Abstract in English:Abstract Ophtalmibidion guttasp. nov. is described from French Guiana. The elytral color pattern of Ophtalmibidion luscumMartins, 1971 is commented on. A key to species of Ophtalmibidion is provided as well as photographs of all species.
Abstract in English:Abstract Popilius gibbosus (Burmeister, 1847) was known only from localities in the Cordillera Oriental of the northern Andes in Colombia and Venezuela and the southern section in Colombia between 1,350-3,000 m. Herein, we provide the first record for Bolivia at low elevations (< 1,000 m), thus extending the geographic and altitudinal range of this species. Information about characters not yet used and the first description of the aedeagus are provided, accompanied with figures of those characters that facilitate the identification of the species. An identification key for Popilius species in Bolivia and a P. gibbosus distribution map are also provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aimed to compare the activity of ants during the rainy and dry seasons in a transitional environment (ecotone) at the interface of Cerrado and Caatinga biomes situated in the state of Piauí, where studies of local ant fauna are still incipient. The research was carried out at Floriano, state of Piauí, Brazil. Ants were sampled during the rainy season in December 2018 and during the dry season in June 2019. Three parallel transects were established at least 100 m apart. At each point, three sampling methods were used, with attractive baits placed on the trees and ground, and pitfall traps on the ground. Thirty-one ant species belonging to 14 genera and five subfamilies were collected, with 27 recorded in the rainy season and 17 in the dry season. The only species reported with the three collection methods and the two seasons was Camponotus crassus Mayr, 1862. Seven ant species sampled in this study are new reports for the state of Piauí. There was a significant difference in the average number of ants and the composition of the assemblages between the rainy and dry seasons. We demonstrate that the activity of ants is influenced by seasonality, corroborating our hypotheses. This is only the second study on ant diversity in the state of Piauí, and more studies are necessary to understand the processes and factors which regulate the activity patterns of ants in ecotonal situations like those observed in this region.
Abstract in English:Abstract We provide an update, based on literature records, on biodiversity and distribution of echinoderms along the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. Sixty-one echinoderms taxa are reported, in 36 families. We present information on habitat distribution, taxonomy and possible threats to these species. The highest number of echinoderm records was between 25°19′S and 28°11′S latitudes, and sites of the Continental Shelf and the Reserva Biológica Marinha of Arvoredo area had the most species records (30 and 26 species, respectively). In addition, Santa Catarina is the southernmost record, in the Atlantic Ocean, for 40 echinoderm species; of these, 10 are on the regional list of endangered species. Eight species are endemic to Brazil and one ophiuroid species was reported herein for the first time at Santa Catarina: Ophiacantha pentacrinus Lütken, 1869.
Abstract in English:Abstract Here we present a three-year survey of amphibian and reptile species registered in the Vale Natural Reserve (VNR), located in the north of Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. The VNR, along with the Sooretama Biological Reserve (SBR) and other surrounding areas, form a forest block that constitutes one of the largest remnants of continuous forest in the Atlantic Forest biome. We systematically sampled the herpetofauna community from 2015 to 2018, using the method of active search method in 27 plots of RAPELD distributed in the different types of vegetation present in the area. We recorded 39 species of amphibians belonging to the order Anura, distributed in seven families and 40 species of reptiles belonging to 20 families distributed in three orders: Crocodylia, Testudines and Squamata. The supplementation the samplings with those records from occasional encounters was important for the survey of the region’s herpetofauna, mainly for reptiles. We added four species (two lizards, one amphisbaenid and one snake) to the known list for the VNR-SBR forest block: Micrablepharus maximiliani, Strobilurus torquatus, Amphisbaena alba and Tantilla sp. We demonstrated that VNR contains a high species richness of amphibians and reptiles, with a high number of anurans being endemic to the Atlantic Forest biome. The present species inventory provided the most current approximation of known the richness and composition of species of the existing herpetofauna at Vale Natural Reserve, since the period of the gathering of records is quite recent (2015-2018). Also, it brings the knowledge of some community parameters as species richness and composition not only for the whole area of the Vale Natural Reserve, but also for its different vegetation types, with no inclusion of environments outside this reserve. Furthermore, the presence of threatened species, the addition of four species to the current list, and the potential for new species to occur, reinforce the role of VNR as an important area for the protection of amphibian and reptile biodiversity in the Atlantic Forest.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new species of LeptophoxoidesBarnard, 1962 is described with material from the continental slope of Rio Grande do Norte state, northeastern Brazil at three different depths: 150, 400 and 2,500 meters. Leptophoxoides longisetae sp. nov. can be diagnosed and distinguished from the other two species of the genus, L. molarisBarnard, 1962 and L. marinaSenna, 2010, by the following characters: antenna 1 peduncular article 1 ventral apex weakly ensiform; maxilla 1 inner plate longer than outer; maxilliped palp article 3 with blunt and extremely protuberant apex; gnathopods 1-2 carpus almost cryptic; gnathopod 2 palm defined by a large and sharply produced palmar hump; pereopod 6 basis posterodistal corner produced as a blunt lobe; and telson with two dorsal long plumose setae on each side. This is the first record of the genus for northeastern Brazilian waters, uncovering a higher biodiversity in deep waters.
Abstract in English:Abstract Shrimp trawling is considered a significant negative impact on the marine ecosystem, especially on the benthic community. Sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) are one of the most affected groups by unintentional catches. This study was performed at the Santana Archipelago, a Marine Protected Area in the northern region of Rio de Janeiro State, between 2008-2009. Sea stars accidentally caught by trawling were collected during open and closed season of the shrimp fisheries (Xiphopenaeus kroyeri) at depths of 5-60 m. A generalized linear zero-inflated model was applied to test for differences in capture between fishing seasons and depths. A total of 158 sea star specimens were captured. These specimens were identified as Asterina stellifera, Astropecten acutiradiatus, Astropecten brasiliensis, Astropecten cingulatus, Luidia alternata alternata, Luidia clathrata, Luidia ludwigi scotti, Luidia senegalensis. The sea stars A. brasiliensis and L. senegalensis are currently considered as vulnerable species in the Brazilian official list of threatened species. The higher capture of sea stars was shown in deepest areas, and there was no significant difference in the number of specimens between seasons. This is the first study about asteroids accidentally captured by shrimp trawling.
Abstract in English:Abstract As most neotropical pipids, the four species of Pipa present in Colombia are poorly understood despite their particular biology. The tegument of these New-World pipids presents particular structures which variations have been hardly analyzed. Therefore, we aim to describe the morphological variations of the dermal flap, barbels, fingertips, and the lateral line pattern among these four species, focusing on changes during the ontogeny. The results of the study show that the dermal flap was exclusively found in P. pipa, while barbels are usually present in P. pipa but seldom in P. snethlageae. The lateral line pattern in the dorsum is shared by the four species, but P. pipa present more neuromast lines along the snout than P. snethlageae. These species were different from P. parva and P. myersi, which cannot be distinguished based on external morphology, as they were more similar in all lateral line elements and exhibited the same fingertip morphology. On the other hand, the fingertips of young individuals of P. pipa and P. snethlageae presented four simple distal lobes which bifurcate twice during the ontogeny, so that adults present sixteen lobes. The difference between species is observed in the fingertip morphology: P. pipa has all four lobes distally placed, but P. snethlageae has one pair more proximal. The tegument structures analyzed here have a taxonomic utility using external morphology for P. pipa and P. snethlageae, but for P. parva and P. myersi additional studies are necessary. For future research, evaluating the function and anatomy of these structures is important to the understanding these integumentary structures in Pipa.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the Attina subtribe the division of labor among workers is based on different tasks performed by morphological subcastes. Considering that cuticular chemical compounds play important roles as protection against water loss and mediates interactions between nestmates, and that studies on the cuticular chemical profile of ants of the genus Atta are still scarce, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between morphological and chemical phenotypes in the subcastes of Atta laevigata (Smith, 1858) workers. The cuticular chemical composition of the different subcastes was assessed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry technique. The compounds found in the cuticle of the different subcastes had carbon chain size between 18 and 31 atoms, with higher content of linear alkanes in workers and soldiers and higher content of branched alkanes in gardeners and generalists, probably related to the type of tasks they perform in their colonies, since some workers perform more intra- or extranidal tasks in relation to others. The results show significant qualitative differences in the cuticular composition of the different subcastes, with a greater relationship between them according to the environmental restrictions that each subcaste is more subjected to due to the role played in the colony.
