, in the state of Ceará, parasitising the hermit crab Clibanarius symmetricus (Randall, 1840). Pseudostegias atlantica Lemos de Castro, 1965 is recorded from the state of Ceará, parasitising Clibanarius antillensis Stimpson, 1859. Illustrations, species diagnosis and an updated distribution map are given for each species.
Abstract in English:Abstract The state of Maranhão, located in northeastern Brazil, comprises three biomes: Amazonian, Caatinga, and the Cerrado. To date, 99 ant species have been recorded in the literature from the state. In the present work, we provide for the first time a profile of the ant fauna in the state based on data from the historical literature and Brazilian institutional collections. The updated records on ant diversity for the state of Maranhão revealed a total of 279 species, belonging to 71 genera and 10 subfamilies. In total, 180 species are recorded for the first time in the state, of which four species recorded for the first time in Brazil. In summary, apart from documenting the ant fauna of the region, these results provide a basis for further studies and may contribute to future conservation efforts for the biomes present in this complex landscape.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eumunida pictaSmith, 1883, was considered for over a century an amphi-Atlantic species and the only representative of the genus in the Atlantic Ocean, until being split into three species: E. picta sensu stricto (from the northwestern Atlantic), E. bellade Saint Laurent & Macpherson, 1990 and E. squamiferade Saint Laurent & Macpherson, 1990 (from the northeastern and southeastern Atlantic, respectively). Eumunida is now expanded to include a new species, E. notialis, from off the Brazilian coast. Hence, this is the first record of Eumunida and Eumunididae from the southwestern Atlantic. The new species differs from all its Atlantic counterparts in having (1) four hepatic spines; (2) two carapace inframarginal spines; (3) the distal end of the antennal acicle nearly reaching to the articulation between fourth and fifth antennal segments; and (4) the anterolateral spine of the second pleonal tergite obsolete.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The occurrence of Isarachnanthus Carlgren, 1924 (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Ceriantharia) specimens in Cape Verde Islands is recorded. Identification of the tube anemone species Isarachnanthus maderensis (Johnson, 1861) was possible based on DNA Barcoding. A discussion on biogeographic patterns associated with ocean circulation and life cycle is presented.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT A new species of Gnomidolon from Colombia is described and illustrated: Gnomidolon franciscoi sp. nov.; and the previous key for the genus is modified to include the new species. The male of Gnomidolon hamatumLinsley, 1935 is described and illustrated for the first time. Additionally, a chromatic variation in some species of Hexoplonini from Colombia is reported and the geographical distribution of four species is expanded.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT The Cerrado is the second largest Brazilian biome and only 2.8% is represented by protected areas. Considering the relevance of the Cerrado and Conservation Units in preserving the mammalian diversity, we provided the first assessment of the diversity of medium- and large-sized mammal species in the Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park (CVNP) and surroundings. We tested the effectiveness of the CVNP by assessing the difference in species composition within the park and its surroundings. We sampled CVNP in the rainy (October-December 2013) and dry seasons (March-June 2014) in order to characterize the seasonality within the community. We selected 36 sampling sites to evaluate the composition of the medium and large mammals in the CVNP and its surroundings, 18 in the CVNP and 18 in the park surroundings. We ordered mammalian composition and frequency of individuals data by using a Non-metric Multidimensional Scaling analysis (NMDS). We assessed the effect of season (dry and rainy seasons) and locality (within the CVNP and surroundings) on mammalian species richness with a two-way analysis of variance (Two-way ANOVA). We recorded 23 species, 13 within the CVNP and 17 species in its surroundings. Composition and frequency of records differed between dry and rainy seasons, with higher richness in the rainy season. Species’ composition and the frequency of records were also different between within the CVNP and its surroundings, with higher richness in the surroundings. These results provide information for the increase of the knowledge of mammalian ecology but also is useful as a tool for future strategies to the conservation of these species. More attention should be given to the monitoring of these species in the long term because this area still harbor some viable populations.
