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Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, Volume: 20, Publicado: 2020
  • Survey of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Brazilian Dentists Regarding Silver Diamine Fluoride ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Vollú, Ana Lúcia; Moreira, Jessica Pronestino de Lima; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Barja-Fidalgo, Fernanda; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andrea

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: Current acceptability, barriers to use, and clinical/teaching practices of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) among Brazilian dentists were investigated. Material and Methods: A Google forms questionnaire was sent to dentists (n=10,500) to collect information about the use of SDF and the dentists' workplace, experience, specialty, and city of practice. A logistic regression model was performed. Results: From 409 respondents, 13.2% used SDF. Working at universities increased the use of SDF by 2.29 times (p=0.018) compared to private offices. Each training year, the chance of SDF usage increased by 3% (p=0.008). Pediatric dentists are more likely to use SDF (OR=6.76, p<0.001). There is no association between SDF usage and the city of practice. The majority (75.9%) indicated SDF for noncompliant patients. Dentists (75.9%) reported the exclusive use in deciduous teeth, while 24.1% also use in permanent teeth. The main barrier for non-users was a lack of knowledge (58.3%), while for users, tooth staining (90.7%) and parental acceptance (64.8%) were the complaints. Conclusion: The Silver Diamine Fluoride is not a common product used by the dentists from RJ. Its clinical applicability should be further disseminated; thus, lack of scientific knowledge would cease to be a problem in the use of SDF to arrest caries lesions.
  • Agreement Between Working Length Measurements in Primary Teeth Obtained by Radiographs or Apical Locators ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Brum, Ingrid Caroline Silva; Maia, Caroline Andrade; Diniz, Marlon Vinícius Tramujas; Fernandes, Alexandre Moreira; Fernandes, Maria Luiza da Matta Felisberto

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To perform an in vivo evaluation on the agreement between measurements of working length obtained by conventional radiographic examinations and an apex locator in deciduous teeth with or without root resorption. Material and Methods: Nine canals of teeth from children ranging from 3 to 5 years old were selected. Endodontic access was performed with a spherical diamond tip, the pulp was removed with Kerr-type steel files, and the canal was irrigated with 1% sodium hypochlorite. A file, compatible with the channel gauge, was then used to measure the length of the root canal with the apex locator. Conventional radiographs were also performed and, using a millimeter endodontic ruler, the length of the canal was determined. The differences between the measurements obtained between the two methods were analyzed using the Student's t-test. Results: The mean canal length for conventional radiography was 9.83 mm and 9.67 mm for the apex locator. The results of this study did not show significant differences (p=0.641), independent of the presence or absence of physiological root resorption. Conclusion: The similarity in measurements obtained with X-ray or an apex locator indicates that it is not necessary to use X-rays as a complement to obtain the working length. The use of the apex locator can provide a quicker treatment, reducing the clinical time and stress of the child.
  • Association of Dental Anxiety with Psychosocial Characteristics among Children Aged 7-13 Years ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Cademartori, Mariana Gonzalez; Rosa, Denise Paiva da; Brancher, Letícia Coutinho; Costa, Vanessa Polina Pereira; Goettems, Marília Leão

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To identify psychosocial characteristics associated with dental anxiety in children aged 7-13 years in the dental setting. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with children aged 7-13 years attended at the Dentistry School of Pelotas, Brazil. Data collection was based on a questionnaire administered to mothers and children, and the behavior of children during dental treatment was evaluated using the Frankl’ Scale. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests in order to analyze the association between independent variables and dental anxiety. The effect of variables on the outcome was assessed by the Poisson regression model with robust variance (Prevalence Ratio; 95% Confidence interval). Results: A total of 187 children were included. Dental anxiety prevalence was 40.11%. After adjustments, younger children (p=0.046), only child (p=0.019), and children with negative previous dental experience (p=0.046) showed higher dental anxiety prevalence. Children with uncooperative behavior in previous (p=0.033) and current (p≤0.001) dental appointments showed higher dental anxiety prevalence. Conclusion: In this sample of children treated at a dentistry school, a report of dental anxiety was associated with age, birth order, previous dental experience and behavior in dental settings.
  • Physiological and Behavioral Manifestations of Children and Teenagers with Down Syndrome During the Dental Appointment: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Silva, Aryvelto Miranda; Nogueira, Básia Rabelo; Leal, Thalles Anthony Chaves; Prado, Raimundo Rosendo; Mendes, Regina Ferraz

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To measure the heart rate (HR) and the behavior of children and teenagers with Down Syndrome (DS) during the dental appointment. Material and Methods: Two groups (n = 52), of both genders, aged 2-14 years, matched by age group were formed: study group (SG) - individuals with DS and control group (CG) - normotypical school children. The participants were submitted to clinical examination and prophylaxis. An oximeter was used to measure the HR at five moments of the dental consultation: before entering the practice room (T0), when sitting in the dental chair (T1), during the clinical examination (T2), during prophylaxis (T3) and immediately after prophylaxis (T4). Behavior, classified according to the Frankl Scale, was observed at T3. Mann Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, Dunn and Pearson's Chi-square tests were used to analyze and compare variables (significance level at 5%). Results: In SG, a significant difference in HR was observed according to the moment of dental appointment (p<0.001 SG; 0.3385 CG). The highest HR value in SG was observed at T3 (median 110.00; IIQ 96.00-124.00), the only moment significantly different (p<0.001) from HR values for CG. A difference in behavior between groups (p<0.001) was also observed. Conclusion: HR of individuals with DS varied throughout the dental appointment, and they also had a higher prevalence of uncooperative behavior.
  • The Role of Mother’s Knowledge, Attitudes, Practices in Dental Caries on Vulnerably Preschool Children ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Luz, Patrícia Blaya; Pereira, Joanna Tatith; Knorst, Jessica Klöckner; Bonfadini, Inaiá; Piva, Fabiane; Scapinello, Monique; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Araújo, Fernando Borba de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the association between Early Childhood Caries (ECC) and mother´s knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP). Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included a random sample of 163 preschool children aged 3-4 old in southern Brazil. The severity of dental caries and ECC was assessed by ICDAS criteria, while mothers completed the semi-structured questionnaire (KAP-ECC). Maternal behavior characteristics and answered questions about socioeconomic and demographic variables. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of exploratory variables with ECC. For this approach, we calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% IC). Results: Dental examinations revealed that 91.4% of children presented ECC (ICDAS = 3, 4, 5 or 6). Among those children, 31.9% presented cavities (ICDAS ≥ 3). Family income was significantly associated with the presence of ECC (OR 2.17; 95% CI: 1.41-3.36). Regarding KAP-ECC, mothers have knowledge related to ECC etiology, reported dental hygiene attitudes and practices that can prevent ECC but reported less healthy attitudes and practices regarding child’s diet, specifically with respect to bottle and breastfeeding habits (OR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.33-0.81). Conclusion: ECC was more frequent in children from low-income families and whose mothers reported the belief that milk with chocolate does not contribute to caries and that disagreed that it is normal that a 2-year-old baby wakes up during the night to suckle. That is, good knowledge toward health habits may impact on lower occurrence of ECC; however, this condition also depends on the socioeconomic level.
  • Clinical Consequences of Untreated Dental Caries among Primary School Children: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Gudipaneni, Ravi Kumar; Patil, Santosh R.; Ganji, Kiran; Yadiki, Josna Vinutha; Assiry, Ali; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the dental caries experience and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries (UDC) among primary school children of Al Jouf region, Saudi Arabia and to determine the correlation between dental caries experience and clinical consequences of UDC. Material and Methods: A 250 primary school children 6-7 years were recruited using systematic random sampling. The prevalence of dental caries in deciduous dentition was assessed by following WHO criteria using the dmft index and the clinical consequence of UDC was assessed with the pufa index. The pufa score was calculated cumulatively following the pufa diagnostic criteria. The Student’s t-test was used to equate the mean dmft and pufa scores between boys and girls. The correlation between the dmft and the pufa scores was evaluated using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r), and the p-value was set at 0.05 for statistical significance. Results: Out of which 154 (61.60%) boys and 94 (37.60%) were girls. The mean (SD) values of dmft for boys reported to be 5.37 (± 3.31) and for girls 6.35 (± 3.27), which was statistically significant with gender (p<0.001). Statistically, significant mean values of pufa were 1.20 (± 1.37) in boys and 1.71 (± 1.58) in girls, respectively was observed (p<0.001). The Pearson correlation between dmft and pufa values showed a highly significant positive correlation among dmft and pufa values (r= 0.635, p<0.001). Conclusion: The present study revealed that high caries prevalence and experience of the clinical consequences of UDC in the primary dentition, and there was a strong positive correlation between dmft and pufa score values.
  • Assessment of Caries Spectrum of First Permanent Molars in 7- to 8-Year-Old School Children in Northern Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Gudipaneni, Ravi Kumar; Alkuwaykibi, Ahmed Saud; Patil, Santosh R.; Assiry, Ali; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Vundavalli, Sudhakar