Abstract in English:Abstract The three new species of Brazilian Euplocania are described and illustrated, two species belong in the amabilis species group (Euplocania maraca sp. nov. and Euplocania ufrr sp. nov.) and one species belong in the marginata species group (Euplocania macuxi sp. nov.). Information on species groups, species subgroups and distribution by Brazilian states is included for known species of Euplocania.
Abstract in English:Abstract Vertebrates, overall, present a daily activity pattern when managing their needs, such as foraging, resting or searching for sexual partners. Most of the available information regarding the circadian rhythm in birds comes from controlled laboratory conditions, and little is known about these patterns in the wild. In this study we used camera traps to describe the daily activity patterns of three cracid species in the Pantanal of Rio Negro, Brazil. We had a sampling effort of 9,617 camera trap-days along 231 days (5,544 hours) from September 2013 to May 2014. This resulted in 4,833 independent records of cracids from a total of 7,713 individuals. Crax fasciolata was the species with the most records (nrec = 3,792) and individuals (nind = 5,781), followed by Ortalis canicollis (nrec = 934; nind = 1,758) and Aburria grayi (nrec = 107; nind = 174). None of the species was uniformly distributed throughout the day, thus evidencing a periodization of their activities. The mean vectors of the activity patterns of C. fasciolata, O. canicollis and A. grayi were, respectively, mμ = 10:36 ± 04:26 (SD), mμ = 11:42 ± 03:57 and mμ = 11:44 ± 03:47. We observed a temporal overlap between A. grayi and O. canicollis, whereas C. fasciolata significantly differed from them. Because of their large home ranges, cracids are important indicators of environmental quality, and, as frugivores, they play key roles in the ecological dynamics of forests. In this sense, and given that cracids are notably more susceptible to extinction, the knowledge on their circadian activity patterns may be useful when establishing effective management and conservation strategies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Despite being the most diverse family of flies found in carcasses and corps in the Neotropical Region, Sarcophagidae is still underestimated in Peru. This research was developed in the Department of Piura, Northern Peru and we identify the flesh flies captured on two kinds of animal carcasses: dog and guinea pigs. As a result, a new record was documented for Peru: Blaesoxipha (Gigantotheca) plinthopyga (Wiedemann, 1830) and eight new records for the Department of Piura.
Abstract in English:Abstract As a result of environmental change by anthropic action, animal species that inhabit these areas may suffer the effects of it on their phenotypes as a consequence of adapting to these conditions. In the case of social wasps, cuticular chemical compounds may be influenced, since these vary depending on genetic and environmental factors. However, few studies have investigated the synanthropic effects over the cuticular surface of social wasps. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate how cuticular compounds vary according to the different degrees of human activity and test the hypothesis that cuticular compounds of social wasps are affected by the level of anthropic activity in which their nests are found. Data on the cuticular chemical compounds composition of colonies of 3 species of social wasps were used along with the level of anthropization of their nesting sites in four municipalities in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. From the geographical coordinates of the sampling sites, the percentages of urban construction areas, agriculture, water body, vegetation and exposed land were calculated, and the nesting sites of the colonies were classified as more or less anthropized areas. The chemical profile was determined by extraction of cuticular compounds and analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the cuticular chemical composition of the individuals of these species is affected by the level of anthropization in their nesting sites, with a qualitative and quantitative variation that must be tied not only to genetic differences, but, above all, to the local environmental conditions to which their colonies are subjected.
Abstract in English:Abstract Roraima is a Brazilian state located in the northern portion of the Amazon basin, with few studies regarding its biodiversity. The Ecological Station of Maracá (Brazil, state of Roraima) harbors the third largest Brazilian pluvial island and is composed of a transitional landscape of savanna and Amazon rainforest components. Despite its ecological importance and strategic localization, few studies covered the dipterofauna of this locality. An updated checklist addressing 41 families of true flies (Diptera) occurring in Roraima is presented based on the literature and the specimens collected during a field expedition that occurred in 2015. This checklist brings several improvements such as new records of 165 taxa to the state of Roraima, 29 taxa to Brazil, and 259 morphotypes, mostly likely representing undescribed species.
Abstract in English:Abstract The types of nominal species of Echinodermata in the collection of the Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo are catalogued: Holothuroidea (19 species - 16 holotypes, 1 paratype and 2 neotypes) and Ophiuroidea (4 species - 1 neotype and 3 paratypes). Photographs of all the type specimens are given. A brief account of the history of the MZUSP’s echinoderm collections is presented.
Abstract in English:Abstract Ecological and life history traits have been used to understand the basic ecology of fishes. This study aimed to examine the existence of plasticity in life history traits of populations of Hollandichthys multifasciatus in ten blackwater streams. This is an inseminating Characidae, endemic to the Atlantic coastal drainages of Brazil. Different aspects of the life-history of the species, such as mean length, sex ratio, absolute and relative fecundity, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, length-weight relationship and the growth parameter (b) of 185 specimens were studied during the period of low precipitation (June-September). Fish samples were obtained along a 100 m stretch of each stream, and some habitat variables recorded. ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests indicated a similarity in most of the analyzed traits, with exception of the mean length of immatures, Gonadosomatic Index of mature males and condition factor of immatures and mature adults. Also, slope tests of the length-weight relationship were significantly different for immatures. The observed differences were attributed to heterogeneity in food availability and/or other site-specific factors, which may influence growth and/or breeding aspects among the studied localities. The approach used herein may improve understanding of trait plasticity under natural conditions, helping to understand fish-community responses to anthropogenic changes.
Abstract in English:Abstract The seasonal forest formations of the Atlantic Forest are a threatened and poorly known habitat. We present here a list of the non-volant mammals occurring in a 515-ha forest fragment known as Santa Maria and located in the Brazilian state of São Paulo. Our surveys are based on live trap captures, camera traps, and active searches for footprints, as well as secondary data. We list 29 species of non-volant mammals in the fragment, recorded between 1996 and 2021. One species found in the fragment, Leontopithecus chrysopygus, is globally endangered. Two species are classified as “vulnerable” in the global red list: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, and Tapirus terresris. One species, Panthera onca, is classified as “critically endangered” in São Paulo state. The red howler, Alouatta guariba, was not recorded after 1999 and has probably been extirpated in the fragment. We show that the number of non-volant mammal species in Santa Maria fragment is high, in relation to its size. The fragment is also in a strategic position, between the Morro do Diabo state park and the Black Lion Tamarin Ecological station, the two largest protected areas in the region. Considering its high mammal richness and its possible role as stepping stone for the local fauna, we recommend that the fragment become a protected area.
Abstract in English:Abstract Although communication capabilities are displayed by many vertebrate groups, some repertoires are poorly known, such as the case of xenarthrans, particularly armadillos, for which vocalization as a source of communicating to others remains poorly understood and relies on punctual reports of sounds. Here we provide the first description of a behavioral response associated with sound emission of two subjects of Dasypus novemcinctus. Both audio and visual registration was performed to subsequent analyses of expressed behaviors and emitted calls, which accounted for 76 vocalizations from a total of eight video recordings randomly collected from 2017 to 2019. Sound is acoustically characterized by both inhale and exhale phases composed of two vocal units, and no harmonic structure was observed. Once the subjects have always produced these vocalizations while cornered and exhibiting defensive behavior against another subject/human disturbance, these vocalizations were termed as distress. Subjects produced a hiss-purr-like sound while trying to avoid contact with another by bowing or lowering their bodies, humping, or even moving elsewhere when sound production ceased. This shows that the sound repertoire of armadillos is still to be unveiled and seems to be much more complex than previously thought.