Abstract in English:ABSTRACT In the state of Rio Grande do Sul, there are few records of geographical distribution and host plants to species of Tomoplagia Coquillett, as well as other genera of Tephritidae, especially those associated with plants of the family Asteraceae. Here, we report the first occurrence of Tomoplagia rudolphi (Lutz & Lima, 1918) in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, inducing stem galls in Vernonanthura tweediana (Baker) H. Rob. (Asteraceae, Vernonieae), whose plant becomes a new host record for this species. In this way, is increased to nine species of Tomoplagia recorded for Rio Grande do Sul. Biological and morphological data and photos of gall, larvae, pupae at new host and distribution map of the species in Brazil are provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract The species Neoceroplatus betaryiensis sp. nov. is presented here with the diagnosis of the species with indication of the ZooBank number, making this publication the valid description of the species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Diptera is a megadiverse order, reaching its peak of diversity in Neotropics, although our knowledge of dipteran fauna from this region is grossly lacking. This applies even to the most studied families, such as Drosophilidae. Despite its prominence, most aspects of the biology of these insects are still poorly understood, especially those linked to natural communities. Field studies on drosophilids are highly biased towards fruit-breeding species. Flower-breeding drosophilids, however, are worldwide distributed, especially in tropical regions, although being mostly neglected. The present paper shows the results of a biodiversity inventory of flower-breeding drosophilids carried out in several localities in Brazil, based on samples of 125 plant species, from 47 families. Drosophilids were found in flowers of 56 plant species, from 18 families. The fauna discovered turned out to be mostly unknown, comprising 28 species, with 12 of them (> 40%) still undescribed. Not taking into account opportunistic species, two-thirds of the flower-exclusive diversity was undescribed. The Drosophila bromeliae species group was the most representative taxon, with eight species (six undescribed), including four polyphagous and four Solanum-specialized species. This specialization on Solanum is reported for the first time for Drosophilidae. Other taxa of restricted flower-breeding drosophilids were the Drosophila lutzii species group and two species of the genus Zygothrica Wiedemann. Some specimens of the genera Cladochaeta Coquillett, Rhinoleucophenga Hendel and Scaptomyza Hardy were found, but their relations to flowers are unclear. Additionally, ten species of broad niche were found using flowers opportunistically. Localities and host plants were recorded for all species collected.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Belem Curassow (Crax fasciolata pinima) is one of the most endangered birds in South America, without sightings of birds in the wild for 40 years. This subspecies is nationally and internationally classified as critically endangered and close to extinction, suffering from poaching and deforestation in its range. Here we present new records of free-living individuals made on three indigenous lands in Pará and Maranhão states: in part of Terra Indígena Mãe Maria, Bom Jesus do Tocantins, Pará; in locations within the Reserva Biológica do Gurupi/Terra Indígena Alto Turiaçu, Centro Novo do Maranhão, Maranhão; and around the Terra Indígena Rio Pindaré, Alto Alegre do Pindaré, Maranhão. We also provide recommendations to protect this bird via a dedicated conservation program which includes finding new individuals in non-sampled areas (north of BR-222), estimating population size, enhancing taxonomic and natural history knowledge, capturing wild animals in order to start urgent ex situ conservation programs, and developing environmental awareness programs with the local and indigenous populations.
Abstract in English:Abstract We describe herein a new species of the abundant polychaete family Syllidae, Exogone brasiliensis sp. nov. The new species is characterized by a peculiar morphology of anterior body falcigers, with shafts and blades modified specially in chaetigers 1 and 2; falcigers until chaetiger 5 different from those of the rest of the body; and dorsal simple chaetae from midbody onwards unique in the genus, nearly straight, subdistally swollen in one side only, distally rounded. Exogone brasiliensis sp. nov. is described based on detailed morphological analyses under optical and scanning electron microscopes, and compared to its most similar congeners.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three species described and currently included in the genus Gobius from the Brazilian coast are herein discussed. Gobius uranoscopus Sauvage is regarded as junior synonym of Bathygobius soporator based on information on holotype deposited in Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris; G. silveiraemartinsi Ihering, known only in Rio Grande do Sul was erected based on a short description, and type material is not available, but I considered that it is junior synonym of Ctenogobius shufeldti; Gobius boekeri Ahl, 1931, described from the coast of Pará, Brazil, is a junior synonym of Gobionellus oceanicus, as both taxa are virtually identical in meristic characters and presumable morphometric differences that Ahl used to substantiate the validity of his new species actually fall into the morphometric range observed in G. oceanicus specimens and may be attributable to individual variation and to the image quality by Ahl’s original description.