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To estimate caries spectrum in first permanent molars (FPMs) of 7- to 8-year-old children in Saudi Arabia using Caries Assessment Spectrum and Treatment (CAST) index, and examine the correlation between distributions of CAST codes among contralateral and opposite arches. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted of 7- to 8-year-old Saudi school children in Sakaka, Aljouf, Saudi Arabia. A total of 385 children were examined. CAST codes were determined for FPMs, and their distribution was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Statistical significance was set as p<0.05. Intra-examiner reliability was determined using the unweighted kappa coefficient. Results: The results indicated most of the FPMs were scored as code 3 (enamel lesions) such as upper contralateral FPM 44.40% for right, 53.50% for left, respectively, and lower contralateral molars were 61.30% for right and 64.90% for left, respectively. It was also observed that upper FPMs had scored code 0 (sound teeth) more than that of lower FPMs. Serious morbidity (codes 6 and 7) and mortality (code 8) showed a low prevalence in FPMs. Strong correlations were observed between upper contralateral FPMs (r=0.586) and lower contralateral FPMs (r=0.567, p<0.001). Conclusion: A high prevalence of enamel caries lesions (code 3) was observed in FPMs; in addition, a strong correlation was present between upper contralateral FPMs and between lower contralateral FPMs.
  • Topography and Microhardness Changes of Nanofilled Resin Composite Restorations Submitted to Different Finishing and Polishing Systems and Erosive Challenge ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Canto, Fernanda Michel Tavares; Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Magno, Marcela Baraúna; Silva, Eduardo Moreira da; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the topography and microhardness of composite resin restorations submitted to different finishing and polishing systems before and after erosive challenge. Material and Methods: Thirty standardized cavities prepared in enamel-dentin blocks of bovine incisors were restored with Z350 composite resin, and randomly distributed into three groups (n=10) according to the finishing and polishing systems: G1 = Soflex 4 steps, G2 = Soflex Spiral 2 steps and G3 = PoGo (single step). The specimens were half protected with nail varnish and submitted to five immersions in Pepsi Twist®, for 10 minutes each, five times/day during six consecutive days. The initial and final challenge surface microhardness (SMHinitial and SMHfinal) of the composite resin was evaluated and the percentage of SMH loss (%SMHL) was calculated. After protection removal, the topographic change linear (Ra) and volumetric (Sa) roughness was evaluated in initial and final areas by using 3D non-contact optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed by paired Student's t-test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and by ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: There was significant intra-group %SMHL in composite resin (p<0.05). Differences among groups in %SMHL, Ra/Sa in resin composite were not observed (p>0.05). SEM images revealed structural changes between the initial and final surfaces for all groups. Conclusion: The three types of finishing and polishing systems had a similar influence on %SMHL, Ra and Sa in the nanofilled composite resin.
  • Accuracy of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in the Assessment of Mandibular Molar Furcation Defects ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Alzwiri, Abdalwhab; Ismail, Hesham Shokry; Patil, Santosh R.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in the assessment of mandibular molar furcation defects. Material and Methods: Thirty patients with furcation defects were selected, oral hygiene instructions, scaling, and root planing with ultrasonic devices and hand instruments and occlusal adjustments were performed. Pre-surgical clinical measurements were carried out at the buccal aspect of the selected mandibular molars. The horizontal furcation measurements were measured with a Nabers Probe starting at the furcation entrance to the greatest horizontal depth. The degree of furcation involvement was graded from 0 to III. Bone loss in the horizontal and vertical direction and the width of the furcation entrance were measured on CBCT and after reflecting the full-thickness flap and debridement of the defects. The data were analyzed using t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The width of furcation entrance in clinical method was 3.27 ± 0.77, while in CBCT method was 3.35 ± 0.71, clinically the vertical bone loss was 3.61±1.09, while in CBCT was 3.57 ± 1.15, horizontal bone loss in clinical method was 5.08 ± 2.21, while in CBCT was 5.11 ± 2.23. No significant difference between the two methods was noted, and a high correlation between the two methods was observed. With regards to the agreement between the two methods of assessment, the width of furcation entrance revealed a difference between the two methods by 0.08 ± 0.21, while vertical bone loss showed difference between the two methods by -0.04 ± 0.19, the horizontal bone loss showed a mean difference between the two methods by 0.03 ± 0.21. Conclusion: CBCT provided high accuracy for the furcation involvement detection and anatomy of surrounding periodontal tissues.
  • Assessment of Maximum Bite Force in Oral Submucous Fibrosis Patients: A Preliminary Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Patil, Santosh Rayagouda; Maragathavalli, G.; Ramesh, D. N. S. V.; Vargheese, Sheeja; Al-Zoubi, Ibrahim A.; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the maximum bite force (MBF) in oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) patients and to compare them with that of healthy subjects. Material and Methods: Twenty patients who were clinically confirmed, as OSMF and 20 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and number of intact functional teeth were included in this study. For each subject, age, gender, weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were recorded. The MBF registration was carried out by the two evaluators, who were previously calibrated. Bite force was measured in the first molar region using a force transducer occlusal force meter for each subject seated at the upright position, with Frankfort's plane nearly parallel to the floor, and no head support. The Student’s independent t-test was used to determine the statistical significance in relation to mean height, weight, BMI and the presence of number of intact teeth and MBF between the healthy subjects and OSMF individuals. A comparison of grades of OSMF with all variables was carried out by one-way ANOVA test. Results: No significant difference was found in mean age, mean height, weight, BMI and the presence of the number of intact teeth between healthy individuals and OSMF patients. The mean MBF in healthy subjects was 628.23 ± 24.39 N and 635.47 ± 31.22 N in OSMF patients. Even though the healthy subjects reported a higher MBF than OSMF patients did, the difference was statistically non-significant. With regards to sides, no significant difference was observed in mean MBF in healthy subjects and OSMF patients on the right (p=0.7818) and left side (p=0.6154). Conclusion: The healthy subjects reported higher MBF values than OSMF patients did and the difference was statistically non-significant.
  • Impacts of Toothache on Daily Activities of Children Aged 5 to 9 Years in Kerman, Iran ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Kalantary, Mahsa; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Ahmadbeighi, Mahbobeh; Bafti, Leila Shafie; Nassab, Amir Reza Gandjalikhan