Abstract in English:Abstract Bats frequently feed over water bodies, but the net value of the water bodies depends on characteristics such as the amount of physical clutter the water body has. More physical clutter may reduce the detection of prey by bats and may also increase energetic costs by increasing in the number of obstacles to avoid. Consequently, we hypothesized that increasing physical clutter affected the use of an artificial pond where the Lesser Bulldog Bat Noctilio albiventris, a Neotropical fishing bat, forages regularly over water. We experimentally tested this idea recording the number of passes and feeding buzzes emitted by the bats on different nights when we added two levels of obstacles over the water and on control nights with no obstacles. We only found differences between the treatment with the highest obstacle density and the control; there were fewer passes and less feeding buzzes with more obstacles. Therefore, the addition of obstacles did affect the foraging behavior of N. albiventris. Furthermore, we suggest that increasing physical clutter, as in our experiments, may be a cost-effective way to reduce conflicts between local fisher farmers and fishing bats in Neotropical rural areas.
Abstract in English:Abstract We report a case of male corpse colonization found inside a residence in the municipality of Areia, Paraíba, Brazil. The body was found in the gaseous stage of decomposition and was colonized by fly larvae. We reared the larvae collected at the crime scene on a temperature-controlled. We supplied beef as a feeding substrate for the larvae until adult emergence to allow taxonomic identification. Three specimens of Peckia (Squamatodes) ingens emerged in the laboratory. Thus, we present the first record of the flesh-fly Peckia (S.) ingens colonizing a human corpse in Neotropical region, updating the list of species with forensic potential. In addition, information on the total time of the species development and the implications of these findings for the consolidation of forensic entomology in the Northeast region were discussed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Acanthoderes crocostigma Bates, 1880 is transferred to AcakyraMartins & Galileo, 1996. Acanthoderes umbrata Bates, 1885 is synonymized with Acanthoderes purulensis Bates, 1885. Variation of the elytral pubescent pattern in Aegomorphus longitarsis (Bates, 1880) is reported, and the species is recorded for the first time from Colombia (Boyacá) and Brazil (Amazonas). The variation of the elytral pubescent pattern in Aegomorphus doctus (Bates, 1880) is reported, and the species is recorded for the first time from the Mexican state of Jalisco. We comment on the type-locality of Aegomorphus borrei (Dugès, 1885). Two new species are described from Mexico (Jalisco): Aegomorphus cunninghami and A. nogueirai.
Abstract in English:Abstract The genus Plega Navás, 1928, belongs to the subfamily Symphrasinae, a group recently transferred from Mantispidae to Rhachiberothidae. This genus is herein reported as parasitoid of the symphytan family Diprionidae for the first time, becoming the first record of association between this neuropteran subfamily and non-aculeate Hymenoptera. This new association was discovered in “Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc”, in the Mexican state of Guerrero, where Plega spinosaArdila et al., 2019 was found associated with immatures of the sawfly Monoctenus cuauhtemoci De Lira, 2021, a pest in forests of Juniperus flaccida Schlechtendal (white cedar). The neuropteran was found to be the most abundant parasitoid of this symphytan, becoming a potential candidate for biological control of phytophagous sawflies in juniper forests, an economically important plant species for the wood industry in the region. Considering the behavior and morphological aspects of the primary larvae and the behavior of the adults of Plega, three possible scenarios in which the primary larvae of P. spinosa board the larvae of Monoctenus to complete its life cycle are outlined. This finding reinforces the hypothesis of a generalist ectoparasitoid lifeway of the larvae of the genus Plega on larvae and pupae of holometabolous insects.
Abstract in English:Abstract In the systematics of cnidarians, the different types of cnidocysts are considered an important taxonomic character. In Hydra, the four types of cnidocysts found in the ectoderm, concentrated in tentacles and their measurements, together with other morphological and reproductive characteristics, are very important for the taxonomy of the species. In this study, we explore in detail the biometric and statistical characteristics of the cnidome of three species of Hydra collected in three different environments for each climate season. A total of 17,378 capsules were measured. We used ANOVA test and Generalized Linear Model to analyze the distribution and differences reflected in each cnidome, considering the factors “individuals”, “season”, “lagoon” and “species”. The results were clear: the cnidome keep specific information that, together with other taxonomic characteristics, allows us to discern between species of different groups. The same happens with cnidome of the same species but from different lagoons or climatic seasons: we observed a variation of parameters for each type of cnidocyst that could differentiate “ecological races”, since these differences are not enough to declare different species.
Abstract in English:Abstract We provide a taxonomic note on Paedarium Aldrich, 1926, with new generic synonyms, Neopaedarium Blanchard, 1943 syn. nov. and Velardemyia Valencia, 1972 syn. nov., and new combinations resulting from these synonyms, Paedarium ica (Valencia, 1972) comb. nov. and Paedarium subauratum (Blanchard, 1943) comb. nov. Paedarium punctipennis Walker, 1857, is considered an unplaced species of Voriini. A redescription of P. subauratum and notes on its biology are given. A key for species of the genus Paedarium is provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract The present study aimed to increase knowledge about the diversity and factors that determine the distribution of galling insects in the Parque Nacional do Itatiaia (PNI), Southeast, Brazil. For this, collections were performed in April, August and November 2015 and March 2016. Seventy gall morphotypes were found in 12 families, 32 genera and 61 species of host plants. The richness of galls did not vary with altitude, but increased with the richness of plants. The families and genera of plants with greater species richness harbored a greater number of galling insects. The number of gall morphotypes was higher in the autumn than in the other seasons. The spatial distribution of galling insects was better explained by factors such as floristic richness and species composition than by ecological effects, represented here by altitude. Regarding seasonality, the results indicate that the way resources are temporarily distributed to galling insects depends on factors such as the active growth of host plants, making some periods of the year more conducive to the development of galls.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mixed flocks are associations of two or more species that are formed and maintained through mutual behavioral responses, with advantages such as maximizing foraging and protecting against predation. This study aimed to evaluate the composition, temporal dynamics, and presence of core species in mixed flocks of birds in a remnant of the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest in the Parque Nacional Aparados da Serra, southern Santa Catarina state, Brazil. Data collection took place from October 2016 to September 2017 through monthly campaigns, consisting of three consecutive observation days, with sampling sessions of six hours per day, resulting in a total effort of 216 h of observations. For each contact with the flocks, we recorded the species and number of individuals, stratum of occurrence, substrates of search, and agonistic interactions. We recorded 152 mixed flocks, with a total of 76 species belonging to 24 families, and five orders, with Thraupidae, Tyrannidae, Furnariidae, and Rhynchocyclidae being the richest. The flocks had an average of 4.5 ± 2.7 species and 8.7 ± 5.8 individuals, with richness and the number of individuals being positively correlated (R² = 0.8). Mixed flocks occurred throughout the year. There was a great variation in the number of contacts from October to February (from 5 to 20 contacts). Meanwhile from March to September, the coldest period of the year in the region, the number of contacts did not vary (from 9 to 14 contacts). However, there was no difference in the number of contacts between these months (z = 0.37; p = 0.691). Basileuterus culicivorus and Habia rubica were the core species because, in addition to their high participation (46.7 and 32.9%, respectively), they showed frequent and conspicuous movement and vocalization. Thus, a high capacity to enlist a greater number of individuals from different species for the flocks was demonstrated.
