Abstract in English:Abstract Cities in northeastern Brazil experience extreme rates of unsolved homicides, a situation that stimulates innovative procedures in the police work, such as forensic entomology. We surveyed necrophagous insects associated with carrion in a city exposed to high rates of homicides in Northeastern Brazil. The experiments were carried out in a rainforest fragment located in Recife, State of Pernambuco. Two pig carcasses were used as models, one in the dry and the other in the rainy season. The collection of adults was performed daily until the complete skeletonization of the carcasses. At least 32 Diptera species from the families Calliphoridae, Muscidae, Sarcophagidae, Fanniidae, Phoridae, Anthomyiidae, Piophilidae, and Stratiomyidae were registered, some of which have been previously documented on cadavers. A high richness of Diptera species was registered in all stages of decomposition. A strong overlap in the occurrence of most species was observed, which invalidates a defined entomological succession on the carcasses. Two species stood out in terms of abundance: Ophyra chalcogaster (Muscidae) and Chrysomya albiceps (Calliphoridae). The ubiquity of Hemilucilia semidiaphana (Calliphoridae) seems to confirm its preference for forest fragments exposed to low anthropogenic action. Our data contribute to expand the knowledge on the geographical distribution of forensically relevant species in the region and confirm the rapid dissemination of invasive Chrysomya species in forested areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract Due to the small number of records of Streblidae on bats, despite extensive study on these mammals in the state of Rio de Janeiro, a survey was carried out in an area of the Atlantic Forest. The present study was carried out at Bom Retiro Farm Natural Heritage Private Reserve. We captured 401 bats of 17 species, 13 genera, and four families; bat flies infested 221 bats of only four species. Carollia perspicillata (Linnaeus, 1758) has the highest fly diversity, with seven fly species: Trichobius joblingi (Wenzel, 1966) (n = 23), Megistopoda proxima (Séguy, 1926) (n = 15), Strebla guajiro (García & Casal, 1965) (n = 15), Aspidoptera falcata (Wenzel, 1976) (n = 6) Paratrichobius longicrus (Miranda Ribeiro, 1907) (n = 8), Paraeuctenodes similis (Wenzel 1976) (n = 3), and Trichobius anducei (Guerrero, 1998) (n = 1). Two species infested Platyrrhinus lineatus (É. Geoffroy, 1810): Aspidoptera falcata (n = 1) and Anastrebla caudiferae (Wenzel, 1996) (n = 1). Paradyschiria parvula (Falcoz, 1931) (n = 11) infested Noctilio leporinus (Linnaeus, 1758) and M. proxima (n = 12) and Trichobius uniformis (Curran, 1935) (n = 1) infested Sturnira lilium (É. Geoffroy, 1842). Sturnira lilium has the highest infestation rate, with ten out of 46 captured individuals parasitized, followed by Carollia perspicillata, with 33 out of 164 captured parasitized, and by P. lineatus with only two parasitized individuals out of ten. Among 97 streblid flies captured, M. proxima was the most abundant (27.83%), followed by T. joblingi (23.71%), and S. guajiro (15.46%). All remaining bat fly species represented 33%. Paradichyria parvula has the first record for Rio de Janeiro State.
Abstract in English:Abstract During focal observations carried out in the Olho d’Água River, upper Paraguay River basin, Brazil, we registered the defensive behaviour of one pair of Crenicichla lepidota attempting to protect their offspring from conspecific and non-specific predators. Adults exhibited substrate-guarding behaviour and displayed primary and secondary anti-predation mechanisms. The primary mechanisms (e.g., fin flicking and flaring, gill extending) were ineffective against conspecific predators or against other species. Secondary mechanisms included charging would-be predators of the offspring, and this tactic was successful against non-specifics. This record confirms, in the wild, agonistic behaviour as an effective secondary defence mechanism used in parental care in Crenicichla lepidota.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pseudogaurax Malloch is a worldwide genus of Chloropidae with 33 species in the Neotropical region and 12 occurring in Brazil. The genus is well-known for the feeding habits of its larvae which attack egg masses and larvae of several arthropods, usually breeding in the egg sacs of spiders. In this study, we expanded the distribution of P. cingulatus to northern Brazil and recorded for the first time the species preying on Tetragnatha egg sacs. In addition, diagnosis, digital images and a distribution map are provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Leading zoologist and taxonomist Ernest Marcus (1893-1968) and his school described numerous new invertebrate taxa, including planarians, or triclads (Platyhelminthes). These authors rarely provided the etymology of names for the new taxa. In this paper, the etymology of 149 names of genera and specific epithets of planarians lacking etymology (or honoring people) is investigated. The etymology of most names was retrieved from original descriptive papers and from Eudóxia Maria Froehlich’s recollections, a fellow of Marcus’ school. It was discovered that the names were usually freely derived from words of the language spoken in the country where the species was found. Some names were motivated by an aspect of the biology of the species. Other names honored people or are arbitrary. The etymology of 19 names could not be retrieved and are only suggested. The origin of another 19 names could not be discovered, nor even their meaning. Knowing the etymology makes it easier to memorize a name and it is a way to preserve the historical and emotional aspects of the authors. Through the retrieved etymologies, the personality of Marcus can also be glimpsed.
Abstract in English:Abstract We present here the first record of Salacia tetracythara as an alien species for the Atlantic Ocean, specifically the coast of the state of Sergipe, northeast Brazil. The species was found attached to an artificial experimental plate installed in the rainy period (July-October 2017), in an estuarine region of the Sergipe River near the Sergipe Harbour. Salacia tetracythara is characterized by a small triangular space below each hydrotheca and two types of microbasic mastigophore nematocysts that differ in shape, size, and location. The species was described from Australia and has been recorded only for tropical to temperate regions of the Indo-Pacific. Salacia tetracythara seems to be a recent introduction into the Atlantic Ocean and, its introduction probably derived from ship transport between the Sergipe Harbour and regions of Oceania and/or Asia. Further investigation should be conducted to determine whether the species is established in the region and how far inside the estuary it has gone.
Abstract in English:Abstract The mayflies are insects widely known as indicators of aquatic quality in freshwater systems, they are abundant and diverse in tropical streams. In this study, it was determined the influence of physical, chemical and bacteriological characteristics on the Ephemeroptera assembly in a period of low precipitation in the Ocoa river of Meta department. There were 5,332 nymphs belonging to 4 families, 10 genera and 3 species. Three new genera records and one species are presented for Meta: Cloeodes, Zelusia, Lumahyphes and Americabaetis alphus. The genera Camelobaetidius and Varipes were found associated with conditions of contamination by organic matter and water mineralization. Likewise, Americabaetis, Thraulodes, Lumahyphes and Tricorythodes were associated with contamination conditions, especially with nitrites and nitrates. Nanomis, Cloeodes and Zelusia showed greater sensitivity to the contamination condition and were related to high percentages of dissolved oxygen in the water and they were in the sampling stations of the upper part in the river. It is important to mention that there were not Ephemeroptera in most of the stations associated with the urban area. That reflects their high sensitivity to polluting conditions at low precipitation period.
Abstract in English:Abstract The aim of the study is to describe in detail, for the first time, the internal and external anatomy of Cyrtopleura costata, which displays ellipsoid and elongated valves with beige periostracum, the anterior adductor muscle unites the valves in the pre-umbonal region, with abduction capacity in its dorsal half, sparing the ligament. Two accessory valves are identified: the mesoplax (calcified) located in the umbonal region; and the protoplax (corneus) above the anterior adductor muscle. Internally there is a pair of well-developed apophysis that supports the labial palps and the pedal muscles, and support part of the gills. The posterior half of mantle ventral edge is fused and richly muscular, working as auxiliary adductor muscle. The siphons are completely united with each other, the incurrent being larger than the excurrent. The foot is small (about ⅛ the size of the animal). The kidneys extend laterally on the dorsal surface, solid, presenting a brown/reddish color. The style sac is well developed and entirely detached from the adjacent intestine. The intestine has numerous loops and curves within the visceral mass. The fecal pellets are coin-shaped. The present study certainly may be used as comparative scenario for specimens from other regions of the species range.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cymothoa ianuariiSchioedte & Meinert, 1884 is rediscovered almost 136 years after its original description and redescribed from specimens collected in the state of São Paulo. This species is mainly characterized by adult females with cephalon with conspicuous eyes and not deeply immersed in pereonite 1, pereonites 5-6 much wider than 4, pleotelson twice as wide as long and pleopods 1-5 decreasing in size; Cymothoa excisaPerty, 1833 and C. oestrum (Linnaeus, 1758) are recorded from the state of Bahia. Illustrations and an updated distribution map for these species in Brazil are provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Many bird species avoid traditional traps such as mist nets, thus alternative trapping methods are often needed. The Rufous Hornero (Furnariidae: Furnarius rufus) is one such species that was captured so far using conventional mist netting in rural areas or using nest-targeted traps, which risk nest damage and abandonment. Here we describe the novel rise-up mist-netting (RUM) protocol and its catchability for the wary and territorial Rufous Hornero in an urban area. The RUM trap allowed us quickly capturing 40 Rufous Hornero individuals even in paved parking lots and streets during the bird’s breeding period. The RUM is an active and targeted protocol that demands a single and quickly trainable field assistant. Therefore, it should also enable the capture of many understudied territorial but wary species. Moreover, it has enough mobility to fit studies in urban areas, and whenever researchers may deal with limited space and, at the same time, should reduce negative visual impacts to the general public of birds’ capturing and banding procedures.