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the impacts of toothache on the daily activities of children aged 5 to 9 years. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted among 465 children (220 boys and 245 girls) aged between 5-9 years, using the Child Dental Pain Questionnaire (Child-DPQ), in the city of Kerman. They were categorized into two groups based on the clinical status: (1) untreated dental caries and (2) no dental caries or treated dental caries. For data analysis, the Chi-square, Mann-Whitney test, multiple logistic regressions, Spearman’s correlation coefficient and t-test were used. Results: Regarding the severity of pain, about 28.3% reported mild pain, 30.1% moderate pain, and 21.9% very severe pain. The prevalence of reported dental pain increased by increasing the number of reported dental visits and more strongly among those having dmft>1. Toothache in children caused to stop eating (73.3%) and to sleep (63.8.1%) and provoked a dental visit in more than 40%. Conclusion: The toothache stopped many children eating and sleeping and provoked a dental visit in more than 40%. Among the children under study, 55.9% had to miss school.
  • Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Regarding Pertussis among a Public University Students in Malaysia ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Basir, Nur Amalina Binti Abdul; Rahman, Nor Azlina A.; Haque, Mainul

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To study the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) regarding pertussis among students in a public university in Malaysia. Material and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study using convenience sampling to recruit 171 respondents. The data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire comprised of four different parts: the socio-demographic data, the knowledge, the attitude and the practice towards the prevention of pertussis. The data were analyzed using correlation, independent t-test, and ANOVA according to the different study objectives and types of data. Results: More than half of the respondents (67.8%) indicated that they had heard about pertussis. The school or university (59.6%) was the most common source of information, followed by Internet (46.2%). The most of the respondents (43.9%) possessed moderate knowledge regarding pertussis and knew that Bordetella pertussis is the causative agent of pertussis (76.0%). A significant positive correlation between knowledge regarding pertussis with age (p=0.023) was observed, however, there was no association between age with attitude and practice (p=0.272 and 0.131, respectively). Gender and marital status did not influence the KAP regarding pertussis; nevertheless, significantly different between different faculties. Conclusion: Students from the Faculty of Medicine had the highest knowledge scores, while the students from the Faculty of Nursing had the most top attitude and practice scores compared to students from another faculty. The students from the public university generally had a good level of KAP regarding pertussis.
  • Difference of Socioeconomic Factors among Mothers of Preterm and Full-Term Infant ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Carcavalli, Larissa; Rocha, Iury Almeida; Valentim, Amanda Freitas; Penido, Márcia Gomes; Parlato, Erika Maria; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida; Serra-Negra, Júnia Maria

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the difference of socioeconomic factors among mothers of preterm and full-term infants. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was developed with 250 mothers of children aged three to five years. The sample was divided into two groups: 125 mothers of preterm infants from the referral center of a public hospital in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil and 125 mothers of children born full-term at a daycare center within the same city. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to collect socioeconomic data and type of breastfeeding. To verify if there was association between the dependent variable gestational age at birth and the independent variables, the chi-square test was used. A final model with multiple Poisson regression estimated prevalence ratio values for each independent variable was developed. Results: The final multiple regression model showed that mothers that have a low monthly income of up to USD 450.28 (PR = 1.979, 95% CI = 1.082-3.620), used drugs, cigarettes, or alcohol during their pregnancy (PR = 4.095, 95% CI = 2.422-6.921), and did not breastfeed (PR = 2.294, 95% CI = 1.205-4.369) were more likely to give birth to preterm infants. Conclusion: Low monthly family income, use of drugs, alcohol, or smoking during pregnancy and absence of breastfeeding were more frequent on mothers of preterm infants.
  • Evaluation of Sugar Content and Erosive Potential of the Commonly Prescribed Liquid Oral Medications ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Siddiq, Hanan; Pentapati, Kalyana Chakravarthy; Shenoy, Revathi; Velayutham, Anupama; Acharya, Shashidhar

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the total sugar content, endogenous pH, total soluble solids content (TSSC) and titratable acidity of the commonly prescribed long-term and short-term liquid oral medicines (LOM) for children and to compare the erosive potential with the total sugar content and total soluble solids of the LOM. Material and Methods: Twenty-three most commonly prescribed pediatric LOM were evaluated in-vitro for the cariogenic and erosive potential. Manufacturers' information on labels, endogenous pH, titratable acidity, TSSC, and the total sugar content was determined. Descriptive statistics and the Mann-Whitney U test were applied. Results: Overall, 22 LOM contained sugar. Only 3 LOM revealed the sugar content of the formulation but did not disclose the quantity (Cheston, Ventorlin and Eptoin). None of the samples revealed the sugar content as well as endogenous pH in their labels. The overall mean total sugar content was 6.92 ± 3.49 g/100ml, ranging from 3.40 ± 0.00 (corticosteroids) to 9.67 ± 0.61 (antitussive/expectorant). The mean endogenous pH for the total sample of medicines was 5.91 ± 1.51 (range of 3.5 to 10.3). Eptoin (0.013%) presented the lowest titratable acidity and Imol (1.171%) presented the highest titratable acidity with an overall mean of 0.40 ± 0.73. Omnacortil and Epilex presented the highest TSS content (19.3%), and Ventorlin presented the lowest TSS content (18.7%) with an overall mean of 18.97 ± 0.19. Over twelve medicines were identified to have the potential to cause dental erosion. No significant differences were seen in the total sugar content, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and the endogenous pH between the short-term and long-term LOMs (p=0.145, p=0.263, p=0.067 and p=0.107), respectively. Conclusion: The pediatric LOMs showed the presence of the sugar, low endogenous pH, high titratable acidity and high total soluble solids.
  • Improving Dental Service Utilization Rate Using a Proactive Telephone-Based Scheduling Strategy in Primary Healthcare ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Garrido, Juan Carlos; Matamala, Daniela; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Campos, Valeria

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the effect of a proactive telephone-based scheduling strategy to improve dental service utilization rate in primary healthcare. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out based on the dental appointments’ records of a primary healthcare center before-strategy and after-strategy periods. The variables studied for both periods were the number of dental appointments requested, dental appointments undergone, no-shows, and available quotas. Data collection was performed by two researchers between May and June 2018. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies. Results: A total of 10,193 records of dental appointments were registered within the two periods. After-strategy period, dental appointments undergone increased by 16,7%, no-shows decreased by 3%, and available quotas decreased by 21.3%. Conclusion: A proactive telephone-based scheduling strategy increased the dental service utilization rate in primary healthcare.
  • Factors Influencing Oral Health-Related Quality of Life Among Preschool Children in District of Kota Bharu, Malaysia: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Dolah, Sharina; Eusufzai, Sumaiya Zabin; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Ahmad, Wan Muhamad Amir Wan

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess caries experience and its association with oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children in Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia. Material and Methods: A sample of 169 preschool children of 5-6-year-old at a private preschool in the district of Kota Bharu, Kelantan was participated and were subjected to an oral examination to determine their caries experience by a single calibrated dentist. The parents were responding to self-administered Malay-ECOHIS and their socio-demographic background. Descriptive, Chi-square test and Spearman correlation were done to analyse the data required in this study. Results: Subjects comprised of girls (55.6%) with most parents (39%) had a secondary level of education, and 47.9% of them had a monthly income of RM1000-RM2999. Caries prevalence was 74.6% with a mean (SD) dmft was 5.27(5.22). The impacts on OHRQoL were more prevalent in the family section of Malay-ECOHIS (12.5%; 95%CI: 7.5%-17.5%) than the child section (4.2%; 95%CI: 1.16%-7.24%). Items related to ‘felt guilty’ (22.5%; 95%CI: 16%-29%) and ‘been upset’ (20.2%; 95%CI: 14.1%-26.3%) were the frequently reported on the family impact section. In child impact section, the item related to ‘pain’ (36.7%; 95%CI: 30%-43%) and ‘difficulty eating’ (20.8%; 95%CI: 14.7%-26.9%) were reported more frequently. Children with caries experience were significantly associated with the impact on family OHRQoL (p<0.05). Conclusion: The presence of dental caries was a significant predictor of poor OHRQoL.
  • Supernumerary Teeth: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study from Palestine ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Arandi, Naji Ziad; Abu-Ali, Ameed; Mustafa, Shockry