Abstract in English:Abstract New records for Eupogonius flavocinctus Bates, 1872, E. boteroi Wappes & Santos-Silva, 2020, E. azteca Martins, Santos-Silva & Galileo, 2015, E. subaeneus Bates, 1872, E. guerrerensis Wappes & Santos-Silva, 2020, and E. arizonensis Knull, 1954 are provided. Eupogonius sonorensis Wappes & Santos-Silva, 2020 is synonymized with E. arizonensis. The synonymy between E. pauper LeConte, 1852 and Eupogonius fraxini Knull, 1918 is commented. Two new species are described: Eupogonius rileyi, from Costa Rica; and E. similis, from Guatemala.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study represents an inventory of fish collected in a first order tributary of the Igarapé Piracolina at Chapada dos Parecis, upper Rio Machado drainage, Rio Madeira basin, Vilhena, Rondônia, Brazil. The sampled stream is located in moderate altitudes (570-590) m above sea level and it is the type locality of five recently described species. Through fieldwork carried out in four fieldtrips between 2014 and 2015, 966 specimens were captured belonging to 18 species, distributed in nine families and four orders. Most of these species have a restricted distribution in the upper Rio Machado. Characidae was the most representative family both in number of species and specimens. One species is recognized as new and endemic to the region, and belong to the genus Pyrrhulina (Lebiasinidae), while five other species (Ancistrus verecundus, Bryconops piracolina, Hyphessobrycon lucenorum, Moenkhausia cambacica, and M. parecis) are also possibly endemic to the upper Rio Machado basin. In this scenario, our results provide relevant data for the establishment of guiding policies, management decisions and bases for conservation actions in moderate altitude areas of the Amazon basin.
Abstract in English:Abstract Several phytogeographic regions (Cerrado, Pantanal, Atlantic Forest, Gran Chaco, and Chiquitano Dry Forests) converge in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and influence regional biodiversity. Despite a list of birds in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul being published by Nunes et al. (2017), it is necessary to update and critically review avifauna records. In this study, we gathered the results of several records obtained from species lists and online data platforms of the 336 sites in this state over the last decades and grouped them into Main (Primary and Secondary) and Tertiary Lists. The avifauna of Mato Grosso do Sul is composed of 678 species, of which 643 (95%) have records proving their occurrence (Primary List), whereas 34 still lack documentation (Secondary List). The number of related species for Mato Grosso do Sul represents 34% of the Brazilian avifauna. Some species stand out for their unique occurrence in Mato Grosso do Sul, such as Melanerpes cactorum, Celeus lugubris, Phaethornis subochraceus, and Cantorchilus guarayanus, reflecting the influence of different phytogeographic regions of the Chaco and Chiquitano Dry Forests. Migrants represent 20% of the bird community occurring in the state, of which 93 species correspond to migrants from various regions of South America (south and west) and 40 to boreal migrants. Thirty-three species perform nomadic movements across the Pantanal Plain and other regions of the state. Thirty-one species are included in some conservation-threatened categories of global and/or national endangered species lists. Other 30 species are included in the near-threatened category at the global level and 23 at the national level. In addition, species typical of dry forests (in Serra da Bodoquena and Maciço do Urucum) and those from the Atlantic Forest in the south of the state deserve attention due to their restricted distribution and the high anthropogenic pressure on their habitat.
Abstract in English:Abstract Eurysthea vandenberghei, new species from Nicaragua is described, and E. vandenberghei Santos-Silva, Heffern & Botero, 2021 is considered a nomen nudum.
Abstract in English:Abstract Knowledge of the reproductive biology of Bare-faced Curassows (BFC) from their natural habitats is very limited. Our study covers a two-and-a-half year breeding phenology on BFC in the northern Pantanal (Mato Grosso State, Brazil) with the main objective of collecting information on reproduction biology to contribute to future conservation management strategies of this cracid, which received a recent status of “High Conservation Priority”. The study was conducted at the SESC Pantanal, Baía das Pedras, Mato Grosso, Brazil (16°29′55″S, 56°24′46″W), a private protected area of approximately 4,200 ha. Between July 2015 and December 2017, 37 sampling locations were monitored with camera traps placed in a regular grid with a spacing of 1 km. Offspring were detected at least once at 8 locations, namely, in March, April, and May 2016 and in June, July, October, and November 2017, always together with parent(s). Territorial overlap between different family groups was detected. The camera trap dataset was supplemented by data from Citizen Science Projects (i.e., eBird) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). Based on feather developmental stages and body size, offspring were classified into different age classes. Age determination indicates that breeding occurs year-round in the northern Pantanal region, supported by eBird and GBIF data. The use of a grid-based design for future camera-trapping studies of BFCs is strongly recommended. Our study is of biological relevance for conservation management projects since data were collected in an area with low anthropogenic disturbance and intact ecosystem services.
Abstract in English:Abstract Mammals of the Xenarthra clade show a large number of unusual characters in the skeleton, mainly in the vertebral column. In spite of the importance of the knowledge on the axial skeleton in this group, there are no detailed studies on the morphology of the entire vertebral column. Here we performed a comprehensive study of the vertebral column of Chaetophractus villosus (Desmarest, 1804), a representative of Chlamyphoridae, in order to provide a more reliable comparative framework among armadillos. Morphological description was based on 44 adult postcranial axial skeletons. As a complement to the morphological descriptions of the skeleton we studied the paths followed by blood vessels and nerves in close relationship to the axial skeleton (using 13 fresh adult specimens, six females and seven males, part of the doctoral Thesis of one of the authors). Intraspecific variability in the thoracolumbar number in C. villosus was also evaluated. We identified certain variability in the position of the first vertebral pair that bears a xenarthral facet, ranging from T4-T5 to T6-T7, being T5-T6 and T6-T7 the most frequent positions. The second pair of xenarthrales is set near the thoracolumbar limit, and ranges between T9-T10 and T11-L1 (T10-T11 in most specimens). The variability in the total number of thoracolumbars in C. villosus falls within the range of most mammals and sets controversy about an important morphological feature that groups extant Xenarthra and Afrotheria into the southern placentals (Atlantogenata). In this regard, a more comprehensive study of this character is necessary to elucidate the patterns of distribution of this trait among xenarthrans.
Abstract in English:Abstract Organisms modulate the expression of their behaviours through environmental contexts. Several studies have suggested that the frequencies of social behaviours may differ between captive and free-living primates. In the present study, we compared the social behaviours displayed by captive and free-living groups of the bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus), describing and analysing their social behaviours. We observed through focal animal sampling 59 animals distributed in 10 social groups, analysing 191:45 h of videos of their behaviours. Captivity reduced the frequency of agonistic, but not of affiliative behaviours. Furthermore, neither group size nor sex could explain the overall variability in affiliative behaviour. We conclude that captivity has indeed an important impact only on some aspects of social behaviour, namely, on agonistic behaviours.
Abstract in English:Abstract The northeast Brazilian state of Alagoas harbors a rather diverse, and one of the world’s most threatened, avifauna. However, the knowledge about its avifauna is currently scattered on several publications and the state’s birds have never been comprehensively assembled into a checklist. To fill this shortfall, we present here the first critical review of all available bird records for the state of Alagoas. We present a list of 520 bird species recorded in the state, of which 503 are supported by documentary evidence. We also comment on the distribution, migratory movements, taxonomy and conservation of the region’s avifauna and correct previous misidentified or invalid records for the state.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cacao (Theobroma cacao) and copoazú (T. grandiflorum) agroecosystems represent a common source of income or many small-scale farmers in the Colombian Amazon basin. Most of these systems are set in low disturbance environments; they are considered biodiversity-friendly ecosystems inhabited by several groups of insects. In this study, we carried out a preliminary taxonomic inventory of the microhymenopteran parasitoids present in these agroforestry systems. Twenty-six localities of the Amazonian basin of Colombia were sampled using several insect collecting methods (Malaise trap, sweep net, pitfall, and rearing boxes). Collected specimens were curated and cataloged, establishing the first taxonomic voucher collection of parasitoids from the Colombian Amazon basin. We identified 767 specimens representing 64 species, 274 morphospecies, 143 genera and 20 families, 34 genera and 16 species of these being recorded for the first time in the country. The genus Gbelcia is reported for the first time from the Neotropical region. A new parasitoid-host relationship was found for Horismenus cupreus (Eulophidae) attacking larvae of Phyllocnistis sp. (Lepidoptera, Gracillariidae), which feeds on Annona montana (Annonaceae) leaves.