Abstract in English:Abstract The introduction of non-indigenous marine species in new habitats is generally associated with ships arriving at ports, driven by species transported in ballast water and sediment and biofouling communities on ship hulls, drifting object and underwater surfaces in dock areas. The present paper reports the record of the specie Sternaspis aff. nana in the Atlantic Ocean, discussing its possible conservation status and method of arrival to Brazil. Sediments samples were collected in the external area (11 m depth) of the Suape Harbor (Brazil) in February 2018. Two individuals of Sternaspis aff. nana were recorded, representing the first record of this species in the Southwest Atlantic Ocean. The way S. aff. nana arrived in Brazilian waters cannot be easily determined, the short-lived lecithotrophic larvae of sternaspids suggest that the specimens found in Suape have arrived in ballast sediment. An increase in trade between Brazil and Asian countries since the 2000s has led to that more ships coming from China having arrived in Brazilian harbors. The arrival of S. aff. nana, originally described in the South China Sea, in the Suape harbor area may have resulted from this intense movement of ships between China and Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract A catalogue of the Pyrgotidae (Diptera) from Chile is provided. All valid names are presented, comprising three species in two genera for the country. All references known to us from the taxonomic and biological literature, to the included names, are provided, including information about name, author, year of publication, page number, type species, type locality, distribution, and references.
Abstract in English:Abstract Plectris aliena (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae) Chapin is a species already recorded causing serious damage to various cultures in North America and Australia. Although its occurrence has recently been reported in Brazil, information about its distribution, taxonomy, and biology is limited. Thus, this study aims to report this new occurrence of P. aliena in Deodápolis (Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil), as well as to present bioecological and morphological aspects of this species. In this way, the seasonal distribution and the life cycle was studied in the years 2017 and 2018. The larvae were sampled through trenches made in the soil and reared in the laboratory. Adults were captured using “Luiz de Queiroz” light traps. Adults have body with dense white hairs, antennae with 10 antenomeres; they measure approximately 12 mm in length, and their antennal lamellae are larger for males than females. The larvae reach 30 mm in length in the third stage and pupae show about 19 mm in length. The life cycle of this species is univoltine. Due to the great diversity of Plectris and the scarce information available about this species in South America, this study will facilitate its identification in the field and indicate the best time for monitoring in sugarcane crop.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new species of moth-fly, Atrichobrunettia (Polibrunettia) longipalpis sp. nov. (Psychodinae, Psychodidae), from the Brazilian Atlantic Rain Forest is described. It can be distinguished from other species of the subgenus mainly by the length of palpus that is longer and by the dentate distal margin of hypandrium. Here the distribution of A. angelae Bravo, 2006 and A. paranaensis Bravo, 2005 is reviewed and morphological data to A. paranaensis Bravo, 2006 is given to complement the original description of the species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bathygobius soporator (popularly known as “Maria da toca”) is a species that, although abundant, is little studied in aspects regarding growth, feeding and reproduction in southern Brazil. Studies on trophic ecology still raise questions on the species’ actual diet, especially in the context of algae participating as a food resource or an accidental intake. Thus, this study aims to fill this gap, evaluating the growth, feeding, and reproduction of this species. Monthly samples from two periods (1997-1998 and 2005-2006) were analyzed for growth, feeding, and reproduction parameters, totalizing 1177 individuals evaluated. Our results demonstrate that Bathygobius soporator is a species of fast development, reaching the age of first maturation before the first year of life. It presents a sexual dimorphism, being males larger than females. Reproductive peaks occur in the spring and summer months. The species presented a broad trophic spectrum, including algae as the main food resource, not just an accidental intake. The omnivorous-opportunistic trophic ecology of this species is emphasized, agreeing with the information of previous studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract We describe a new Procellaria petrel species from the late Pliocene of Taranaki, New Zealand. The new species is most similar morphologically to the White-Chinned Petrel (P. aequinoctialis), Spectacled Petrel (P. conspicillata) and the Westland Petrel (P. westlandica). Compared with those taxa, the new species has a deeper and shorter premaxilla, longer coracoid and shorter wings, while its legs are a similar size. Today, New Zealand is the centre of global diversity of the genus, with four breeding species. This is the first fossil species of Procellaria to be described from New Zealand, attesting to a reasonably long history of this genus in the region.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo (MZUSP) houses an important Megalopodidae collection representing 144 species, especially from Brazil and the Neotropical fauna. The type specimens of some species have never been accessed since their original descriptions, and are thus unknown to a major part of the Megalopodidae researchers. Presented here is an illustrated catalogue of the megalopodid type specimens of 32 species deposited at MZUSP, featuring photos of habitus and labels, and complete label data of all the specimens, which originally belonged to Jacintho Guérin’s personal collection. Conflicting and inconsistent data provided in the literature and in the specimens’ labels are addressed. Taxa originally proposed as species varieties are here reaffirmed as valid, with subspecific rank. Agathomerus variansMonrós, 1945 and Plesioagathomerus vittatusMonrós, 1945, originally described as junior synonyms, are considered unavailable names. The subspecific epithet ngriapex is emended into Agathomerus bifasciatus nigrapexGuérin, 1949. An overview of the MZUSP Megalopodidae collection is presented with a history of the arrival of Guérin’s specimens.
Abstract in English:Abstract Understanding how different environmental factors influence species occurrence is a key issue to address the study of natural populations. However, there is a lack of knowledge on how local traits influence the microhabitat use of tropical arboreal lizards. Here, we investigated the microhabitat selection of the poorly known lizard Tropidurus lagunablanca (Squamata: Tropiduridae) and evaluated how environmental microhabitat features influence animal’s presence. We used a Resource Selection Function approach, in a case/control design where we analyzed the effect of substrate temperature and tree’s diameter at breast height (DBH) in the probability of presence of lizards using mixed Conditional Logistic Regression. We found that T. lagunablanca uses trees with DBH from 0.40 m to 4 m and substrate temperatures ranging from 25.9°C to 42°C. Moreover, we showed that thickness of the trees and substrate temperatures significantly increased the probability of presence of T. lagunablanca individuals, being the probability of presence higher than 50% for trees up to 1.5 m DBH and temperature of substrate up to 37.5°C. Our study probed that T. lagunablanca individuals choose trees non-randomly, selecting thicker and warmer tree trunks. This information advances the knowledge of the spatial ecology of Neotropical arboreal lizards and is relevant for conservation, putting an emphasis on preserving native vegetation in the Pantanal.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ecosystem engineering species create, modify, and/or maintain the characteristics of the environment. The polychaete Phragmatopoma caudata builds large sand reefs in the intertidal region of the Brazilian coast with high structural complexity, favoring the increase of diversity and interactions among the species associated. However, there are no studies concerning the association of polychaetes with crustacean macrofauna in the northeastern Brazil ecoregion, leaving an information gap on baseline biodiversity. Our aim was to analyze the effect of P. caudata colonies (PC) on the local diversity of macrocrustaceans compared to the rocky shore (RS) microhabitat. Monthly collections were carried out in low tide from September 2015 to August 2016 on 10 × 10 m quadrants for fauna and environmental variables (temperature and salinity) samples. In each microhabitat, the capture effort was two hours by two researchers. We collected 3,390 individuals, 60% associated with the colonies of PC and 40% with the RS. The PC obtained higher Shannon diversity, Pielou evenness and species richness coupled with milder water temperature and salinity conditions (minor air exposure during tide), compared to the RS that obtained greater species dominance and more extreme abiotic conditions (major air exposure). The Porcellanidae family stood out because all its species were highly abundant and had high occurrence in the colonies. The tropical Brazil porcelain crab Pachycheles greeleyi was dominant in both microhabitats (major dominance in PC). The structural complexity in the reefs of PC promoted higher availability of niches for the species, as more shelter for the resident species and refugium for temporary species with preference for more complex microhabitats. Conservation managers should prioritize the health of these colonies and subsequent species that constitute important ecosystemic and fishery resources.