Abstract in English:Abstract Landscapes composed of small rural properties may support highly heterogeneous habitat, because they often cover distinct types of land uses adjacent to surrounding forest fragments. Many butterfly species may benefit from this kind of landscape, as very distinct microhabitats can be found in a very restricted spatial scale. To better understand how different microhabitats are related to fragmentation in rural landscapes the present study collected the butterfly fauna in 18 sampling point sites, representing distinct types of forest edges and forest interiors. Although closely located, these sites showed no spatial autocorrelation. Instead, a major distinction in species richness and composition was found among forest interior and edge habitats while no significant difference was found in species composition among distinct edge types. Therefore, the high segregation of butterfly assemblages found in a very restricted geographic scale suggests the presence of two different groups of butterflies that respond independently to forest fragmentation, the forest interior assemblages and forest edge assemblages. This distinction of butterfly assemblages related to forest interior and forest edges were already reported, but our results highlights that these differences are found mostly due to species turnover between those habitats. In other words, both microhabitat types present a high number of specialized species compared to a smaller fraction of generalist species that may occurs in both microhabitats. In the case of Atlantic Forest, the species of special conservation concern are those true specialized in forest interior habitats and not those specialized in forest edges, thus the present study corroborates the importance of sampling different microhabitats when studying fragmentation processes, both inside and outside of fragments. Although forest edges may present different kinds of habitat types, species present along border tend to be as heterogeneous as species present in different locations inside the forest. This information should be considered in sampling designs of biodiversity essays that focus on a more consistent representation of local diversity.
Abstract in English:Abstract Tambaba environmentally protected area is situated on the south coast of Paraíba State, within the Atlantic forest biome of the northeastern region in Brazil. The Tambaba environmentally protected area consists of a series of independent drainages: Graú, Mucatú, and Bucatú river micro-basins, and Caboclo River sub-basin that belongs to Gurugi River micro-basin. Ichthyological samples were collected in five scientific expeditions between months of June and July in 2015. Twenty-nine sites from different habitats (e.g., spanning tributaries, streams, rivers, and estuaries) were accessed for sampling. A total of 44 species distributed within 38 genera, 25 families, and 17 orders were assigned to the Tambaba hydrographic region. Freshwater species comprised 36% (n = 16) and marine-estuarine species 64% (n = 28) of the total collected specimens. Two invasive species occur in the freshwater sites: Cichla monoculus and Poecilia reticulata. Cheirodon jaguaribensis, Cichlasoma orientale, and Crenicichla brasiliensis are endemic to the Brazilian Northeast region with the first species restricted to the Northeast Caatinga and Coastal drainages hydrographic ecoregion.
Abstract in English:Abstract The genera Ameropterus Esben-Petersen, 1922 and Fillus Navás, 1919 are recorded from Colombia for the first time. New distributional records for two Cordulecerus Rambur, 1842 species are also presented. Ameropterus dissimilis (McLachlan, 1871) and Ameropterus scutellaris (Gerstaecker, 1894) are redescribed and illustrated, and Ameropterus mexicanus (Van der Weele, 1909) is here proposed as a junior synonym of the latter. The taxonomic status of Nephelasca crocea Navás, 1914 is discussed. Keys to the Colombian species of Ameropterus and Cordulecerus and a list of the split-eyed Ascalaphinae species of the New World are also given.