Abstract in English:Abstract Scinax comprises 129 species of treefrogs divided between the S. ruber and the S. catharinae clades. The S. rostratus group belongs to the S. ruber clade, and comprises ten species characterized by having a dark interorbital triangular mark, tubercle on the heel and by vocalizing in a head-down position. Within this group, S. kennedyi and S. rostratus are similar in that they are the only species that do not possess a row of tubercles on the lower jaw. In spite of their morphological similarity, they can be distinguished from each other by male size and advertisement call traits. Scinax kennedyi was described from eastern Colombia, and occurs from central Colombia to western Venezuela, whereas S. rostratus was described from northern Venezuela, and is thought to occur from Panama to eastern Venezuela, and in the Brazilian state of Pará. A recent study reported a population identified as S. rostratus from the state of Roraima, in northern Brazil. However, this population presented substantial differences in male size and advertisement call in comparison to the described for this species, and apparently it best fits the diagnosis of S. kennedyi instead. In view of this, the present study aimed to clarify the identity of this Brazilian population through a reassessment of its specimens and call recordings, together with the examination of data of S. kennedyi from its type locality, and of S. rostratus from northern Venezuela. Acoustic and morphological analyses revealed that specimens from northern Brazil were indeed misidentified as S. rostratus, and hence they were herein reassigned to S. kennedyi. The study therefore demonstrates the occurrence of S. kennedyi in Brazil, extending its distribution ca. 1,120 km east by south from its type locality, and ca. 844 km east-southeast from its easternmost previous record. With this reassessment, a clearer acoustic diagnosis between S. kennedyi and S. rostratus was provided, as well as further data on fine-scale temporal traits of their calls.
Abstract in English:Abstract The morphology of the first zoeal stage of Pilumnus vinaceus is described and compared with the zoea I of Pilumnus all species in the literature. Two ovigerous females of P. vinaceus were maintained in the aquarium facilities until the larvae hatch. The larvae of each ovigerous female were dissected using a stereoscopic microscope. The zoea I of P. vinaceus has common characteristics among the Pilumnidae as:  antenna of type 2;  maxilliped 1 with 2+2+3+3 setae on the basis and with 3,2,1,2,5 setae in the endopod;  maxilliped 2 with 1+1+1+1 setae on the basis and 1,1,6 setae on the endopod;  telson with furcal rami armed with dorsal and lateral spines. Considering the species of Pilumnus that occur in the western Atlantic, it becomes possible to identify P. vinaceus zoea I by means of the verification of the following characteristics:  pleonites with mediolateral processes;  number of setae on the antennule. It is however, important to consider that there is still a great deficit in the knowledge about the morphology of the larval forms of the species assigned to Pilumnus and we argue in favor of new descriptions to build a more robust dataset on zoeal morphology characters and use it in a phylogenetic context on the genus.
Abstract in English:Abstract The caridean shrimp Tuleariocaris neglecta Chace, 1969, is reported from the Alcatraz Archipelago (24°S, off the coast of southeastern Brazil) in association with the sea urchin Astropyga magnifica Clark, 1934. This finding significantly increases the known range of this species from 20°S to 24°S. An overview of the species in Tuleariocaris with their respective associated host sea urchins is provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Natural resources are depleted in fragmented landscapes that have their vegetation also altered. As a result, the microhabitat diversity and the composition and distribution of local species are affected. In this study, we evaluated the small mammals’ community diversity, composition and microhabitat selection in two Atlantic Forest fragments, in an ecotone area with the Pampa biome, southern Brazil. We recorded five rodents (Akodon montensis, Oligoryzomys nigripes, Sooretamys angouya, Juliomys pictipes and the exotic Rattus rattus) and one marsupial (Didelphis albiventris). Both fragments were dominated by the generalist rodent A. montensis. Akodon montensis and O. nigripes showed similar habitat preferences: ground covered by rocks and higher values of vegetation obstruction. Sooretamys angouya preferred places with higher abundance of trees. Fruit availability was important for A. montensis and D. albiventris, highlighting the importance of this food resource for local wildlife, and the potential role of these species as seed predators and dispersers. Small species richness, the presence of an exotic species and high dominance level suggest that the study area is highly degraded.
Abstract in English:Abstract New records for the species Exallostreptus vanzoliniiHoffman, 1988 and Guaporeptus paradisiusHoffman, 1988, known only from the state of Rondônia, are made from the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Figures of gonopods, first and second leg-pair of males are provided. In addition, an updated list of 19 Spirostreptidae species from Mato Grosso is provided, with the species Plusioporus salvadorii, Trichogonostreptus (Oreastreptus) mattogrossensis, and Urostreptus tampiitauensis widely distributed in the state.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study aims to evaluate the dynamics of fish trophic guilds according to the longitudinal gradient of the Paraguay River, northern Pantanal, Brazil. Three river segments were sampled: plateau, confluence and plain. These segments have different physical and biological characteristics, with high water flow in forest areas in plateau and slow flow in meanders, with Pantanal typical vegetation. In total, 26,542 individuals distributed in 130 fish species were collected. The sampled species were characterized in seven trophic guilds. From the seven trophic guilds identified, only three were statistically related to the type of the environment; herbivores were more abundant in the plateau, piscivores in the confluence, and invertivores in the plain. According to values of corrected Akaike Information Criteria, the environmental variable that best explains the abundance of piscivorous fishes in the segments sampled in the Paraguay River was water transparency. For herbivores, the model that explained the variation in abundance was composed by temperature, altitude and dense forest proportion. The variable altitude best represented the abundance of invertivores. Water transparency, temperature, altitude, river width and dense forest proportion were determining factors for the distribution of piscivorous, herbivorous and invertivorous fishes as a response to an environmental gradient that meets its ecological requirements. Understanding the trophic relationships is fundamental for management actions, contributing to the maintenance of ecosystem services of different species. Therefore, future research must be taken into account regarding management and ecological relationships.
Abstract in English:Abstract In Brazil, the White-backed Stilt Himantopus melanurus is distributed in the midwest, south and southeast but breeding information is scarce. In this study, species breeding information in the country was compiled from online platform (WikiAves, eBird) and literature. A case study describing nests and egg biometry were reported in Restinga of Jurubatiba National Park (RJNP), on the north cost of Rio de Janeiro state, as well potential threats to the species. Sampling was carried out in September and December 2018, monthly in 2019 and between January to March and September to December in 2020. Overall, 70 breeding records were compiled, between 1997 and November 2021, being 64 from WikiAves in all regions of Brazil, four records from eBird in São Paulo state (in 2021) and two records in literature (one from São Paulo state, in 2007 and one from Rio de Janeiro in 2012). In RJNP, 44 nests were identified being 34 active, with an average of 3.5 eggs per nest, and overall 118 eggs were measured. The main materials used to build the nests were the saltmarsh plant and mud. Around 60% of nests were degraded or predated. Predation was the main cause of egg loss. Successful nests (with chicks or hatching signs) represented 26% of the total nests monitored. This study reports the first information on the biometry of the species’ eggs and nests, confirming the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro state as a nesting area for the species.