Abstract in English:Abstract Snakes represent the richest Reptile group in Brazil, amounting to 412 species and 40% of them are endemic for the country. This great richness combined with the poor taxonomic knowledge makes the identification a difficult process. To correctly identify a specimen, guides, taxonomic revisions, identification keys, and consulting specialists are the most used methods. Identification keys are based on separation and segregation of characters, where the chosen paths lead to the appropriate taxa. These tools are normally used by students and non-taxonomists. Also, they can be very helpful with the general public, where they can identify the species with simple characters. This study aims to develop keys for the snakes from the State of Santa Catarina state, Brazil, focusing on the Itajaí Valley species. We surveyed 351 specimens deposited in Universidade Regional de Blumenau Zoological Collection (CZFURB), Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (CHUFSC), and Natural History Museum of Capão da Imbuia (MHNCI) herpetological collections. Characters including pholidosis, dentition, and coloration patterns were examined from the 46 snake species registered from Itajaí Valley.
Abstract in English:Abstract Birds are the best-known vertebrate group, although many localities in the world are considered to be knowledge gaps. This is the case of many little-known environments in the Amazon biome, the world’s largest tropical forest. Here, we present a survey of birds in the upper Purus basin, comprising the municipalities of Manoel Urbano and Feijó in the Brazilian state of Acre, and Boca do Acre and Pauini in the state of Amazonas. In this region, poorly-studied habitats, such as open rainforest dominated by palms or bamboo, still predominate. We recorded 452 bird species during 45 field trips between May and July in 2016, and June to August in 2017. Twenty-four of these species are associated with bamboo habitat, 28 are endemic to the southwestern Amazon basin, and seven are threatened with extinction. This high diversity is typical of the western Amazon basin, one of the richest regions in the world in the number of species, due to the heterogeneity of the local environments. The data presented here highlight the importance of the region for the conservation of birds, including species typical of the western Amazon, some of which are still poorly-known.
Abstract in English:Abstract Faunal inventories provide quantitative and qualitative data for different sites and are relevant sources of information for identifying areas of high species richness and endemism. Biological collections are important in this context for increasing the precision of species identification. The objectives of this study were to update the list of bat species of Ilha Grande by analyzing specimens in zoological collections as well as records obtained in areas where no such studies had been undertaken before; to compare five different studies conducted on Ilha Grande using mist net sampling; and to compare the results of studies on Ilha Grande with sampling results from other areas in Rio de Janeiro state. The occurrence of 36 bat species was confirmed for Ilha Grande. Five studies on Ilha Grande formerly conducted by the authors were compared with 34 fauna inventories in Rio de Janeiro state. The studies on Ilha Grande had distinct objectives and sampling techniques applied to different locations in the same area. Ilha Grande is one of the regions in Rio de Janeiro state with more bat records both in terms of abundance and number of species, as well as one of the areas of highest bat capture effort.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two species of Peruvian Loneura Navás, L. amakii sp. nov., and L. kosnipatensis sp. nov., are here described and illustrated; they belong in infrageneric group II of González Obando et al. (2020). The number of species of Peruvian Loneura is raised to four. The number of species of Loneura is raised to 38.
Abstract in English:Abstract New World bats are involved in key ecological processes and are good indicators of environmental changes. Recently, trait-based approaches have been used in several taxa to better understand mechanisms underlying species assemblages, biotic interactions, environmental relationships and ecosystem functions. However, despite the relevance of bats on ecosystem dynamics, so far, there is no conceptual framework that relies on the measurement of bat traits to address functional studies. Here, we present a set of 50 bat biological traits, which are suitable to assess environmental stressors and can potentially affect ecological processes. Several examples were provided to show the applicability of this framework in the study of Neotropical bat ecology. We suggest some considerations regarding trait-based approach including the importance of intraspecific variation, correlations between traits, response-effect framework, global dataset, and future directions to assess the reliability of functional relations across species and Neotropical regions by using traits. This could be helpful in tackling ecological questions associated with community assembly and habitat filtering, species diversity patterns along environmental gradients, and ecological processes. We envision this paper as a first step toward an integrative bat functional trait protocol held up with solid evidence.
Abstract in English:Abstract Conservation Units are an important tool for the Brazilian biota protection. However, various taxa, including the social wasps, are undersampled or are unknown in these areas. Therefore, our study aimed to assess the social wasp richness and distribution in the Conservation Units in Minas Gerais state, southeastern Brazil. The social wasps were sampled between 2015 and 2019 in the Ritápolis National Forest (FLONA Ritápolis), in the Alto-Montana Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPN Alto-Montana), in the Rio Machado Basin State Environmental Protection Area (APA Rio Machado) and in the Serra de São José Environmental Protection Area (APA Serra de São José), using two different sampling methodologies. Fourteen species were sampled for FLONA Ritápolis, 10 for RPPN Alto-Montana, 35 for APA Rio Machado and 19 for APA Serra de São José. Ninety-six social wasp species of the known richness in Minas Gerais were sampled in 14 Conservation Units, representing 90% of the fauna of the state. Thirty-four species are exclusive to these areas, with emphasis on the Rio Doce State Park, the Serra do Papagaio State Park, the Pandeiros River Wildlife Regufe and the APA Rio Machado. Most of the Conservation Units sampled are in the Atlantic Forest areas, but further efforts are needed in this biome, because of its accelerated destruction. There is still an urgent need for more studies in the Cerrado and Caatinga areas in the state, especially in Conservation Units.
Abstract in English:Abstract Neopsis campestrissp. nov. is described and illustrated based on male and female specimens collected on native grassland at the Guartelá State Park, Paraná State, Southern Brazil. New distribution records are presented for three previously known species, Neopsis aurea Takiya & Dietrich, 2017, Neopsis myrceugeniae Takiya & Dietrich, 2017 and Neopsis robusta Linnavuori, 1965, representing the first known records of the subfamily Tartessinae for Paraná State. A distribution map is also provided to illustrate the locality data of specimens studied herein.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new species of Leiosteninae (Opiliones, Agoristenidae) from the Colombian Caribbean, Avima tuttifrutti sp. nov. García & Pastrana-M., is described and illustrated, based on two males from the montante forests of Tierralta (Córdoba department). The new species differs externally from other species of Avima by having one yellow hump on mesotergal area IV and green coloration on dorsal scutum. SEM images of the penis and a map showing its distribution are offered. This species represents the first record of a harvestman from the department of Córdoba and the eighth species of the subfamily recorded from the country.
Abstract in English:Abstract The systematic position of Bukhkalius lindae (Jarzembowski et al. 2017) from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber is revised based on a re-examination of the type specimen. Our observations confirm that B. lindae lacks unique apomorphies of Tetraphalerus Waterhouse, in which it was originally placed, including complete antennal grooves and mushroom-shaped micro-tubercles. It is well justified to place it into a separate genus, i.e., Bukhkalius Kirejtshuk & Jarzembowski, 2020. The incomplete but distinct antennal grooves and the Tetraphalerus-like mouthparts of B. lindae suggest that it has a close affinity to Tetraphalerus. Therefore, B. lindae may represent a missing link bridging the morphological gap between extant ommatid subfamilies Tetraphalerinae and Ommatinae.
Abstract in English:Abstract Microcancilla phoenix sp. nov., collected from the Southeast and South coast of Brazil represents the southernmost record of the genus in the Atlantic Ocean. The new species differs from the other congeners of the Atlantic mainly by the presence of microscopic pustules covering the whole shell and by dimensions of the protoconch. “Axelella brasiliensis” Verhecken, 1991, known from the Northeast to South coast of Brazil, is transferred to Microcancilla based on a similar sculpture of microscopic pustules on the protoconch and on other features of the teleoconch discussed in the present study.
Abstract in English:Abstract This paper presents an ornithological inventory taken between March and December of 2017 in the Brazilian state of Paraná. Although the surroundings contain one relatively well-known location in regard to ornithology, Iguaçu National Park, several other areas merit exploration, among them the Santa Helena Relevant Ecological Interest Area (ARIE-SH). The 1,479 ha ARIE-SH is essentially a large remnant of the Atlantic Forest located adjacent to the city of Santa Helena, Paraná, which commencing in the 1980s has undergone considerable reforestation with both native and exotic species, including fruit species. Prior to censusing bird species and to better characterize the avian community, we conducted a bibliographic review of earlier ornithological studies carried out at ARIE-SH. In addition, we conducted opportunistic and unsystematic observations in nearby locations. We recorded 311 species of birds. During the current inventory, and others conducted in the area since 2016, we recorded six Atlantic Forest endemic species, five species threatened in Paraná, and two globally threatened species. Common species which showed high Index of Frequency in Lists include (in descending order) Basileuterus culicivorus, Leptotila verreauxi, Cnemotriccus fuscatus, Corythopis delalandi, Turdus leucomelas and Arremon flavirostris. Nine species observed while conducting this census (Laterallus exilis, Amazona vinacea, Herpsilochmus longirostris, Campylorhamphus trochilirostris, Casiornis rufus, Campylorhynchus turdinus, Myiothlypis flaveola, Eucometis penicillata and Sporophila palustris) are the first records for this region.