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of supernumerary teeth among patients attending the students' dental clinics at the Faculty of Dentistry of the Arab American University, Jenin, Palestine. Material and Methods: This is a descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective study of 1970 digital panoramic radiographs of patients, age ranging between 12 and 50 years. The radiographs and dental records were reviewed for supernumerary teeth. For each patient with supernumerary teeth, were recorded the demographic variables, number, location, eruption status, type, and morphology, the developmental stages. Descriptive statistics were performed and results were tabulated. Results: Supernumerary teeth were detected in 17 subjects (0.86%), of which 13 were males and 4 were females with a male to female ratio of 3.25:1. Of the 17 patients, 64.7% had one supernumerary tooth while the others had two. The majority (78.3%) of the supernumeraries were located in the maxilla. Around 56.5% of the supernumeraries found in this study were located in the premaxilla. Half of the supernumeraries (52.2%) were erupted, and 47.8% were impacted. Mesiodens was the most frequently seen supernumerary teeth followed by distomolars and premolars. Most of the supernumeraries were fully developed, while 21.7% displayed only crown formation. Conclusion: The prevalence of supernumerary teeth in the study sample was found to be 0.86% and the most frequent type was mesiodens. Supplemental morphology was found to be the most common form of supernumerary teeth.
  • Validation of an Ultrashort Persian Version of Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-5) Questionnaire ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Nazeri, Amir Mohammad; Nakhaee, Nouzar; Navabi, Nader

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To validate the ultrashort (5-item) Persian version of OHIP by investigating its psychometric properties. Material and Methods: Construct validity was assessed by examining the correlation between OHIP-5 scores and self-reported oral health status, judgment for dental treatment needs and the number of natural teeth. Reliability was calculated using Cronbach’s alpha and corrected item-total correlation. Effect size (ES) and Standardized Response Mean (SRM) were calculated for the responsiveness of the scale and factor analysis was done by measuring Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO), Bartlett’s sphericity test and scree plot. Results: In 430 subjects (mean age 41.56+/-11.35 years, 56% female) the correlations between OHIP-5 scores and mentioned items were significant (p<0.01) indicating sufficient construct validity. The reliability coefficient (Cronbach's alpha) of the OHIP-5 was above the recommended 0.7 thresholds (0.809) and considered well. For evaluation of responsiveness, the ES was measured to be 5.604 and the SRM was 1.5. Moreover, in the confirmatory factor analysis, the unidimensional model for OHIP5 approved by indices (KMO=0.81, p<0.001 for Bartlett sphericity). Conclusion: The Persian version of OHIP-5 is a precise, valid, reliable and unidimensional instrument for assessing oral health-related quality of life among the general adult population.
  • Periodontal Tissue Condition on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: A Clinical Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Gofur, Nanda Rachmad Putra; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Handono, Kusworini; Kalim, Handono

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate periodontal tissue condition on systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and its characteristics. Material and Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study involved 61 SLE patients. Clinical examination of the oral cavity was performed using periodontal index (PI), gingival index (GI), clinical attachment loss (CAL) and number of loose teeth. Also, we evaluated SLE duration, treatment duration, ethnics, marital status, educational background, family income, and occupation. Results: In the evaluation of periodontal tissue, 93.4% had bleeding on probing, 80.3% clinical attachment loss, and 16.3% loose teeth. A total of 54 patients (88.5%) with SLE had periodontitis. Seven subjects had no periodontitis, 11 mild periodontitis, 29 moderate periodontitis and 14 severe periodontitis. Mean Periodontal Index score, Gingival Index, Clinical Attachment Loss (mm), and the number of mobility teeth, Plaque Index and Calculus Index respectively were 2.66 ± 1.20, 1.95 ± 1.02, 0.75 ± 0.59 mm, 1,49 ± 1.77. There was a significant difference in periodontal index score, shown periodontitis between employment and unemployment subjects (p=0.004) and a moderate correlation between periodontitis and occupation. Conclusion: Periodontitis found as manifestations SLE patients, followed by bleeding on probing and loose teeth. Its characteristics is playing a role in periodontitis in SLE patients.
  • Soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen Molecules Detected in Orofacial Cleft Patients: A Case-Control Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Iskandar, Regina Purnama Dewi; Alida,; Triwardhani, Ari; Narmada, Ida Bagus; Hanum, Faizah; Kusumo, Arief Haryo; Nidom, Chairul Anwar; Sudjarwo, Sri Agus

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare soluble HLA-C and HLA-DR molecules present in the plasma of orofacial cleft and non-orofacial cleft populations. Material and Methods: Orofacial cleft patients were recruited using an accidental sampling approach (n=15). Peripheral blood was collected from the participants and processed for Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) against HLA-C and HLA-DR with specific antibodies. The absorbance was calculated utilizing ELISA reader. Data were statistically analyzed using an independent t-test to compare the disease and control groups. Results: The levels of soluble HLA-C and HLA-DR were significantly higher in the diseased group compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The role of HLA molecules in non-communicable disease and congenital anomalies, particularly orofacial cleft, remains speculative despite the positive results of this study and those of previous investigations. It suggests that the variables examined may affect specific pathways involved in the pathogenesis of orofacial cleft, and predispose the individuals concerned to the oral cleft.
  • Clinical Evaluation of Pit and Fissure Sealants Placed by Undergraduate Dental Students in 5-15 Years-old Children in Iraq ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Al-Sultani, Hassan Faleeh Farhan; Aljanabi, Wissam Hamid; Hasan, Haider Ali; Al-Murib, Najran Mohammed Hussain; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To clinically evaluate the retention and marginal discoloration of pit and fissure sealants applied to primary and permanent teeth. Material and Methods: The study population encompassed of 5-15 years-old children. After consenting, a light-curing sealant was applied to etched pits and fissures of occlusal surfaces of selected sound teeth. The retention rate and marginal discoloration were assessed, 3 months after application of the sealants based on the criteria proposed by Simonsen’s criteria (total retention: score 0, partial loss: score 1, and total loss: score 2). Each tooth was considered as an independent sample during analysis. Results: The achieved sample size was 43 children aged 5-15 years (mean age=10.0 years). Therefore, data of 100 teeth from 43 children were used for the final analysis. The percentage of completely retained sealants (59%) was higher than the percentage of partially retained sealants (23%) and completely missing sealants (18%) after 3 months follow up. Out of 100 sealed teeth, 60% were either had marginal discoloration or completely missing. Using the Mann-Whitney test, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between primary and permanent teeth in terms of retention. However, there was no statistical difference (p>0.05) between upper and lower teeth in terms of retention. Conclusion: The success rate of fissure sealants after 3 months follow-up was satisfactory.
  • Effect of Thermocycling on the Colour Stability of Aesthetic Restorative Materials: An in-vitro Spectrophotometric Analysis ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Bhattacharya, Swastika; Purayil, Tina Puthen; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Kini, Sandya; Pai, Swathi

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the color stability of Cention N, Fuji IX GP Extra, and Fuji IX GP after thermocycling. Material and Methods: Ten discs of each material of dimension 10 x 1 mm were prepared using a split mold. The preparations of the specimens were done according to the powder/liquid ratio as recommended by the manufacturers [4.6:1, 3.4:1 and 3.6:1 for the groups I, II, and III, respectively]. After setting, the samples were retrieved, and the thickness of each specimen was measured using a micrometer at five different locations. The specimens with variations in thickness, porosity or cracks were discarded and thus not included in the study. The selected specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 hours prior to testing. The prepared specimens were thermocycled at 5°C and 55°C, with a dwell time of 15 seconds for 250 or 500 cycles. Subsequently, the color parameters of the discs were measured using a spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using two way ANOVA test, and a p-value <0.001 was considered. Results: Thermocycling resulted in changes in the color of both Glass Ionomer cement and Cention N (p<0.001). Among the materials tested, Cention N showed superior color stability. Conclusion: Cention N exhibited better color stability compared to Glass ionomer cements.
  • Comparative Evaluation of Fluoride Release From Two Different Glass Ionomer Cement and a Novel Alkasite Restorative Material - An in Vitro Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Singh, Harpreet; Rashmi, Shashi; Pai, Swathi; Kini, Sandya