Abstract in English:Abstract The biology and ecology of wedge-shaped beetles (Coleoptera: Ripiphoridae) are scarcely known in the Neotropical realm. Chilean species of this beetle family are currently represented by two genera: MacrosiagonHentz, 1830 and RipiphorusBosc, 1791, and three species, only known from their type localities. Here, we present an updated catalog of Chilean Ripiphoridae, along with the new distributional and biology records. Also, Macrosiagon flavipennisLeConte, 1866 (Ripiphorinae: Macrosiagonini) has been reported for the first time in Chile. We discuss the reasons for the presence of M. flavipennis in urban areas, the state of knowledge of the endemic species presents in Chile in relation to their distribution and the opportunity to use opportunistic records to better understand their natural history.
Abstract in English:Abstract The first record of the genus Deinodryinus Perkins and the description of a new species Deinodryinus noronhensis sp. nov. from oceanic archipelago of Fernando de Noronha (Brazil) are performed. Additionally, an illustration of the new species and a modified key are presented together with a discussion on the Deinodryinus records for the northeastern region of Brazil.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study focuses on incubation parameters, egg morphometrics, and body mass development, hatching, and behavioral adaptations to heat stress within a colony of freshwater-breeding Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) located in the private nature reserve of Serviço Social do Comércio (SESC) in the northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. Temperatures of nest, eggs, and surface substratum, as well as the development of embryos, were surveyed using thermal imaging, a method allowing digital recording from a distance and in a fraction of the time of traditional measuring techniques. The mean egg dimensions (n = 71) were 4.48 (± 0.13) × 3.27 (± 0.07) cm; the mean mass at hatching was 24.3 (± 1.9) g, with a significant decrease over incubation time. The mean surface temperature of eggs varied from 30.9℃ to 39.7℃, while the sand surface temperature was 20℃ at 06:00 h, rising to 47.7℃ at 11:00 h. There was a significant increase (7%) in egg surface temperature throughout incubation. Incubation-bout durations (n = 2108) were correlated with the microclimatic conditions of the substratum, becoming shorter with increasing sand-surface temperature around midday. Egg hatching lasted one day, and siblings hatched no more than 24 h apart. The mean body mass on Day 1 after hatching was 16.8 (± 1.6) g (n = 6). Three days after hatching, chicks moved to new sand depressions provided by parents near the original nest, where they remained motionless or tried to hide under riparian vegetation. The single chick that fledged had a growth rate of K = 0.117 and a t₁?₀₋₉₀ value of 37.3 days. On Day 7, dorsal pintail feathers and primaries appeared, which were open on Day 15. After 14 days, the chick was able to regulate its body temperature, and no more feeding by parental birds during the daytime was observed. On Day 21, the immature plumage was fully developed. Fledging was completed on Day 27. Our study demonstrates that thermal imaging is a useful method of surveying egg and embryo development in the Black Skimmer, reducing nest disturbance and observation efforts.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three new species from Guatemala are described and illustrated: Ectenessa canoi sp. nov. (Ectenessini), from Petén; Oxycoleus schusteri sp. nov. (Oxycoleini), from Izabal; and Odontocera nigroaurantia sp. nov. (Rhinotragini), from Petén. Distinguishing characters from closely related species are provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract Here we describe a new species of Biancolina from Pernambuco, Brazil, found in association with the brown algae Sargassum spp., between 0.5 and 1.0 m depth. The new species differs from its congeners mainly by the following combination of characters: antenna 1 twice the length of antenna 2, lacinia mobilis present in both mandibles, article 4 of the maxilliped bulbose; coxa 6 with anteroventral lobe well developed as in posteroventral lobe, peduncle of uropod 1 weakly setose, palm of pereopods 5-7 lacking robust seta. This is the first record of Biancolina from the southwestern Atlantic.
Abstract in English:Abstract Two deep water new species of turriforms are described from south Brazilian coast. One of them is the turrid Polystira tupan sp. nov., one of the largest species of the genus (~80 mm), with proper sculpture, shallow anal notch, collected off Santa Catarina, 350 m. The other is a cochlespirid that has been confused with Cochlespira elegans, a north Atlantic species; as it has different sculpture, shape, peripheric spines, etc., a new species, Cochlespira notomaris sp. nov., is introduced, occurring so far from off Santa Catarina to Rio Grande do Sul, 200-1,000 m. For comparative purposes, the holotype of C. elegans is also illustrated.
Abstract in English:Abstract Hemilucilia segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805) is a Neotropical blowfly species of forensic importance, with necrophagous and asynanthropic habits. In this study, the antennal ultrastructure of H. segmentaria was examined using scanning electron microscopy. The three antennal segments are covered by microtrichia. Sensilla chaetica were detected only on the scape and pedicel. Setiferous plaques and a pedicellar button were observed on the pedicel. Four types of sensilla were found on the postpedicel, including s. trichoidea, s. basiconica (subtype I, II and III), s. coeloconica subtype I, and sensory pits with s. coeloconica subtype II. This is the first time that the fine structure of the antennae of H. segmentaria was studied. Our results constitute a solid base for research on comparative and functional morphology in H. segmentaria and other blowflies.
Abstract in English:Abstract Zethus is the most speciose genus among vespid wasps and has become even larger after the inclusion of closely related taxa as subgenera after a morphological phylogenetic analysis. Despite being taxonomically reviewed in the past, the Neotropical diversity of the group demonstrates potential for even further growth. A new species of Zethus (Zethoides) Fox, 1899 is herein described, being the fifth one to be described in this subgenus after the great taxonomic revision of the genus in the New World.
Abstract in English:Abstract The holotype of the Neurostigma xanthopterumNew, 1980 is here illustrated based on photographs. We also describe and illustrate a previously unknown female individual that is assigned to this species. New records for five localities in the Brazilian state of Amazonas, one in the Brazilian state of Acre and another in the Brazilian state of Amapá, are presented. The mouthparts of both sexes are here describe and illustrate. Thirteen types of variation and anomalies in the fore-hindwing veins were found. We found unique patterns in the number and shape of transverse veins in the pterostigma between individuals. We also identified a large variation in the denticles present in the lacinia. Therefore, we suggest these variable characteristics (fore-hindwing veins and lacinia denticles) are not to be used for the diagnosis of species of this genus. A revised diagnosis of N. Xanthopterum is also presented.
Abstract in English:Abstract Three new species and one new genus are described in Apomecynini: Adetaptera setigera sp. nov., from Mexico; Osckayia obrieni sp. nov., from Mexico; and Capaciphrynidius extensus, gen. nov., sp. nov., from Honduras.