Abstract in English:Abstract The genus Alterosa Blahnik (2005), with 39 extant species, is endemic to Atlantic Forest areas of southern and southeastern Brazil. Herein, we describe and illustrate two new species from Rio de Janeiro state, southeastern Brazil: Alterosa cornuta sp. nov., easily diagnosed by the horn-like intermediate appendages crossing each other, and A. araras sp. nov., recognized mainly by the extremely developed basodorsal protuberance on tergum X and by the rod-like, mesally curved preanal appendages, with at least 2 stout spine-like setae positioned at mid length and with the apex cupped. Additionally, a new distributional record for Espírito Santo state, southeastern Brazil, is provided for Alterosa falcata Blahnik (2005).
Abstract in English:Abstract We present the first record for Loxosceles gaucho Gertsch, 1967 in the Amazonian region of Brazil. Four males, fifteen females and forty-nine immatures were collected in different places in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. This is the third species of Loxosceles reported in the Amazon region along with L. amazonica Gertsch, 1967, and L. similis Moenkhaus, 1898. This is the first record of an invasive species of a venomous animal in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, which is noteworthy due to its synanthropic habit, which increases the risk to the local population.
Abstract in English:Abstract Vegetation stability, resilience and regeneration can be achieved by various ecological processes, the most important of which is seed dispersion. Among animal groups, birds have the largest number of frugivorous species in the Neotropics. The aim of this study was to conduct a bibliometric analysis to detect general patterns and discover knowledge gaps in order to identify future directions for research into bird frugivory in Brazil. A gap analysis was carried out by obtaining 77 articles published online and evaluating their data in different ways. The results revealed that research on bird frugivory in Brazil was published in 33 scientific journals and financed by 18 national and international funding agencies. The number of publications increased over time, with the majority of them reporting research carried out in biomes of Central-West and South regions of Brazil. The most important bird species in frugivorous interactions in the most studied biomes were identified, including some non-native species. Our results corroborate several other studies, which together demonstrate a lack research on frugivorous interactions in the North and Northeast of Brazil, where there are very important biomes for conservation, such as the Amazon and Caatinga, for which knowledge of seed dispersal processes is needed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Exotic species are those that occur in an area beyond their natural limit and they are considered invasive when they cause harm to the economy, environment, or human health. In coastal environments, ballast water and inlays on the hull and other parts of vessels are the main ways of introducing invasive aquatic alien species. Nassarius foveolatus (Dunker, 1847) is native from the Central and East Indian Ocean to the East China Sea. The first specimens (empty shells) of N. foveolatus were collected manually on November 11, 2017 on the Rocio footbridge, located in the Paranaguá Estuarine Complex, on the coast of the State of Paraná, southern Brazil. Posteriorly, live specimens were collected in other localities of this bay. It is already possible to infer that the specimens of N. foveolatus occur together with the native specimens of N. vibex (Say, 1822), having the same niche. As previously only N. vibex existed in that place, at least a displacement of this native species has been occurred. However, certainly future ecological studies may confirm this displacement and additional consequences to the local ecosystem, as nassariids can be predators and scavengers. Control procedures should be also greatly implemented.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP), São Paulo, Brazil houses the largest and most representative Brazilian collection of Diptera. In the present study, following a recommendation of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, it is presented a catalogue of the type specimens of Diadocidiidae and Ditomyiidae (Diptera: Bibionomorpha) held in the collection of the MZUSP. Label data and the condition of preservation of 27 type specimens (nine holotypes, two paralectotypes, and 16 paratypes) of 14 Neotropical species are provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Decapod crustaceans have a wide variety of feeding habits, alternating among herbivory, predation, saprophagy, and filtration. The occupation of various trophic positions in the food web is a key feature in the evolution of the group. Thus, we analyzed the natural diet of the crab Ocypode quadrata (Fabricius, 1787), commonly known as the ghost crab and typically found on sandy beaches. The crabs were collected in the region of Ubatuba, between July 2016 and May 2017. The individuals were dissected in the laboratory, and each stomach was weighed and visually assessed in relation to the degree of repletion. After identification and classification, the items found were grouped for the analysis. In analyzing the stomach contents of Ocypode quadrata, 12 items were found: sand, Insecta, Hymenoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera, Crustacea, and other unidentified Arthropoda. We also found poriferans, Actnopterygii bones, plant pieces, non-organic material (plastic), and other non-identified materials. In the statistical analyzes, we observed seasonal differences in the composition of the diet, mostly related to the frequency of items consumed between dry and rainy seasons; the rainy season provided a greater diversity of items. Due to the great trophic spectrum of this species and tendency to feed on a wide range of items, O. quadrata is considered a generalist species, adapting according to the availability of prey in the wild.