Abstract in English:Abstract There is little known about the bats of the Brazilian restinga as most studies have concentrated on the country’s south and southeast regions. In Sergipe, Northeastern Brazil, the only study previously carried out registered 17 species in different restinga habitats. Thus, this study aimed to characterize the bat community in a restinga area in Sergipe and update the list of species that occur in the area. The study was carried out in the Caju Private Natural Heritage Reserve, on the south coast of the state of Sergipe. Monthly campaigns were carried out from October 2016 to September 2017 over two consecutive nights and alternating between two sites to capture the bats. We captured Bats using 10 mist nets that remained open between 6:00 p.m. and 12:00 p.m. We determined the abundance and trophic guilds of the captured species. In addition, we obtained the occurrence frequency degree through the Constancy Index. We captured 457 individuals distributed over 13 species and two families, where three species represented a new record for the locality. The family Phyllostomidae was the richest and most abundant. Most species were frugivorous (61.5%). According to the Constancy Index, only four species were considered common. Using Jackknife 1 estimator, we estimated 14.83 species for the area, indicating that the richness obtained in this study corresponds to 87.6% of this estimate. This study resulted in an 17.6% increase in bat richness known for the area. The high representativeness of the Phyllostomidae family may be related to the capture method used. The predominance of frugivores bats in this study may be associated with the presence of many fruit trees in the area. The low occurrence of species considered common is often reported and can be explained by the species’ trophic specializations and by the sampling methods. Considering the scarcity of studies in restinga areas in Northeastern Brazil, this work becomes important for the knowledge of the bats in this environment, especially for Sergipe.
Abstract in English:Abstract Restingas are coastal ecosystems associated with the Atlantic Forest. They are threatened by habitat degradation and forest fragmentation due to intense human occupation. Many restingas have coastal lagoons formed by bay sedimentation of bays, the presence of river estuaries, or emerging groundwater. The distance between lagoons and the ocean influences the biotic community in them. This study aimed to compare the diversity (composition, abundance and richness) of bat communities associated with three lagoons within the Paulo Cesar Vinha State Park, Espírito Santo state. Two lagoons (‘Feia’ and ‘Vermelha’ lagoons) are 2 km away from the ocean, while the third (‘Caraís’ lagoon) is just a few meters distant from the ocean. Species composition did not differ among the lagoons. Abundance of Carollia perspicillata and Glossophaga soricina was higher in the ‘Caraís’ lagoon. Abundance of Artibeus lituratus and Platyrrhinus lineatus was higher in the ‘Vermelha’ lagoon. Species with higher abundance in the ‘Vermelha’ are usually associated with urban and disturbed environments. ‘Vermelha’ lagoon is closer to human settlements and this could be a major driver of bat species abundance associated with this lagoon instead of distance from the ocean. These results may be used to guide conservations efforts in the restingas or habitats associated with restingas.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mammal groups have a vast variety of habitats, which include aquatic, aerial, arboreal, and terrestrial. For terrestrial habitats, camera traps are used as a common technique to record mammals and other vertebrates and have been recently utilized to observe arboreal animals as well. Here, we compare the difference in mammal diversity between floor and canopy strata and evaluate the use of camera trapping in a lowland forest in central Amazon. We installed nine paired camera traps, one in the canopy stratum and other in the floor stratum, in the Alto Cuieiras Biological Reserve (Brazilian Amazon). With a sampling effort of 720 camera-days, we recorded 30 mammal species: nine in canopy strata, 14 in floor strata, and seven in scansorial strata (sharing both strata). On the forest floor, the species with the greatest abundance was Myoprocta acouchy; in the canopy, Isothrix paguros had the greatest abundance; and among the scansorial species, Proechymis sp. was the most abundant. Our results show the differences in mammal diversity between floor and canopy strata; canopy strata contained more small and frugivorous mammals. Although we obtained a relatively low sampling effort with the camera-trap method compared with other studies utilizing different techniques, our results were especially similar to those of previous studies that worked with canopy and floor strata. Thus, camera trap can be very effective for recording short periods of time, and this method is less physically exhaustive and expensive for researchers to study vertical strata.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the present study we described the structure of a trophic network composed by gall-midge species (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) and their host plants in the Restinga of Barra de Maricá (Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). Species data were retrieved from literature and different topological descriptors (links per species, connectance, and modularity of interactions) were used. All gall-midge species were monophages, with connectance of 2.8% of the 2,016 possible interactions. The network of host plants and gall midges had low number of links per species and high modularity, which indicates high specificity and specialization of plant-galling interactions in the area. This is the first characterization of a trophic network with good taxonomic resolution for the Neotropical gall midges.
Abstract in English:Abstract The revision of the sarcophagid species Lepidodexia (Orosarcophaga) ornata (Townsend, 1927) reveals its identity and a generic synonym. The male terminalia of this species was studied in detail for the first time and revealed its congeneric affinities with OxyviniaDodge, 1966. Consequently, the generic status of OrosarcophagaTownsend, 1927 was revalidated, including OxyviniaDodge, 1966 as its junior synonym, and O. ornata was corroborated as a valid species and name. Moreover, we provide an updated generic diagnosis of Orosarcophaga, a list of the eleven species of the genus with their distribution, and a detailed diagnosis of O. ornata.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new species of Trypoxylon is described from females and males collected in trap-nests and Malaise traps disposed in sites of Atlantic forest in southern Brazil (Paraná and São Paulo states). Trypoxylon basirufum sp. nov. is structurally very similar to Pisoxylon roosevelti Antropov, differing in details of the color pattern, clypeal apex, male antenna and propleura. In an ongoing molecular phylogenetic study of the genus Trypoxylon, T. basirufum sp. nov. did not group with Pisoxylon amenkei Antropov, a species very close morphologically to P. xanthosoma Menke, the type species of Pisoxylon. Based on these results, the scope of the Neotropical wasp genus Pisoxylon Menke is changed to include only the type species and P. amenkei, and consequently Pisoxylon roosevelti is transferred to Trypoxylon s. str.
Abstract in English:Abstract Trachypus Klug is a Neotropical genus of crabronid wasps comprising 31 ground-nesting species. Its species can be solitary or communal, and two diet ranges are known: they can forage on several bee subfamilies and wasps; or can be specialists on stingless bees. Natural history observations are scarce nowadays but are essential to contextualize ecological and evolutionary studies. Here we report new records and give biological notes for Trachypus elongatus (Fabricius, 1804), Trachypus taschenbergiRubio-Espina, 1975, and Trachypus varius (Taschenberg, 1875). Observations and samplings were carried out twice a month, during one year in the city of Curitiba, southern Brazil. Besides field observations, circular statistics were used to analyze seasonality. All species nest in sloped soil and are solitary. Trachypus elongatus and T. taschenbergi were active during most of the year with marked seasonality in the late spring and early summer. Both species were observed hunting only stingless bees, with T. elongatus specialized on Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793), and T. taschenbergi specialized on Paratrigona subnuda Moure, 1947 drones. Trachypus varius was observed only in January and one female was recorded foraging on a Paratrigona subnuda worker. Our observations provide additional data for understanding the biology of bee-hunting wasps, and this is the first study to bring information for T. taschenbergi and T. varius. Our data corroborate that some species of the genus Trachypus are specialized on stingless bees.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bat ectoparasites have a complex natural history narrowly tied to their hosts at ecological, behavioral, and evolutionary scales. As flying and social organisms, bats represent a potential mechanism of dispersal, a source of feeding, and a roost for ectoparasite reproduction. The chiggerflea Hectopsylla pulex (Siphonaptera: Tungidae) is widely distributed across the Neotropics. Females of this ectoparasite have been found in their neosomal form on bats of the family Molossidae, Noctilionidae, Phyllostomidae, and Vespertilionidae. Here we present the record of infestation of chiggerfleas on the Argentine bat, Eptesicus furinalis (Vespertilionidae) in Colombia, representing the first record of the flea on this species, and providing novel genetic information of this poorly known flea species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Pelidnota MacLeay, 1819 is one of the most diverse genus in Rutelina (Rutelini) and, even after broad and recent revisions, fieldwork has revealed a diversity of species yet to be known to science. Here, we describe Pelidnota silveiranetoi sp. nov. with illustrations and a map for the type locality, as well as its inclusion in a previously published identification key for the Pelidnota species. The new species is diagnosable by its color pattern (body with metallic green reflections, except on the elytra, which lack black spots), mouthpart features (galea bearing three teeth and the anterior part of the labium with an excavated surface, straight proximal margin, and the posterior part with a rounded lateral margin), and parameres (concave distal margin gradually acute and slightly divergent at the apex; straight lateral margin that is slightly sinuous at the middle; slightly corrugated proximal margin).