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the fluoride release from Conventional Glass Ionomer Cement (GIC), Resin Modified GIC (RMGIC), and Cention N Alkasite Material. Material and Methods: Forty- five disc-shaped specimens of three different restorative materials (Conventional GIC, RMGIC, and Alkasite material) were made and divided into 3 groups (n=15). Fluoride release was evaluated at the end of Day 1, 7, 14, and Day 28 using fluoride ion-selective electrode. Intergroup and Intra-group analysis was done using One-way ANOVA with a Post-hoc test. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Cention showed more fluoride release (in parts per million) than GIC and RMGIC at increased time duration. However, at the end of day 1, there was lesser fluoride release with Cention, as compared with the other groups. Conclusion: The new Alkasite restorative material showed promising results in terms of fluoride release and is better than GIC and RMGIC at increased time duration.
  • Use of Mini-Implant Anchorage For Second Molar Mesialization: Comprehensive Approach For Treatment Efficiency Analysis ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Rivis, Oleh; Potapchuk, Anatoliy; Goncharuk-Khomyn, Myroslav; Bokoch, Anatoliy

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To approbate the complex approach for assessment of second molar mesialization outcomes with the use of orthodontic mini-implants. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 62 patients, divided into study (n=32) and control group (n=30). Mesialization procedure in the study group was conducted with the use of braces system and orthodontic mini-implants as additional anchorage devices, while in control group mesialization was provided only with the use of the brace system. Dynamic registration of bone level changes and the entire range of tooth movement were carried out on digital orthopantomograms obtained with the use of Planmeca ProMax 2D. Results: Findings of orthopantomographic (OPG) analysis have shown that cases of second molar mesialization with the use of mini-implants as temporary anchorage characterized with more stable conditions of bone levels around displaced teeth compare to cases, where mesialization was provided only with the use of braces systems without any additional anchorage. The terms of treatment in the study group with the use of dental mini-implants as the anchorage was reduced by 8.8 ± 0.12 months compared to the control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: The use of orthodontic mini-implants as anchorage constructions during the mesialization of the mandibular second molars contributes to the reduction of treatment duration and support the more prognostic movement of teeth, that does not provoke significant pathological changes in the levels of the surrounded alveolar ridge and minimize the risk of associated periodontal complication occurrence.
  • Bibliometric Analysis of 50 Most Cited Articles on Odontomas ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Serindere, Gozde; Serindere, Mehmet

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To identify the citation features and review articles on odontomas using bibliometric analysis. Material and Methods: A list of studies about odontoma was obtained by searching using the Scopus database. Abstracts or full texts were read and evaluated. After then, 50 most cited articles were achieved. Studies were categorized as citation numbers, citation density, journal name, article type, the affiliation of the first author and publication year. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the results. Results: The most frequently cited article received 358 citations, while the least frequently cited article received 42 with a mean of 94.3 citations per article. The mean citation density was 5.13. The study with the highest citation density (12.31) was published in 2006. The highest citation number was found in the 2000s following the 1990s. The 50 most cited articles were published from 1971 to 2011, with 84% (42 of 50) published after 1990. USA (n = 9) and Brazil (n = 6) were the two most contributing countries. According to article type, there were eight (16%) review articles. Conclusion: The USA found to have a strong influence on research about odontoma, followed by Brazil. All researches were reported in English, and most of them were published in good quality journals.
  • Oral Health Literacy and Related Factors among Pregnant Women Referring to Health Government Institute in Kerman, Iran ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Afshar, Marzieh Karimi; Torabi, Molook; Bahremand, Mahshid; Afshar, Mehrnaz Karimi; Najmi, Fatemeh; Mohammadzadeh, Iman

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate oral health literacy among pregnant women in Kerman, Iran. Material and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted on 169 pregnant women referring to government institute. Data were collected by demographic profile (including age, number of children, educational level, dental attendance before pregnancy and economic status), 17-item oral health literacy questionnaire consisting of four domains (including reading comprehension, numeracy, listening, and decision-making skills), self-assessment oral health status, DMFT index and oral health behavior. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 21 software using ANOVA and Chi-square tests at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The mean age of participants was 27.92 ± 5.25 years, 38.2% of them had bachelor's degree, 35.8% had dental attendance before pregnancy and 29.1% brushed daily their teeth twice or more. Dentists were the most frequent source of oral health information. Moreover, 60.0% believed their oral health was to be moderate, and 59.4% had inadequate oral health literacy. There was also a significant correlation between educational level, monthly income and dental attendance before pregnancy. Conclusion: Our results showed inadequate oral health literacy among pregnant women, highlighting the necessity of dental consultation before pregnancy.
  • Primary Tooth Extraction Pattern Among Turkish Children with Severe Early Childhood Caries Treated Under General Anesthesia ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Candan, Merve; Buldur, Burak

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency and distribution of extracted primary teeth due to severe Early Childhood Caries (ECC) in young pediatric patients treated under general anesthesia. Material and Methods: This study employed a retrospective design and consisted of a total of 1644 children (1011 boys, 633 girls) children aged 3 to 5 who had been diagnosed with several ECC and treated under general anesthesia in a dental faculty between 2013-2019. The data was obtained from the medical and dental forms obtained from the faculty database. The patients were divided according to age groups and sex. A total of 2605 teeth were classified according to the sex, tooth number, and age groups. Results: Of the subjects, 14% (n = 245) were 3 years old, 31% (n = 505) were 4 years old, 55% (n = 894) were 5 years old. The mean ± SD age of subjects was 4.2 ± 0.8 yr. While the most extracted teeth were found to be maxillary primary central incisors and molar teeth, the less were found to be mandibular primary canines. While there was a statistically significant difference between canines and incisors with molars (p<0.05), no difference existed between incisors and molars. There was a statistically significance difference among all age groups (p<0.05). While 3 years old group had the less number of extracted teeth, 5 years old group had the most number of extracted teeth. Conclusion: Severe ECC causes higher tooth extraction in patients treated under general anesthesia. Effective personal and community programs should be initiated to prevent ECC and mitigate its potential disruptive impacts in children’s oral health.
  • Presence of Type 1 Collagen Alpha-2 (COL1A2) (rs42524) Gene Polymorphism and Scar Tissue Formation in Different Areas of Head and Neck ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Avetikov, David Solomonovich; Buchanhenko, Olga Petrivna; Shlykova, Oksana Anatoliivna; Izmajlova, Olga Vitaliivna; Lokes, Kateryna Petrivna; Klitynska, Oksana Vasylivna; Vesnina, Ludmila Eduardivna; Kajdashev, Igor Petrovich