Abstract in English:Abstract Sampling gaps across the logistically challenging and extremely biodiverse Amazonia largely hamper our understanding of broad-scale amphibian and reptile diversity patterns in this ecosystem. The Juruá River basin, a southwestern tributary of the Amazon River, is one of these undersampled areas, with only punctual information documented for these vertebrates that are spatially or temporally biased. This is especially the case for the lower-middle courses of the Juruá River, which also has comparatively less protected areas than its upper course. In order to fill some biodiversity knowledge gaps associated with amphibians and reptiles in this river basin, we combined results of our field expeditions carried out in 1992, 2005-2007, and 2018 to the Reserva Extrativista (Extractive Reserve) do Baixo Juruá, a Brazilian protected area in the right bank of the lower Juruá River. Amphibians and reptiles were sampled using four complementary methods: active surveys, pitfall traps, funnel traps, and trammel nets. We identified species or updated their taxonomic status with a reanalysis of the external morphology of the preserved material in the light of novel taxonomic literature (more than 1,500 specimens) and employment of DNA barcoding analyses for some newly collected specimens with contentious taxonomic status. Our combined sampling evidenced 149 species of amphibians and reptiles occurring in this protected area (72 amphibians, 68 squamates, six chelonians, and three crocodilians). Recorded species highlight the value of the lower Juruá River region as harboring quite diverse assemblages for these vertebrates, with species typical of the western and southwestern Amazonia sub-regions. Remarkable species records are presented, as well as accounts on species with lower taxonomic resolution. Furthermore, we discuss the biogeographic affinities of recorded assemblages based on the species geographic range and preferred habitats, and the value of this protected area to preserve the regional biological diversity.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new species of Foxiphalus Barnard, 1979 is described. The material examined was collected as part of the project “Avaliação da biota bentônica e planctônica da Bacia Potiguar e Ceará” (BPOT), off northeastern Brazilian continental slope on the state of Rio Grande do Norte at depths ranging from 135 to 283 meters. Foxiphalus potiguara sp. nov. is recognized among its congeners by: rostrum slightly exceeding the article 2 of antenna 1; lower lip outer lobes with strong shoulder cusps; maxilliped inner plate with two apical robust setae; gnathopod 2 carpus shortened; pereopod 5 basis tapering distally; and epimeral plate 3 posterior margin weakly crenulated. This is the first record of Foxiphalus for the Atlantic Ocean and we provide an amended diagnosis of the genus and an identification key to its world species. In addition, two new records of Phoxocephalidae are reported from northeastern Brazil: Heterophoxus shoemakeri Andrade & Senna, 2020 and Metharpinia dentiurosomaAlonso de Pina, 2003.
Abstract in English:Abstract Marganana DeLong, 1948 currently includes three species known to occur in the United States, Mexico and Guyana. In this paper, we describe a new species from Brazil - Marganana (Declivana) tetramaculata sp. nov. - which represents the first record of this genus for the country. A revised diagnosis of the subgenus Declivana is provided, along with detailed descriptions and illustrations of males and females of the new species. A key to the four species of Marganana is also provided.
Abstract in English:Abstract A catalogue of the Lonchaeidae and Teratomyzidae of Chile is presented. This paper comprises two genera with five species of Lonchaeidae and two genera with two species of Teratomyzidae known from Chile, including information about the name of the taxon, author, year of publication, page number, type species, type depository, type locality, and references. The geographical distributions of each species were determined by examination of bibliographic data and of label data on specimens in collections.
Abstract in English:Abstract Gynandromorphs are individuals that display both male and female features throughout the body and are rarely found in nature. We document and describe two new gynandromorphs of the large carpenter bee Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) augusti reared from a trap-nest in La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In addition, based on a literature review, we assessed the frequency of the different types of gynandromorphs, and the body part affected, among large carpenter bees. Both gynandromorphs were assigned to the mixed category, the most common category reported in the literature (22 of 25 specimens). The remaining three specimens exhibit a bilateral pattern in all tagmata. The presence of both sexes’ secondary sexual characteristics occurred more frequently on the mesosoma than on the head or metasoma. Trap nests used in bee hotels promote the conservation and study of wild bees and might facilitate the discovery of rare cases of gynandromorphs that would remain unknown otherwise under normal nesting conditions in the wild.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) of most terrestrial arthropods primarily serve as a protective barrier against desiccation and infection. Throughout evolution, these compounds have acquired another fundamental function: the exchange of signals during interactions between nestmates. However, even though cuticular hydrocarbons perform a dual function in social insects, little is known about the effect(s) of one function on the other in social insects, and no study has evaluated this relationship in social wasps. Therefore, the present study tests the hypothesis that the level of aggressiveness presented during induced encounters between nestmates of Polybia paulista who were subjected to different conditions temperature is different than between nestmates who remained under the same temperature conditions. If the hypothesis is confirmed, it is likely because the cuticle of the wasps that had been exposed to temperature variation adjusted to these conditions leading them not to recognize the cuticular chemical signature of their colony. To test this hypothesis, workers were exposed to temperature variation in a BOD chamber and then subjected to encounters with workers who were maintained at a constant temperature of 24°C. We also used control groups to evaluate the effect of isolation alone among the groups. According to our results, our hypothesis was confirmed, the level of aggressiveness presented between nestmates who were exposed to temperature variation and those who remained at 24°C was significantly higher than the levels of aggressiveness presented between nestmates who remained isolated but under constant temperature during the same period, in some cases, it was similar to the aggressiveness presented in encounters between wasps from different colonies. During these encounters, wasps performed alarm behavior, bites, and stings not seen during encounters between wasps that remained under the same temperature, but in isolated groups. The lack of aggressive behavior under isolated conditions indicates that isolation had no effect on chemical recognition signature. These results suggest that temperature variation may have caused some change in the cues that allow recognition between nestmates. On the other hand, these results were not caused by isolation or stress generated by the study design and difference in the CHC profile of workers, as described in the literature, is consistent with our results.
Abstract in English:Abstract A new species of the recently described genus Habeas is described. The genus is the single urocoptid representant in Brazil. The new species is named as Habeas centroris, occurring in Paz de Salobro, Canarana, Bahia, Brazil. It is mainly characterized by its dense, delicate sculpture, peristome slightly centrally positioned. Its anatomy is similar to what is currently known, differing mainly by small pallial gland, short stomach, presence of anterior duct to digestive gland, vas deferens very posteriorly originated, prostate lying further the vas deferens origin, and visceral ganglia connected directly to pleural ganglia. The new species is another example of how weak the knowledge on the land mollusks in central Brazilian semi-dry region is, a biome that deserves protection.
Abstract in English:Abstract Only 8% of the approximately 120 conservation units in Minas Gerais State collect information on the order Odonata, which motivated this study. We aimed to survey communities of this insect group in the Environmental Protection Area of the Machado River hydrographic basin, southern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. For this purpose, 12 areas were sampled by active searching from September 2018 to March 2019. Representatives of 71 Odonata species belonging to 8 families were collected. Seven species were found exclusively in this conservation unit, and two species were newly recorded for the state, namely Erythrodiplax chromoptera (Borror, 1942) and Micrathyria venezuelae De Marmels, 1989. This study surveyed the fifth richest odonatofauna in Minas Gerais State, underscoring the importance of the studied area for conservation of Odonata communities and necessitating actions for decreasing environmental impacts on this biological patrimony.
Abstract in English:Abstract Lopesia pleromatis sp. nov. (Lopesiini, Cecidomyiidi) is described based on material collected in Atlantic Forest areas of Bertioga (São Paulo State, Brazil). Specimens were obtained from globoid leaf galls on Pleroma raddianum (DC.) Gardner (Melastomataceae), an endemic plant to Brazil. Lopesia pleromatis is compared to other congeneric species. The most important morphological characters are illustrated.
Abstract in English:Abstract Heterobranch sea slugs (Gastropoda) present reduction, internalization, or absence of shell, and include more than 6,000 described species. Approximately 250 species are recorded from Brazil but only 14 had been previously recorded from Rio Grande do Norte, on the Brazilian northeastern coast. As a result of different expeditions conducted between 2008 and 2020, 41 species were collected and identified. Among them, five species were recorded for the first time from the South Atlantic Ocean: Chelidonura hirundinina (Quoy & Gaimard, 1833); Sclerodoris prea (Ev. Marcus & Er. Marcus, 1967); Thuridilla malaquita Ortea & Buske, 2014; Berthella nebula Ghanimi, Schrödl, Goddard, Ballesteros, Gosliner & Valdés, 2020 and Berthella vialactea Ghanimi, Schrödl, Goddard, Ballesteros, Gosliner & Valdés, 2020. Thirty-six species are recorded for the first time from Rio Grande do Norte. The present survey expands the knowledge of the diversity of sea slugs from Brazil and supports the hypothesis of similarity between the heterobranch sea slug fauna from the northeastern Brazil and the Caribbean Sea.