Abstract in English:Abstract A new leafhopper genus in the tribe Gyponini is proposed based on Magnana splendida gen. nov. et sp. nov., from the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Representatives of the new genus differ from other genera in the tribe mainly by the large body size, the narrow head, moderately produced anterad, the rugose crown and frons, the ventral surface of metatarsomere I with two double rows of setae, and the aedeagus bearing atrial processes. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are provided, as well as remarks on the morphology of other gyponine genera.
Abstract in English:Abstract Here it is shown that Loneura crenataNavás, 1927 and Loneura ocotensis García Aldrete are distinct species, so the previously proposed synonymy of the latter with the first is not valid. Illustrations of the L. crenata holotype, deposited in the Hamburg University Zoological Museum, are here presented for the first time.
Abstract in English:Abstract Four species of Triplocania collected in the Brazilian state of Bahia, are described and illustrated, based on male specimens, namely: T. annyae sp. nov., T. diamantina sp. nov., T. lauzie sp. nov. and T. miltoni sp. nov. They differ from the other species in the genus, in which the males are known by hypandrium and phallosome structures. New records of T. capixabaSilva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, 2016 and T. manueliSilva-Neto, García Aldrete & Rafael, 2016 for the state of Bahia are presented. In addition, an update on the Triplocania internal classification is proposed.
Abstract in English:Abstract The prey of a recent described characid fish, so far endemic of the small lake Pratinha (Iraquara, Bahia, Brazil), a small (~2.5 mm) lentic gastropod, revealed to be a new (possible endemic) species. It is herein formally described as Heleobia brucutu sp. nov. The description includes anatomical features, revealing interesting idiosyncrasies such as egg laying attached to shell, and penis lacking glands, but with terminal papilla. The new species appears to be endemic of that small lake as much as its fish predator. As the species is now formally described and named, protective efforts must be implemented.
Abstract in English:Abstract Megalobulimus dryadessp. nov. is described from the Atlantic Forest in the Vale do Ribeira region, in the states of Paraná and São Paulo, S-SE Brazil, based on morphology. Representatives of the new species with white peristome and glossy periostracum have been misidentified as Megalobulimus gummatus (Hidalgo, 1870) since the 19th Century. The true M. gummatus is revised and redescribed, and its distribution is here restricted to Rio de Janeiro state. Externally, the new species differs from M. gummatus in having distinct protoconch color and sculpture, teleoconch sculpture marked by strong anastomosing rugosities and malleations, and lighter colored white-greyish head-foot. Internally, it presents distinct jaw and radular features, a talon, and a long convoluted penis bearing two flagella. Additional comparisons with other Brazilian congeneric species are also provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to assess the diversity, abundance and seasonal dynamics of Ophioniformes wasps collected throughout a year, as recorded in Malaise traps set at the Reserva Ecológica da Universidade Estadual do Mato Grosso do Sul, a Brazilian Savanna area in Aquidauana city, MS. A total of 621 specimens of Ophioniformes belonging to 11 subfamilies, 30 genera and 106 species were sampled. Despite the impressive number of species found, in a pattern of a few relatively abundant species and many rare ones, our data estimate even higher richness, probably between 125 to 165 species in the studied area. The genera Diadegma, Nonnus, Diradops, Meniscomorpha, Syzeuctus, Ophiopterus and Thyreodon are recorded for the first time in Mato Grosso do Sul State. Among the climatic variables evaluated, mean temperature and relative humidity were positively and significantly correlated with richness and abundance. Our data highlights the huge unknown species richness of these parasitoids in Brazil and the need of taxonomic studies efforts in the future.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new species of the genus Gammarus Fabricius, 1775 is described from Lake Tong Tso, an extreme high-altitude lake in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Gammarus pontual sp. nov. is considered part of the Gammarus lacustris G.O. Sars, 1863 group, which is characterized by having the inner ramus of uropod 3 longer than half the length of the outer ramus, and by having both rami covered with plumose setae. The new species stands apart from their congeners, mainly, by the following combination of characters: head with cephalic lateral lobe truncated; gnathopods 1-2 propodus weakly armed, with 1 stout seta defining palm; palm longer than posterior margin of propodus, with 1 main stout seta medially; pereopods 5-7 basis slender, posterior margin crenulate; epimeral plate 1 posterior margin produced into a short spine, facial ridge present; epimeral plates 2-3 posteroventral corner sharply pointed; uropod 3 rami covered with plumose setae, inner ramus about 80% the length of the outer ramus; telson apex with 2 stout setae on each side.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two new species of particular biogeographic significance are described from the upper rio Paraguay basin, one of the genus Paracanthopoma (Trichomycteridae, Vandelliinae) and the other of the genus Ernstichthys (Aspredinidae, Hoplomyzontinae). The two species occur sympatrically in the Rio Taquarizinho, tributary of the Rio Taquari, in the upper Paraguay system. Paracanthopoma saci is distinguished from its only congener, P. parva, by a spatulate caudal peduncle; a minuscule premaxillary dentition (reduced to three delicate teeth); the supraorbital latero-sensory canals opening as two separate s6 pores; the caudal fin slightly convex or truncate with round edges; the skull roof entirely open, unossified; the origins of dorsal and anal fins approximately at same vertical; and the pelvic fin with three rays. Ernstichthys taquari is diagnosed among congeners by the narrow bony shields on dorsal and ventral series, not overlapping or contacting each other; by the presence of seven or eight serrations on the posterior margin of the pectoral spine; and by the pectoral-fin spine only slightly larger than subsequent soft rays. Both Paracanthopoma and Ernstichthys were previously unknown outside of the Greater Amazonian river systems (Amazon, Orinoco, Essequibo and smaller surrounding drainages). Their presence restricted to the Rio Taquari is unexpected and suggests a peculiar biogeographical history. Ancestral geographic distributions were reconstructed using S-DIVA and BBM methods in RASP. A majority of resulting hypotheses support that the two species reached the Paraguay from the Amazon. The alternative explanation accounts for their presence in the Paraguay by vicariant events. In no case, their presence in the Paraguay is an ancestral distribution with subsequent Amazonian dispersal. Though unusual, this pattern is also seen in a few other fish taxa, showing that the Rio Taquari is biogeographically hybrid, combining elements from both the Paraguay and Amazon drainages.
Abstract in English:Abstract A literature survey for the external morphology of tadpoles for species in the genus CycloramphusTschudi, 1838, which is mainly represented by larval descriptions, resulted in finding some inconsistent character descriptions. In a few cases, some of the information is either not presented or mistakenly reported; in some cases, the illustrations provided the information not present in the descriptions. Here in we use a sample of tadpoles of an insular population identified as Cycloramphus boraceiensis, present a description for it, compare it to the original larval description for this species, and using it as a model, present a comparative review of the other larval descriptions for Cycloramphus tadpoles. We evaluate that most of the mistakes we found in the literature are associated to the unique morphology of these semiterrestrial larvae and some of their seemingly adaptation to their microhabitats, which for the majority of the known species is a film of water running associated to or near streams.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study characterized the macrobenthic fauna found on a muddy-sandy tidal flat of the Amazon coast in areas with and without the presence of Diopatra cuprea (Bosc, 1802) (Onuphidae: Annelida) tubes. In addition, a brief review of records of D. cuprea on the Brazilian Amazon coast is presented. Samples were collected in February 2014 in two different areas: (1) an area in which D. cuprea tubes were present, and (2) a control area, in which worm tubes were absent. A total of 21 taxa were found, of which 10 were associated exclusively with D. cuprea tubes. Although richness did not vary significantly among areas, there were changes in the abundance and composition of species and trophic guilds. In the area with tubes, there was a higher abundance of filter-feeders and the presence of species adapted to consolidated and muddy substrates. Our results and those of other studies indicate that D. cuprea commonly presents low density in the Amazon coastal, and its tubes are typically scattered widely in the intertidal zone. The present findings add knowledge about the presence of the bioconstructor in coastal areas and reinforce the role of tube-building polychaetes as ecosystem engineers.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Cañón del Sumidero National Park (PNCS) is a priority area for conservation, but there are few studies on its fauna, which evidences the need for further basic studies to produce adequate knowledge on its biodiversity. This study aimed to determine dung beetle assemblages temporal distribution, trophic preference, and daily activity patterns. We conducted samplings using baited pitfall traps in a PNCS tropical sub deciduous forest remnant, during the dry and rainy seasons between 2014 and 2015. We captured a total of 863 individuals of 20 species, 12 genera, and five tribes of Scarabaeinae. Estimators suggest that we obtained high faunistic representation (> 80%), but species richness is low compared to other regional studies. The community was characterized by a high number of rare species and few dominant species. We captured the greatest richness and abundance during rainy months, however, species composition between seasons did not differ significantly. Trophic preference was mainly generalist and we considered only four species as specialists to tapir dung. We observed a clear segregation between activity hours. Nevertheless, we determined only nine species as specialists (six nocturnal and three diurnal) and two others had generalist habits. The low diversity we found could be influenced by the constant pressure of the urban area and non-native species within the park, which alter the dung beetle assemblages. However, performing samplings for longer periods and using a wider range of resources would help us obtain more robust results and better understand species distribution patterns.