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the effect type I collagen gene polymorphism alpha-2 (COL1A2) (rs42524) on the formation of scar tissue that is localized in the head and neck areas. Material and Methods: Sixty patients with scars in different areas of the head and neck were examined. The patients were divided into four subgroups, according to the types of scarring: G I: 15 patients with normotrophic scars; G ІІ: 15 patients with atrophic scars; G ІІІ: 15 patients with hypertrophic scars; and G IV: 15 patients with keloid scars. The age of patients ranged from 17 to 54 years. The single-nucleotide polymorphic site of the COL1A2 (rs42524) gene was detected by a polymerase chain reaction and subsequent analysis of restriction fragment lengths. Pearson's chi-squared test with Yates’s correction and Fischer's exact test were used. Results: There were no significant changes between the control and basic groups (p=0.83) at analyzing the frequencies of G and C alleles. For the G allele, the calculation of odds ratio between the basic and control groups was 0.93 at 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.50-1.75), for the C allele - OR was 1.07 at 95% CI (0.57-2.01). Conclusion: Our studies may indirectly indicate the activation of the skin’s protective reaction to physiological scarring and dosed scar formation in different areas of the head and neck.
  • Effect of Recreational Intervention on the Approach of Pediatric Patients in Dental Treatment: Analysis of Salivary Cortisol ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Zen, Rúbia; Rigo, Lilian; Gaviolli, Emanuela; Girotto, Luiza Paloma S.; Mário, Debora N.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To verify whether recreational interaction with pediatric patient before dental care influences cortisol levels and anxiety. Material and Methods: Twelve children were selected and divided into two groups: 6 children who had not previously received recreational intervention (Group I) and 6 children who received recreational intervention before dental care (Group II). Saliva was collected with Salivettes™ kits before and soon after dental care for the measurement of cortisol. Wilcoxon test was applied to verify the difference in salivary cortisol levels before and after the dental visit in the whole sample, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the difference between groups I and II. A significance level of 0.05 was considered. Results: Among patients from Group I, 3 had their cortisol levels increased after dental care, 2 had their cortisol levels decreased, and the other 1 patient remained constant. All participants from Group II had no significant difference in cortisol levels pre- and post-procedure. Mean salivary cortisol level was higher in Group I, pre- and post-procedure, compared to Group II. Conclusion: Pediatric patients who participated in an interactive activity prior to dental care have a lower level of anxiety according to the salivary cortisol levels obtained, compared to patients who did not participate in recreation. The techniques for the dentist to approach the child control the anxiety of the patient and make the procedure calmer and less stressful for both of them.
  • Oral Health Access and Early Caries in Childhood in a Primary Care Service in Southern Brazil: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Jardim, Lucas Eduardo; Pereira, Mayara Rodrigues; Figueiredo, Márcia Cançado; Faustino-Silva, Daniel Demétrio

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of early childhood caries and its association with Child's Programmatic Action dental visits in a Primary Care Service. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional analytical study was carried out at the Health Centers of the Grupo HospitalarConceição Community Health Service in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil. Mothers answered a questionnaire containing socioeconomic data, eating habits and oral care of their children. Caries examination was performed by two examiners calibrated using WHO criteria. Results: Eighty-one children with mean age of 58.8 (SD=4.8) months were evaluated, 58% were male. Caries prevalence was 43%, with mean dmft = 1.7 and mean dmfs = 3.09. In the multivariate analysis, there was a statistically significant association of caries with maternal schooling (PR=1.31, 95%CI=1.06-1.62, p=0.012), family income (PR=0.93, 95% CI=0.90-0.97, p<0.001), adequacy of the number of childcare visits (PR=0.68, 95%CI=0.54-0.86, p=0.001) and number of visits to the dentist (PR=1.04, 95%CI=1.01-1.06, p=0.001). Conclusion: Ensuring access to childcare and early dental consultation, while the family context is disregarded, does not seem to be enough to reduce caries. It is necessary to think of non-conventional oral health promotion strategies in Primary Health Care taking into account the territory and social determinants since changes to eating and oral hygiene habits and behaviors are still a challenge to the control of childhood caries.
  • A Survival Analysis of Different Pulp Therapies in Decayed Primary Teeth ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Lopes-Fatturi, Aluhê; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Menezes, José Vitor Nogara Borges; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To identify the clinical and radiographic conditions associated with failure of pulp therapy in primary teeth through a survival analysis. Material and Methods: A total of 1000 records of children assisted at the pediatric dentistry clinic of the Federal University of Parana, Brazil, from the years 2000 to 2010, were analyzed. The mean evaluation time was 10.61 months (minimum/maximum: 1/28) from the report of pulp therapy. The different types of treatments analyzed included indirect pulp treatment (IPT), direct pulp treatment (DPT), pulpotomy and pulpectomy. The Kaplan-Meyer method and log-rank test were used for the survival analysis. Exodontia was considered as the outcome variable and censors included: traumatic tooth loss, presence of the tooth in the oral cavity and physiologic tooth exfoliation. Results: A total of 122 records reporting pulp therapy in the primary teeth were selected. From this, 16 teeth (13.12%) were extracted. Survival analysis showed that pulpectomy presented lower survival rates when compared to conservative therapies (p=0.0297). Teeth with furcal lesions and pathological root resorption before pulp therapy had lower survival rates when compared to those that did not present these conditions (P=0.006). Presence of fistula and abscess after pulp therapy were also associated with lower survival rates (P=0.0062 and 0.0143, respectively). Conclusion: Signals of pulp necrosis were associated to lower survival rates in primary teeth submitted to pulp therapy.
  • Sucrose and Xylitol-Induced Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Adherence ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Nuraini, Prawati; Pradopo, Seno; Pronorahardjo, Amirah Saraswati

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To study the adherence of Streptococcus mutans biofilm after induction with sucrose and xylitol. Material and Methods: Laboratory experimental study incorporating posttest-only control group design. S. mutans biofilm was generated for 24 hours at a temperature of 37°C using BHIB with 5% sucrose and BHIB with 1% xylitol. An adherence assay was conducted in accordance with the method applied previously. The quantity of adhered bacteria was measured by means of a spectrophotometer at 570 nm. The data were presented as mean and standard deviation. Results: A biofilm induced with sucrose has a higher adherence level (0.9294 ± 0.0431) compared with one induced with xylitol (0.5095 ± 0.0392). Sucrose induces adherence levels by increasing glucan binding protein and glucosyltransferase of the bacteria, whereas xylitol will inhibit the glycolysis process of the bacteria. Conclusion: The adherence of sucrose-induced S. mutans biofilm is higher than that of xylitol-induced S. mutans biofilm.
  • Prevalence of Tooth Decay and Associated Factors Among Ethiopian Patients ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Sehdev, Bhumika; Muruts, Lidya; Ganji, Kiran Kumar