Abstract in English:Abstract Porcellana paivacarvalhoi Rodrigues da Costa, 1968, described from southeastern Brazil (São Sebastião, São Paulo), is morphologically similar to the eastern Atlantic P. platycheles (Pennant, 1777), and also to the west African P. africana Chace, 1956. The synonymy between P. paivacarvalhoi and P. platycheles was proposed by previous authors without examination of any specimens of P. platycheles, nor did they considered the morphological similarities between P. paivacarvalhoi and P. africana. This synonymy has been implicitly accepted without further analysis. The recent discovery of one male and two females syntypes of P. paivacarvalhoi has prompted new investigations into the status of P. paivacarvalhoi as a junior synonym either of P. platycheles or P. africana. Porcellana paivacarvalhoi is redescribed and illustrated based upon its lectotype herein designated. It is confirmed to be a junior synonym of P. platycheles; all evidence suggests that P. africana is a distinct, separate species. All previous records of P. platycheles from the Brazilian coast are reviewed. Its presence in southeastern Brazil in the late 1960’s most probably represents an historical case of human-mediated introduction by shipping activities. Porcellana platycheles did not manage to establish itself in São Sebastião, nor has it been recorded subsequently elsewhere in Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Many species are declining due to environmental and physical changes in their habitats. Such disturbs alter the availability of micro-habitats and influences the presence of lizards, being even worse for threatened and endemic species. Glaucomastix littoralis is a teiid species restricted to four restingas areas of Brazil. The understanding about the use and preferences of micro-habitats by the species and the consequents effects of substrate loss is important to prevent local extinctions. This study took place in restingas of Maricá, Jurubatiba and Grussaí, in Rio de Janeiro State. We sampled the vegetation of all areas, to access differences between the physical structures, and recorded the individuals sighted and the micro-habitat they were in, to investigate the relation of individuals and habitat structure. We calculated the frequency utilization of each micro-habitat and made a presence estimation of individuals (occupancy and detection probability) to assess which structural parameters of vegetation guide the settlement of the studied populations. Our data showed structural vegetation particularities among the areas and a trend concerning the use of micro-habitat by Glaucomastix littoralis, with a general preference for leaf litter inside bushes, guriri and bare sand and a low utilization of cactus and herbaceous. We also found positives (bare sand and cactus) and negatives (bushes) influences of micro-habitats in relation to the occupation of the areas by the individuals. Since vegetation is fundamental to lizards, due to their use as a refuge, site for thermoregulation and feeding, the understanding about the effects habitat degradation/fragmentation can cause is essential to create appropriate management plans and develop public policies to conserve the species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eight species of macaw (Psittacidae: Anodorhynchus, Ara, Primolius) have previously been reported from Paraguay. We discuss all verifiable reports of the species from Paraguay and provide comment on their statuses. Ara chloropterus and Primolius auricollis are both widespread species known from multiple reports across a wide geographic area. We report minor range extensions within Paraguay for both species. Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus is documented as a breeding resident with a restricted distribution in the Upper Paraguay River basin. The first modern records of Ara ararauna and the first record of Diopsittaca nobilis for the country are documented with photographs. We are unable to find any confirmed records of Anodorhynchus glaucus from Paraguay and thus consider it of possible occurrence. Two species are rejected as erroneously cited, Ara militaris and Ara glaucogularis. Consequently six species in four genera are now confirmed to occur in Paraguay.