Abstract in English:Abstract Echinoderms are a major group of marine invertebrates that often play integral roles within the marine ecosystem. Studies about their occurrence, abundance, and distribution in Venezuela are focused in the central-eastern coasts; hence the aim of this study is to describe the echinoderm community in the north-western coast of the Gulf of Venezuela. Samples were collected from three sites in the Venezuelan Guajira Peninsula (Castilletes, Porshoure, and Kazuzain) where patchy coral reefs and seagrass meadows are abundant. According to the substrate, two methods were performed using quantitative (1 m2 quadrates), and qualitative free-diving observations. All organisms were counted and identified to the lowest possible taxonomic level; finally, diversity (Shannon diversity index), richness (number of species), and dominance in the different sampled substrates were recorded. The updated list of echinoderms of the Gulf of Venezuela reported in this research, includes 20 genera, 15 families, 10 orders, four classes, and 28 species. The richest class was Ophiuroidea, with 18 species, followed by Asteroidea, Echinoidea and Holothuroidea, with three species each. Castilletes was the sampling site with the higher number of species (18 species), followed by Porshoure (15 species), and lastly Kazuzain (12 species). Our observations indicate that the number of species and abundance were higher when found in coral reefs (21 species, 80.69% of the total collected individuals) in contrast to the species found in seagrass beds (16 species, 19.31% of the total of individuals collected). This updated list of echinoderms represents 11.54% of the total diversity of the phylum in the marine areas from the coast of Venezuela; it is suggested that this percentage is greatly influenced by the differences of habitats and substrates alongside the north-western coast in the Gulf of Venezuela.
Abstract in English:Abstract The mesopleuron of Bethylidae has many structures that are used in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies. The lack of understanding of these structures has generated independent terminologies and a series of confusing terms, hampering effective scientific communication. A morphological study and literature review were made in order to solve these problems. Our study resulted in an anatomic glossary with 49 terms that presented a large number of synonyms and polysemies. The glossary standardizes the terms used in the Bethylidae mesopleuron and in other Hymenoptera groups, which will facilitate hypotheses of primary homology in comparative biology.
Abstract in English:Abstract The third member of the extinct ommatid genus Paraodontomma is reported from mid-Cretaceous Burmese amber. Our observation confirms the transverse ridges on elytra as a diagnostic character for the genus. Paraodontomma leptocristatum sp. nov. differs from previously reported congeners mainly in head subquadrate and without prominent protuberances, pronotal disc without prominent ridges, elytral ridges indistinct, and teeth along elytral margins not forming a wavy pattern. Musculature is preserved in the newly discovered specimen of P. leptocristatum, which further demonstrates the preservation potential and irreplaceable value of amber fossils.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to describe the morphology and morphometry of saggitta otoliths of Polydactylus virginicus, Menticirrhus cuiaranensis and Conodon nobilis in a tropical environment. Fishes were caught with rod and reel in competitive fishing events promoted in 2014-2015 along the coast of Sergipe. A total of 174 pairs of sagitta otoliths of P. virginicus, 181 of M. cuiaranensis and 77 of C. nobilis was extracted. In general, the sagitta otoliths of all three species analyzed here presented different morphology and shape indices. The permutational multivariate analysis of variance (PERMANOVA) demonstrated significant differences among species and ontogenetic phases within each species using morphometry and shape indices. The linear discriminant analysis (LDA) presented a 98.3% correct reclassification of the otoliths by species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Species of Symphrasinae (Neuroptera: Mantispidae) are ectoparasitoids of larvae and pupae of holometabolous insects, primarily of Hymenoptera in their larval stages. Herein we present the third case of an association between the mantidfly genus Anchieta Navás, 1909 with the order Hymenoptera. The hymenopteran species attacked by the as of yet undescribed species of Anchieta is Montezumia dimidiata Saussure, 1852 (Vespidae: Eumeninae), a predacious wasp that constructs mud nests. The association was observed in Peruvian Amazonia (near Tarapoto, San Martín), after rearing the mantidflies from a wasp nest. The biology and mimicry pattern with stingless bees of the reared Anchieta species is discussed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two new species of heptapterid catfish genus Cetopsorhamdia are described from close localities in western Brazil, at Chapada dos Parecis, an area with extremely high level of endemism. One species is from the upper Rio Madeira system, Rondônia State, and the other from the upper Rio Tapajós system, Mato Grosso State. The two species are diagnosed, among several other features, by their markedly distinctive color patterns, with the former having well-defined quadrangular marks in trunk flanks while the latter bearing irregular, vertical bars along the trunk. The monophyly of Cetopsorhamdia is discussed, with two putative synapomorphies being proposed to support the genus. Potentially informative morphological characters to resolve the internal relationships of the genus are presented and discussed. Despite the striking external differences between the two species herein described, they are found to likely form a clade.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three new species of Asphondylia are described from Minas Gerais (Brazil): Asphondylia ingaiensis, A. rufae and A. zeyheriae. They induce galls on Moquiniastrum barrosoae (Asteraceae), Bauhinia rufa (Fabaceae), and Zeyheria montana (Bignoniaceae), respectively, all native to Brazil, being the last endemic. Illustrations of relevant morphological characters are provided. The new species are compared with congeneric Neotropical species. Types are deposited in the Museu Nacional, Entomological Collection.
Abstract in English:Abstract The jaguar Panthera onca and the Brazilian three-banded armadillo Tolypeutes tricinctus are two threatened mammals that coexist in the Caatinga dry forests and the Cerrado savannas of Brazil. Yet, to the best of our knowledge, interactions between these species have not been reported in the literature. Here, we present the first records of P. onca predation on T. tricinctus from two different areas in the Caatinga in northeastern Brazil. We showed that P. onca can pierce the hard carapace of T. tricinctus, which may be possible due to its distinctly strong bite and associated predation behavior. We argue that P. onca may be the most adapted non-human predator to feed on T. tricinctus, and that the smaller body sizes of P. onca individuals in the Caatinga may increase their likelihood to feed on smaller prey, including T. tricinctus. Thus, the originality of our records is probably more related to insufficient research in the areas where these species coexist than to the rarity of this interaction.
Abstract in English:Abstract Vocal plasticity reflects the ability of animals to vary vocalizations according to context (vocal repertoire) as well as to develop vocal convergence (vocal group signature) in the interaction of members in social groups. This feature has been largely reported for oscine, psittacine and trochilid birds, but little has been investigated in birds that present innate vocalization. The smooth-billed ani (Crotophaga ani) is a social bird that lives in groups between two and twenty individuals, and which presents innate vocalization. Here we analyzed the vocal repertoire of this species during group activities, and further investigated the existence of a vocal group signature. The study was conducted in the Southeast of Brazil between May 2017 and April 2018. Two groups of smooth-billed anis were followed, Guararema and Charqueada groups, and their vocalizations were recorded and contextualized as to the performed behavior. The vocal repertoire was analyzed for its composition, context and acoustic variables. The acoustic parameters maximum peak frequency, maximum fundamental frequency, minimum frequency, maximum frequency and duration were analyzed. To verify the vocal signature of the group, we tested whether there was variation in the acoustic parameters between the monitored groups. We recorded ten vocalizations that constituted the vocal repertoire of the Smooth-billed Ani, five of which (“Ahnee”, “Whine”, “Pre-flight”, “Flight” and “Vigil”) were issued by the two groups and five exclusive to the Charqueada group. There were significant differences in the acoustic parameters for “Flight” and “Vigil” vocalizations between the groups, suggesting vocal group signature for these sounds. We established that the Smooth-billed Ani has a diverse vocal repertoire, with variations also occurring between groups of the same population. Moreover, we found evidence of vocal group signature in vocalizations used in the context of cohesion, defense and territory maintenance.