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the prevalence of tooth decay and it’s associated factors among the age group of 15-20 years old visiting Ayder Comprehensive Specialized Hospital. Material and Methods: An epidemiological cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted among 384 subjects aged 15-20 years. A closed-ended questionnaire, according to the World Health Organization methodology was used to collect the data. The subjects were examined for the presence of tooth decay using the DMFT Index. One examiner was trained and standardized using a Kappa test (K=0.90). To test the differences in the DMF-T index related to socioeconomic variables, the Chi-square and the Mann-Whitney tests were employed. For all tests, the level of significance was set at p≤0.05 with 95% Confidence level. Results: The magnitude of tooth decay among study participants was 57.8%. The mean decayed, missed and filled was 1.26 and prevalence was higher in males (34.1%). Poor oral hygiene practice was strongly associated factor with tooth decay. 56.2% of visitors from the urban area were mainly affected by tooth decay. Conclusion: Tooth decay is highly prevalent among visitors between15-20 years of age. Tooth brushing habit, residency, and consumption of sugary food and drinks were significantly associated with the occurrence of tooth decay. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can prevent further damage.
  • Investigation of the Erosive Potential of Different Types of Alcoholic Beverages ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Meira, Ingrid Andrade; Fernandes, Nayanna Lana Soares; Lavôr, Juliane Rolim de; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Oliveira, Andressa Feitosa Bezerra de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the erosive potential of different alcoholic beverages according to pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity. Material and Methods: Thirteen industrialized alcoholic beverages of different brands were selected and divided into five groups according to their type and composition. The pH measurement and titratable acidity for pH 5.5 and 7.0 were performed in triplicate in 50 mL of each beverage. The buffering capacity was calculated based on pH and titratable acidity for pH 7.0. ANOVA, Tukey, and Pearson correlation, with p<0.05, were used for data analysis. Results: Data showed normal distribution by Shapiro-Wilk test. The pH of alcoholic beverages ranged from 2.49 (Miks Ice Tea - Green Fruits) to 7.64 (Smirnoff). The highest values of acid titration (4.68) and buffer capacity (19.97) were observed in Smirnoff Ice. The following correlations (p<0.01) were noted between: pH and titratable acidity; buffering capacity and pH; buffering capacity and titratable acidity. Conclusion: Some beers and alcopops presented erosive potential due to their lower pH associated with high acid titration values. The whisky and sugarcane liquor examined were not potentially erosive.
  • Is Low Income Associated with Malocclusion in Primary Dentition Among Preschoolers? ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Machado, Jessa Iashmin Alcobaça Gomes; Andrade, Natália Silva; Silva, Renara Natália Cerqueira; Rego, Marcus Vinícius Nunes Neiva do; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; Moura, Wagner Leal de; Lima, Marina de Deus Moura de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition of preschool children in a city of Brazilian Northeast. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 566 five-years-old preschool children who were enrolled in public and private preschools in the city of Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. Data were collected using a sociodemographic questionnaire administrated to parents/caregivers and clinical oral examination of the children was performed. Foster and Hamilton Index for primary teeth was used for the diagnosis of malocclusions. Descriptive analysis was carried out and Poisson regression was used to assesses the association with independent variables. Results: The prevalence of malocclusion was 51.2%. The most frequent types were Class II canines (17% and 16.8%), increased overjet (15.2%) and reduced overbite (14%). Anterior crossbite was present in 3.5% of the preschool children evaluated. There was an association between malocclusion and low family income (PR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.01-1.47). Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion in the primary dentition was high and associated with a low family income.
  • Intention and Oral Health Behavior Perspective of Islamic Traditional Boarding School Students Based on Theory of Planned Behavior ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Bramantoro, Taufan; Basiroh, Eris; Berniyanti, Titiek; Setijanto, R. Darmawan; Irmalia, Wahyuning Ratih

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the correlation of the students in an Islamic boarding school intention toward oral health behavior by means of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) approach. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional analytic study was conducted on 153 students of an Islamic boarding school who fulfilled the criterion. Data were obtained by a questionnaire and clinical examination. Data were presented as mean and standard deviation. Results: The highest score of the variable that affects behavior recorded from both male and female respondents was Subjective Norm (57.288 ± 12.828), followed by Attitude (25.627 ± 4.144). Meanwhile, the lowest score that affects behavior was Oral Health Knowledge (3.179 ± 1.402). All study variables, according to the theory of planned behavior, such as knowledge, attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavior control, and intention had significant value to predict and assess behavior with p<0.05. Conclusion: Attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, and oral health knowledge in Private Boarding School’s Santris influence the intention to improve oral hygiene behavior.
  • Effect of the Application of Chlorella Vulgaris Ointment to the Number of Fibroblast Cells as an Indicator of Wound Healing in the Soft Tissue of Pig Ears ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Machmud, Edy; Ruslin, Muhammad; Waris, Rahmat; Asse, Rustan Ambo; Qadafi, Andi Muamar; Achmad, Harun

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the clinical and histological condition of Chlorella vulgaris ointment extract smearing on wound healing. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 9 pigs by making 4 incisions on the pig's right ear measuring 2cm x 1cm and applying Chlorella vulgaris ointment in 3 concentrations namely 5%, 10%, 15% and without ointment application as the control group. Furthermore, the observation of the clinical condition of wounds divided into 4 time periods (day 1, 3, 7 and 14). After completing clinical observations based on time period, the skin of the pig's ear was taken by cutting in the area that had been made injured. Skin tissue extraction carried out under inhalation and local anesthesia. The tissue pieces are then processed in the anatomical pathology laboratory to become 36 slide preparations. The clinical trial assessment was done using parameters of wound moisture, color of wound and scab wound. Whereas for histological examination was done by looking at the number of fibroblast cells in the CX31 light microscope with 40x magnification. ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis tests were used. Results: In the clinical observation conditions there were significant differences between the treatment group and the control group as well as the number of fibroblast cells there were significant differences between the 3 concentrations of Chlorella vulgaris extract ointment and the per time period control group. Conclusion: Chlorella vulgaris extract ointment containing 15% extract gives the best results in accelerating the wound healing process in the pig's ear seen from wound healing and increased number of fibroblast cells.
  • Evaluation of Child Anxiety Prior to Dental Care by Means of Modified Venham Picture Test, RMS Pictorial Scale and Facial Image Scale Tests ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Oliveira, Marcia de Freitas; Stein, Carlos Efrain; Schrör, Fernanda Cristine Leber; Keske, Wilian Ricardo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate child anxiety prior to dental care; to compare the results obtained by applying different anxiety tests and to assess whether anxiety is related to age or gender, and to identify which test children find to be more attractive and easier to understand. Material and Methods: The research was performed with 30 children of both genders and age group of 4-9 years distributed into Group 1 = children aged 4, 5 and 6 years and Group 2 = children aged 7, 8 and 9 years. Modified Venham Picture Test (VPT), RMS Pictorial Scale (RMS-PS) and Facial Image Scale (FIS) were the anxiety evaluation tests used. For statistical analysis, the Shapiro Wilk Normality test, Spearman correlation and the Independent Proportions test were used. Results: Modified VPT identified 70% anxiety-free children, RMS-PS 90%, and FIS 87%. RMS-PS and FIS scores had moderate correlation (51%). Regarding age groups, no significant difference was found between proportions of group 1 and group 2. According to gender, in 11 girls, the modified VPT test identified 3 (27%) with some anxiety degree; RMS-PS test identified 1 (9%) and FIS test 2 (18%). In 19 boys, modified VPT test identified 6 (32%) with some anxiety degree; RMS-PS test identified 2 (11%) and the FIS test 2 (11%). The test that was the easiest to understand was the modified VPT (54%) and regarding attractiveness, modified VPT and RMS-PS presented similar results, 40% each. Conclusion: All three tests were able to identify anxiety prior to dental care. The evaluation of results showed that the more the children could identify themselves with the test, the more they found it to be easy and attractive.
  • Angiogenesis of Extracted Tooth Wound on Wistar Rats After Application of Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) Gel Extract ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Luthfi, Muhammad; Juliastuti, Wisnu Setyari; Risky, Yuniar Aliyah

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze angiogenesis in the post-extracted tooth of Wistar rats after application of okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) extract. Material and Methods: A total of 18 rats were divided into two groups (control and treatment). Okra extract with a concentration of 30% in gel form was applied on the post-extraction socket of the treatment group. The rats were sacrificed on day-3, day-5, and day-7 after tooth extraction. The newly-formed blood vessels were counted and statistically analyzed by means of One Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD with a significance level set at 5%. Results: The newly-formed capillaries of the control group (4.67 ± 1.53) on day-3 were lower than the treatment group (9.00 ± 1.00). The newly-formed capillaries recorded from the control group, both in day-5 (9.33 ± 1.53) and day-7 (8.67 ± 1.53) were lower than the treatment group, which started to decreased from day-5 (13.67 ± 1.53) to day-7 (12.33 ± 0.58). Significant differences were found in treatment group, on day-3 compared to day-5 (p=0.005), and on day-3 to day-7 (p=0.024). Conclusion: Okra extract in gel form at 30% concentration can increase the angiogenesis during the wound healing process of the extracted tooth on Wistar rats.
  • Choosing the Criteria for Clinical Evaluation of Composite Restorations: An Analysis of Impact on Reliabilty and Treatment Decision ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Cavalheiro, Cleber Paradzinski; Souza, Pablo Soares de; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Braga, Mariana Minatel; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the reproducibility of two clinical criteria for the evaluation of restorations in primary teeth and the impact on treatment decision. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed selecting 71 resin-based composite restorations placed in primary molars of children who had sought dental treatment at a dental school. Two trained examiners evaluated independently the restorations using modified FDI and USPHS criteria. All restorations were assessed separately with each system in random order to avoid memory bias. Kappa statistics were used to determine inter-examiner reliability considering each parameter of both criteria and score final about treatment decision. McNemar test was used to compare the treatment decision with two criteria. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: Kappa values ranged from 0.28 to 0.93 with USPHS and 0.28 to 0.88 with FDI, considering each parameter separately. Inter-examiner agreement for treatment decision was excellent for both criteria (Kappa: 0.85-0.90). For clinical decision-making, no difference between criteria was found, irrespective of examiner. Conclusion: Low inter-examiner agreement for evaluation of each parameter of USPHS and FDI criteria does not reflect on reproducibility for treatment decision. Both criteria may be suitable for evaluation of composite restorations in primary teeth.
  • Trauma in Primary Teeth at a Specialized Service Center: Retrospective Cohort ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Lessa, Samara Verçosa; Silva, Alexandre Marques Paes da; Santos, Luiza Andrade dos; Vieira, Mayra Stambovsky; Seabra, Luciane Monte Alto de; Ferreira, Dennis de Carvalho