Abstract in English:Abstract The study provides the first record of Eumops glaucinus in the Maranhão state, located in the northern region of Brazil. The collected specimen was a non-lactating adult female, with grayish pelage, broad ears, smooth face, a well-developed and squarish tragus, and elongated snout. The combined analysis of the morphological and molecular data (COI, Cyt b, and rRNA 16S genes) confirmed the occurrence of E. glaucinus in the state of Maranhão. This record extends the known species range area by 660 km easternward from the closest locality, Belém, Pará.
Abstract in English:Abstract Caves are habitats characterized by low light or total darkness, whose fauna is largely composed of animals that adapt to dark environments, such as bats and many arthropods. Here, we present the first record of bat carcass colonization by Diptera larvae in a cave in the Neotropics. Twenty-one adult specimens of Microcerella halli (Sarcophagidae), seven males and 14 females, emerged from larvae collected in a carcass of Pteronotus gymnonotus (Mormoopidae) found in a twilight zone, about 15 m from the cave entrance. The mean time between carcass collection and adult emergence was 17.99 ± 0.44 days. As colonization by M. halli only occurs after death, we estimated the mean duration of the pupal stage - by recording daily pupation and emergence data - and attempted a preliminary estimate of the post-mortem interval, which indicated that larviposition occurred at least 24 h before carcass collection. Furthermore, we discussed the fact that M. halli females can find and colonize carcasses in low light environments, reinforcing the forensic potential of the species.
Abstract in English:Abstract An anatomical and taxonomic study of Megalobulimus oblongus (Müller, 1774) and M. conicus (Bequaert, 1948) (Strophocheilidae, Megalobuliminae) is carried out, based mainly on samples from the south-central region of Bahia, Brazil. It revealed interesting anatomical differences in several structures, mainly in the pallial cavity, with greater ramification of vessels in the respiratory region of M. oblongus when compared to M. conicus; and in the genital system of M. conicus, which has a more elongated prostate, and the folds of the penis are more spaced. A taxonomical discussion is presented, including several characters confirmed as typical of the genus and subfamily, such as buccal flange, prerectal valve and pulmonary septum.
Abstract in English:Abstract An updated checklist of the genus Eumerus Meigen, 1822 is presented from Pakistan along with two new country records, i.e., Eumerus vestitus Bezzi, 1912 and Eumerus sogdianus Stackelberg, 1952. Eumerus sogdianus is native to Central and Southern Europe, but recorded from east to Central and Southern Asia, and Eumerus vestitus is native to the Afrotropical region, but recently also recorded from India. Both species are collected from northern areas of Pakistan - the extreme edge of the western Himalayas, where a significant diversity of hoverflies has been reported in recent studies. A brief diagnosis, identification key, and a taxonomic remark on known Pakistani Eumerus species are presented. A distribution map and detailed photographs of the newly recorded species are also presented.
Abstract in English:Abstract The taxonomic status and anatomy of Leiosolenus (Labis) patagonicus (d’Orbigny, 1846 in 1834-1847) has been revised. This boring bivalve, belonging to the family Mytilidae, is the only Lithophaginae species distributed along the Argentinean coast. None of the fossil species mentioned for this area must be considered as a synonym of d’Orbigny´s species. Leiosolenus patagonicus is characterized by a thin shell, longitudinally elongated, with subterminal umbos and commarginal striae. The calcareous depositions on the outer surface of the shell are extended beyond the posterior margin. This species has well developed purple siphons, well differentiated morphologically from each other. Incurrent siphon is wider than excurrent, opened at the ventral edge and provided with a basal siphon valve at the base. Two pairs of demibranchs type B (1) from Atkins were observed. The shell characters and internal morphology were compared with other related species of the genus living along the South American coast. Finally, repository, type locality and habitat conditions were informed.
Abstract in English:Abstract An adult female of Pelecorhynchus kroeberi (Lindner, 1925) is newly recollected after more than 100 years and it is herein redescribed, including, for the first time, illustrations of genitalia. The specimen was collected in the Región de Aysén, Provincia de Aysén (46°40′11.9″S, 74°00′54.0″W), in the extreme south of Chile, and the specimen is deposited in the Entomological Collection of Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile.
Abstract in English:Abstract Xenocona Gilmour, 1960 (Acanthocinini) includes seven species distributed through Central America and northern South America. Here we describe two new species from Ecuador: X. audureaui (differing from other species of the genus by the presence of large dark macula on dorsal surface of the basal ⅔ of the elytra combined with the absence of narrow white pubescent lines on other areas of the elytra) and X. uniformis (differing from the other species of the genus by the spiniform outer elytral angle).
Abstract in English:Abstract The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the most threatened tropical forests in the world due to the extensive environmental impact it has endured throughout history. Only 12.4% of its original vegetation is estimated to remain. Even though reduced and highly fragmented, it houses enormous biodiversity, and its preservation is paramount to the maintenance of the country’s fauna, flora, funga and microbiota. One of the most efficient measures adopted by public agencies aimed at protecting biodiversity has been the creation of conservation units. To evaluate the preservation state of protected areas, several environmental studies have been performed; species inventories are one among them. Ants are excellent bioindicators, for they are not only sensitive to environmental changes, but they also have a history of being used in impact assessment (i.e., fragmentation). In this study we assessed the ant communities inhabiting the leaf litter in areas with different regeneration states at the RPPN Botujuru - Serra do Itapety (Mogi das Cruzes, São Paulo - Brazil). Mini-Winkler traps were used in the ant survey, and diversity analyses were performed. In total, we recorded 86 species of ants, with a highlight to Camponotus cillae Forel, 1912, a species that remained unrecorded for the state of São Paulo for over 100 years, and a possible new species of Octostruma Forel, 1912. Overall, the species found show that the areas are in the process of natural regeneration. Our data on RPPN Botujuru is unprecedented, and our species list has the potential of being used as an effective monitoring tool for this conservation unit.
Abstract in English:Abstract A taxonomic revision is presented of the genus Paracanthopoma, probably the least-known vandelliine genus at present. The work is based on most of the material available in museums worldwide and includes a major expansion in the knowledge about the genus. Paracanthopoma is circumscribed as a monophyletic group on the basis of nine putatively synapomorphic characters. Evidence is provided for Paracanthopoma and Paravandellia as sister groups and the two genera are comparatively diagnosed. A total of 13 species are recognized in Paracanthopoma, of which nine are new and one is transferred from Paravandellia: Pc. ahriman, new species, Pc. alleynei (Henschel et al., 2021), Pc. carrapata, new species, Pc. cangussu Henschel et al., 2021, Pc. capeta, new species, Pc. daemon, new species, Pc. irritans, new species, Pc. malevola, new species, Pc. parva Giltay, 1935, Pc. saci Dagosta & de Pinna, 2021, Pc. satanica, new species, Pc. truculenta, new species, and Pc. vampyra, new species. The holotype and paratype of Pc. alleynei are found to belong to two different species. The various taxa in Paracanthopoma display a high degree of phenotypic divergence and are diagnosed on the basis of traditional as well as new morphological characters of both external and internal anatomy. Geographical distributions are mapped for each species and an identification key is provided. Preliminary evidence suggests the existence of four main subclades within Paracanthopoma. The first one includes Pc. ahriman, Pc. cangussu, and Pc. irritans. A second subclade comprises Pc. carrapata, Pc. daemon, Pc. parva, and Pc. truculenta. A third clade includes Pc. malevola and Pc. satanica and a fourth comprises Pc. alleynei and Pc. vampyra. The last clade lacks some putative synapomorphies of all other members of Paracanthopoma and seems to be the sister group to the rest of the genus. Relationships of Pc. capeta and Pc. saci are not as clear, but some evidence exists for the former being related to the first subclade and the latter to the second subclade.