Abstract in English:Abstract Phyllostomid bats (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) are key elements for the maintenance of New World forests, but little information on their distribution is available in some regions of Brazil. Here we use occurrence records and bioclimatic variables to model the distribution of phyllostomid bats in Santa Catarina, a subtropical Brazilian state. Estimates of geographic variation in species richness were then obtained by stacking the generated maps. Lastly, we tested how associated species richness is to ecoregions and Protected Areas. Our results suggest that the phyllostomid bats species richness is closely linked to the region’s climate gradient. Most species are restricted to the Serra do Mar ecoregion, where the temperature is high and varies less throughout the year. In contrast, the colder areas seem to house extremely simple communities, composed of a subset of the species present in the warmer areas. We found significant evidence that Protected Areas in Santa Catarina play an important role in the conservation of species, although there are still several places where species richness is high, but no Protected Area is available. The creation of new Protected Areas in these places can boost the species conservation, and, consequently, the ecological services provided by phyllostomid bats.
Abstract in English:Abstract KellogginaWilliston, 1907 is one of the least studied Blephariceridae genera in the world, despite being the most diverse in the Neotropics with 34 species. We provide a catalogue with the 14 nominal species of the genus described by Lane and d’Andretta from the Southeastern Region of Brazil, of which the type-specimens are deposited at the Diptera Collection of the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo. There are 60 specimens deposited at this museum, including male holotypes of 14 species and females “allotypes” (paratypes) for seven species. We include male diagnoses and photographs of the holotypes of all species.
Abstract in English:Abstract The giant otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is an endangered mammal that occupies aquatic environments, especially in the Amazon Rainforest and Pantanal wetlands in South America. The species uses shelters (dens and campsites), such as burrowed tunnels and tangles of branches and roots along watercourses, where it feeds mainly on fishes. In Espírito Santo Creek (northern portion of the Pantanal wetlands in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil), 60 shelters (45 dens and 15 campsites) were identified and georeferenced during 12 fieldtrips between 2002 and 2003. The density was 1.8 dens/km. The shelters were significantly found in locations with partial (35%) or complete (55%) plant cover. The dens were dug mainly in soil associated with roots located, on average, 4.4 m in distance and 2.4 m in height in relation to the waterline. The campsites had a significantly smaller distance and height compared to the dens. The greater density of dens in the study area underscores the need for conserved environments with little human interference for the protection of giant otter populations. The vegetal coverage of riparian forests and the occurrence of ravines along Espírito Santo Creek offer greater protection to the shelters, hindering the access of predators to the interior of the shelter. Studies integrating biological and ecological knowledge with social participation in areas of occurrence of the giant otter are fundamental to the conservation of the species and its habitat in the Pantanal wetlands of Mato Grosso, Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract Morunasaurus is a genus of Neotropical iguanid lizards of the family Hoplocercidae, inhabiting Central and northwestern South America. Their phylogenetic relationships are not completely clear but being presumably paraphyletic. Its type species, M. groi, is very rare, known only from two single localities and a handful of specimens. Here I report a new occurrence of this species for Colombia, which constitutes the southeastern record to the date, extending the species range by about 175 km and 510 m altitudinally. Additionally, I discuss about the intraspecific differences in coloration between Panamanian and Colombian specimens.
Abstract in English:Abstract Trichodischia Bigot, 1885 is a Neotropical genus with a confusing taxonomic history. This was initially composed of two species: T. caerulea Bigot, 1885 and T. soror Bigot, 1885. Later, the genus TrichoraeaCortés, 1974 was erected for T. caerulea. When reviewing the taxonomic history of both species, we discovered that both genera have been considered synonymous based on erroneous information and without a formal synonymy being proposed. Herein, we redescribed T. soror, provide images of adults and describe the male terminalia for the first time. In addition, by examining the type material, we propose Trichoraea as a junior synonym of Trichodischia, syn. nov., confirm T. caerulea comb. rest. and T. soror as valid species and provide some comments about the taxonomy and host record of the genus.
Abstract in English:Abstract Culicivora caudacuta occurs in the Cerrado, Pampa and Chaco grasslands of Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina and Uruguay. Its breeding biology is poorly known. Here, I present a summary of the published information and new data gathered between 2003 and 2009 in southeast Brazil at Tapira, Minas Gerais. Breeding occurred during the rainy season (October to March), clutch size being three eggs. Juveniles and immatures show a different plumage from the adults, mostly brownish orange. All nests studied at Tapira showed evidence of cooperative breeding, with one helper engaged in incubation and provisioning the young. This is the first observations of this behavior for the species. The species has a wider range than currently understood and its presence in protected areas is similarly more common.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new species of deep-water brachyuran crab, Euphrosynoplax dincao, from southeastern Brazil is described and illustrated. The genus Euphrosynoplax currently consists of two species, E. clausaGuinot, 1969, and E. campechiensisVázquez-Bader & Gracia, 1991, both only known from the Gulf of Mexico. The new species can be easily separated from its northern counterparts by a suite of carapace and appendage characters. Euphrosynoplax campechiensis is recorded for the first time from the Caribbenan Sea (Guadeloupe and between Saint Kitts and Nevis).
Abstract in English:Abstract In the last decade, studies in bird breeding biology have shown that infidelity is prevalent in socially monogamous species. Here, we describe an extra-pair copulation (EPC) event in the Rufous Hornero (Furnarius rufus), a socially monogamous bird with year-round territoriality and low levels of extra-pair paternity. Before the EPC, a within-pair copulation (WPC) occurred inside the pair’s territory. The WPC occurred on the ground and between a banded male (ca. 6 years-old) and an unbanded female. Ten minutes later this breeding pair invaded a neighboring territory, presumably to forage. The territorial male was chased back to its territory by an unbanded male neighbor after being detected. The male neighbor was paired with an unbanded female that did not participate in the aggressive interaction. When flying back to its territory the male neighbor copulated with the territorial female on the ground (ie. EPC). The territorial male flew, vocalized, and perched above the male neighbor, interrupting the EPC. The aggressive interaction then ceased as each pair resumed foraging in their respective territories. These observations suggest that Rufous Horneros can use EPC to obtain immediate benefits (food access in a neighbor’s territory). Moreover, WPC may be detected by neighbors and physical mate guarding and/or frequent WPC may be necessary to prevent EPC in the Rufous Hornero.
Abstract in English:Abstract A first survey of Muscidae in the State of São Paulo (Southeastern Brazil) is presented here with a one-year of Malaise trap collecting from August 2010 to July 2011 at the Biological Reserve Alto da Serra de Paranapiacaba (23°46′00″-23°47′10″S, 46°18′20″-46°20′40″W, 750-891 m of altitude). A total of 1,284 individuals of muscids were collected, and 15 genera and 39 species of Muscidae were identified. So far, only one muscid species had been recorded to the Reserve, which now has its Muscidae diversity increased to 40 species. Thirteen species are new records for the State of São Paulo. With this, the number of species of Muscidae species known to occur in the State of São Paulo is increased to 169. The interval between November and February was higher in number of individuals and number of species. Muscidae presented a seasonal pattern, with more abundance and diversity in that interval. The study area is covered by secondary forest and very close to São Paulo metropolitan area, and the composition of the fauna of Muscidae signalizes this environment changing and anthropic stress with nine species with synanthropic habits, two of them are typically synanthropic species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Atrypanius jauffretisp. nov. is described from Brazil (Pará). Nyssodrys grisellaBates, 1864 (currently, Atrypanius grisellus) is synonymized with Lepturges lineatocollisBates, 1863 (currently, Atrypanius lineatocollis), and the species is recorded for the Brazilian states of Rondônia and Mato Grosso.
Abstract in English:Abstract The high mountain environment is a tough habitat that imposes many challenges to reptiles. As temperature decreases with altitude and has a dramatic variation throughout the day in the tropical mountains, ectotherms must cope with these harsh conditions. We studied the use of microhabitat and activity patterns of Stenocercus trachycephalus in the eastern Andes mountain range of Colombia. Three localities were sampled across the wide altitudinal distribution of this lizard species, in a range from 2,670 to 3,950 m a.s.l. The initial hypothesis was that these natural history traits would change with altitude but instead, we found that they remained roughly consistent, showing the great plasticity of this species. The results support that this lizard is a microhabitat-generalist using principally herb across the gradient, rarely shifting to specific plants or microhabitats such as rocks depending on availability. Regarding the activity pattern, this species was active throughout the day from 8:00 to 16:00 with a similar pattern along the gradient. Nevertheless, some differences were detected across localities. The activity pattern shifted from bimodal in the lower locality to unimodal in the higher ones. As expected, a correlation between temperature and activity patterns was found in one of the study sites. However, this was not the case for the lower and mid-elevation localities, where there was no correlation between these variables. The mid-elevation study site was the most interesting locality as the use of microhabitat relied virtually just on the herb stratum and the activity was constrained to the morning hours. These findings may be the result of the synergic effects of other ecological variables (weather variability, human impact, predation, population structure, or reproductive season). Our study gives the basis for a better understanding of how behavior (microhabitat choice and hours of activity) of ectotherms can help to counter thermal constraints in the neotropics when facing an altitudinal gradient. Further studies should focus on the thermal biology of this species, considering the influence of anthropic impact on these lizards’ populations.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two new species of Anteoninae (Hymenoptera, Chrysidoidea, Dryinidae) are described: Deinodryinus brasiliensis sp. nov., from Brazil (Bahia, Minas Gerais and Paraná) and D. mexicanus sp. nov., from Mexico (Chiapas). Comments on Lonchodryinus tricolorKieffer, 1905 are presented and new geographic records are provided for the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais and Paraná. The key to the females of the Neotropical Deinodryinus is updated, and illustrations and distributional maps are provided for the species studied here.
Abstract in English:Abstract The bat genus Sturnira is widely distributed in the Neotropical region, from northwestern Mexico to northern Argentina, and four species occur in Brazil: Sturnira lilium, Sturnira giannae, Sturnira magna, and Sturnira tildae. The present study is the first to record Sturnira tildae in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, based on morphological and molecular diagnoses. The specimen was identified based on its cranial and morphometric traits. The diagnostic traits include discreetly bilobed inner upper incisors with a broad base, lower first and second molars with lingual cusps separated by shallow grooves, and forearm longer than 45 mm. The molecular sequences of Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (COI) and 16S rRNA genes confirmed the morphological identification and thus the occurrence of Sturnira tildae in the Amazon biome of Maranhão. This record represents an eastward extension of the known distribution of the species in the Amazonia, to Cândido Mendes, Maranhão, within an area dominated by dense rainforest and influenced by tides.
Abstract in English:Abstract This article is a redescription of Pimelodella longipinnis, an enigmatic catfish previously known only from its holotype and with uncertain type locality. The species is redescribed based on recently collected materials from streams of the Mata Atlântica bioregion, in Santos municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. Pimelodella longipinnis is assigned to a putatively monophyletic group, the Pimelodella leptosoma-group, diagnosed by the presence of a supraoccipital process not reaching the anterior nuchal plate, with a gap of ca. 20-25% of the supraoccipital process total length, and whose tip notably surpasses the midpoint of the complex vertebra in dorsal view. We also present a list of fish species described from a shipping sent to the American Museum of Natural History from the former Museu Paulista (now Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo), of which P. longipinnis was part.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Siluriformes, popularly known as catfishes, are probably the vertebrate group with the highest diversity of venomous animals, even though only approximately a hundred venomous catfishes are reported to date. Venomous catfishes might present a delivery system apparatus, formed by an unbranched ray at the leading edge of pectoral and dorsal fins (spine), which can be stiffened and pungent, while venom glands can be present at the surface of such spines and/or the axillary region. This work investigated the presence, morphology and distribution of glands and pectoral-fin delivery apparatus in the heptapterid Brachyrhamdia genus. Pectoral-fin spine external morphology was compared across all valid species in the genus, histological sections of the pectoral-fin spine and axillary regions of B. heteropleura and B. marthae were produced, and dissections of the pectoral girdle region of the mentioned species were analyzed. The histological sections confirmed the presence of pectoral-fin glands at the surface of the pectoral-fin spine of Brachyrhamdia species, and cellular morphology indicates these glands are probably venomous. Also, we found a piriform gland at the axillary region, whose cell morphology is like the reported for other catfishes. However, we cannot currently confirm or deny axillary gland participation in the venom delivery apparatus. This work constitutes the first report of venom glands in Brachyrhamdia, and the first description of Heptapteridae axillary glands.
Abstract in English:Abstract Titanosaurs are one of the most common dinosaurs found in Cretaceous outcrops, especially in Brazil. In this article we describe a proximal portion of an ulna (Paleo-UFG/V-0039) which was found isolated Paleo-UFG/V-0039 comes from a sandstone outcrop, with fine to medium granulation, of the Marília Formation (Bauru Group) that appears irregularly in the municipality of Gurinhatã, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The occurrence described here is the first dinosaur osteological remains documented in this municipality. Although incomplete, Paleo-UFG/V-0039 could be identified as an indeterminate lithostrotian titanosaur whose morphology is similar to some appendicular elements of European species than South American ones. However, the incompleteness of the specimen has difficult complex interpretations. Finally, Paleo-UFG/V-0039 highlights the importance of the Gurinhatã outcrops and other sites in this region for future discoveries.
Abstract in English:Abstract The identification of anuran amphibians is still a challenge in megadiverse assemblages. In the Neotropics, the Atlantic Forest harbors more than 600 anuran species, and many studies in this ecoregion report anuran assemblages surpassing 30 species. Taxonomic keys facilitate the identification of biological diversity, however only a few are available for anuran assemblages in the Atlantic Forest. Herein we present an identification key for 40 anuran species distributed across 20 genera and nine families, occurring in the Environmental Protection Area of Catolé and Fernão Velho, northeastern Atlantic Forest. Thirty-five morphological characteristics were used in the key, all of which can be easily observed in living and museum specimens. This pioneer study provides the first identification key for an amphibian assemblage in the northeastern Atlantic Forest and this baseline information acts as the starting point for the development of evolutionary and ecological research in this conservation unit.
Abstract in English:Abstract Scinax comprises more than 120 species which are split in two clades, the S. ruber and the S. catharinae clades. A few species within the S. catharinae clade occur in gallery forests of the Brazilian Cerrado. We here extend the distribution of S. centralis southwards based on new populations sampled in the banks of the Rio Paranaíba, in the borders of Minas Gerais (MG) and Goiás (GO) states, southeastern Brazil. We also provide further data on the species vocalization. Variation was seen among our population and topotypes regarding SVL and call dominant frequency, both likely representing a clinal variation. Our new population of S. centralis represents the first record of the species for the state of Minas Gerais.
Abstract in English:Abstract The Eleutheronema tetradactylum is a protandrous, hermaphrodite, marine perciformes fish. The body length of this fish acts as an important diagnostic marker for male and female discrimination. The present study describes for the first time the ultrastructural characteristics on the medial surface of the sagitta otolith in different body size groups of males of E. tetradactylum (Polynemidae: Perciformes) using scanning electron microscopy. The sagitta is a spindle-shaped structure that includes a well-developed rostrum and a poorly developed antirostrum. The sulcus is ostio-pseudocaudal type, almost straight and devoid of the collum. The ostium is a well-developed, vase-shaped structure. The cauda includes the colliculum and a well-developed caudal bulb with several distinct growth stripes. The length of the caudal bulb is significantly correlated to the growth of the body size of the fish. The excisura major is indistinct and the excisura minor is absent. The cristae are distinct on both sides of the sulcus. The one-way ANOVA test revealed that the development of several sagitta features shows significant differences in various body size groups of E. tetradactylum. The growth of the sagitta length is more closely related to the fork length than the sagitta width. Therefore, the sagitta length and the caudal bulb length can be used as important predictors to evaluate the fish size. The cauda region of the sagitta in E. tetradactylum is unique as well as more decorative than those of another Polynemidae fish and other hermaphrodite, marine perciformes fishes. The sagitta characteristics of E. tetradactylum might be advantageous in the identification of the sex and the taxonomy of the hermaphrodite fish species.
Abstract in English:Abstract In Honduras, most bat inventories have been carried out with mist nets as the main sampling method, skewing knowledge towards the Phyllostomidae family, therefore the diversity and distribution of insectivorous bats is underrepresented. In order to have a more complete knowledge of the diversity of bats in the municipality of Yuscarán and mainly in the Yuscarán Biological Reserve, an inventory was carried out using the techniques of mist-netting and acoustic monitoring. The samplings were carried out between 910 and 1,827 m.a.s.l., covering agroecosystems, broadleaf forest, pine forest and urban environment. A total of 32 species of bats were registered, which represents 28% of the species diversity present in Honduras. Species belonging to five families were recorded: Emballonuridae (6.25%), Mormoopidae (15.22%), Phyllostomidae (56.25%), Molossidae (9.37%) and Vespertilionidae (12.5%). With the mist nets, a sampling effort of 7,128 m²/h was reached, which allowed the capture of 20 species and 186 individuals. Through the acoustic method, with 84 h/r, 13 species of insectivorous bats were recorded. The values of the acoustic parameters analysed from the search phase of each insectivorous species are provided, which can serve as a reference for the identification of species from Hondurans. To advance our understanding of the distribution patterns, composition, and vocal signatures of insectivore bats, we suggest the complementary use of mist nets and acoustic recorders in the inventories.