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the factors associated with the occurrence of dental trauma in children up to six years of age and describe the results of clinical follow-up and possible sequelae. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was carried out with data collected from the dental records of 96 pediatric patients up to 6 years old with traumatized primary teeth who sought care from the. Pediatric Dental Trauma project of a private university in the city of Rio de Janeiro from July 2014 to July 2017, and who had clinical and radiographic follow-up for up to three months as of their initial visit. Results: 96 children (58.3% boys and 41.7% girls) included who presented 166 traumatized primary teeth. Intrusion was the most observed type of trauma and in 45.8% of cases, the care occurred one-week post trauma. The maxillary central incisors were the most affected teeth (97.6%). The prognosis of the dental elements with more than 3 months of follow-up was considered favorable, and 59.6% of the teeth did not present any clinical or radiological sequelae. Oral hygiene instruction and monitoring were the most common approaches. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental trauma in the present study was high and occurred mainly in domestic settings. The upper central incisors were the teeth that suffered the most injuries. The presence of patients at follow-up visits was an important factor for the positive result in most cases.
  • Pain Perception and Rate of Canine Retraction Through Self-Ligating Brackets and Conventional Elastomeric Ligation System: A Split Mouth Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Qamruddin, Irfan; Khan, Asma Gul; Asif, Fatima Muhmmad; Karim, Meanaz; Nowrin, Shifat A.; Shahid, Fazal; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the rate of tooth movement and the pain perception via self-ligating (SL) and conventional elastomeric ligation brackets (CB) system. Material and Methods: This study has been conducted at the Orthodontic Department of Baqai Dental College, Baqai Medical University. The sample size of this study comprised 40 patients, falling between the age of 12-30 years without any sex discrimination. Shapiro-Wilk was used to check the distribution of data. Non-parametric Mann Whitney U test was applied to evaluate the pain associated with SL and CB brackets system. To analysis the canine retraction Wilcoxon test was applied for the comparison of CB and SL brackets system. For all statistical analyses, the p-value of <0.05 was considered significant. Results: Pain level associated with retraction via CB and SL shows significant differences. However, the rate of canine retraction via CB and SL shows no significant differences at stages T0-T1 and T1-T2. However, stage T2-T3 shows a significant difference. Conclusion: As pain during orthodontic treatment is mostly associated with the level of compression of the periodontal ligament, it may be hypothesized that lower frictional forces generate less compression of the periodontal ligament and blood vessels, and so alter the type of pain experienced.
  • Risk Factors for Different Types of Traumatic Injuries in Primary Teeth ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Soares, Thais Rodrigues Campos; Jural, Lucas Alves; Sant’Ana, Igor; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo Alves; Risso, Patricia de Andrade; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate traumatic dental injuries (TDI) in primary teeth and the association of gender and age with different injuries. Material and Methods: Records of patients with TDI in primary teeth were included. The following parameters were registered: gender and age, place of trauma, cause of trauma, affected tissue and tooth, number of injured teeth, type of injury, and gingival and bone damage. A logistic regression analysis was performed to explore the interaction between gender and age on the occurrence of types of injuries (p≤0.05). Results: The total of 721 records were evaluated and 370 records were included, being 61.6% boys and 60.5% children aged 0-3 years old, with 658 primary teeth affected. The support tissue was most affected (496/658), followed by dental tissue (139/658). Enamel/dentine fracture with pulp exposure (n=51) and intrusion (n=131) were the most common injuries of dental and support tissues, respectively. In general, boys suffered more traumas than girls, regardless of the age range. As for concussion, logistic regression confirms that gender and age are also influencers. Girls (OR=1.822, CI = 1.050-3.164, p=0.033) in the 4-6 year age group (OR=2.15, CI = 1.239-3.747, p=0.007) are more likely to have concussions. Children age 4-6 years were less likely to suffer an intrusion (OR=0.496; CI = 0.278-0.886; p=0.018). Conclusion: Gender and age influence concussion and intrusion in the primary teeth.
  • Challenges of Autism Spectrum Disorders Families Towards Oral Health Care in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    AlHammad, Kholood A. Sanad; Hesham, Aldhalaan M.; Zakria, Moneer; Alghazi, Mohammed; Jobeir, Aman; AlDhalaan, Reem M.; AlMuhanna, Abdulaziz M.; Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Mosadomi, Hezekiah

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding oral health care among parents of autistic children and also the challenges faced by them in providing dental care for their Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) children’s in four regions of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: In total, 263 parents of autistic children participated in this cross-sectional study who were enrolled from 4 major regions of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A self-administered questionnaire formulated in simple Arabic was distributed to parents of children diagnosed with autism or any form of ASD. The questionnaires consisted of demographic questions and also to assess their knowledge on oral health, child’s oral hygiene practices and visits to their dentist, oral hygiene, experience and challenges in waiting room area before the dental treatment, acceptance of treatment or rejection, accessibility to find non-dental centers either government or private for treatment and their recommendations. Results: All the parents brushed their child’s teeth using a toothbrush and fluoridated toothpaste. A total of 29.7% of the parents informed that their child never brushes teeth. A total of 41.4% of the parents visit the dental clinic when the child complains about dental problems and 54% find difficulty in locating appropriate dental clinic to deal with their ASD children. Most parents reported taking their child to a private office (38.8%). Only 3.8% of parents reported that their children had seizures during dental procedures. Conclusion: The knowledge toward oral health was found to be inadequate among the majority of the parents. Parents of ASD children need to be educated about the consequences of oral health neglect and the importance of regular check-ups.
  • Availability of Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Medicines in Primary Health Care ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Santos, Jacqueline Silva; Cruz, Alex Junio Silva da; Castilho, Lia Silva de; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To describe and analyze the availability and factors related to the presence of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the Brazilian public primary healthcare system. Material and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that evaluated 17,903 health units that participated in the National Program for Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement (2013-2014). The dependent variable was defined as the presence of metamizole, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen in a sufficient amount. The independent variables included the type of primary health care unit, the presence of a medication disposal area, the number of physicians, nurses, and dental practitioners; and the number of primary care units with family and oral health teams. For statistical analysis, unadjusted and adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) (95% CI) were presented. Results: The three medicines were available in 62.4% of the units. Regarding Health Clinics, the Basic Health Units (OR= 1.31, CI95% 1.18-1.44), Polyclinic (OR= 2.00, 95% CI, 1.15 -3.48), and others (OR= 1.37; 95% CI 1.14-1.63) had higher chances of availability of all three drugs. The presence of a disposal area (OR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.51-1.77) and the number of physicians (OR= 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), nurses (OR= 1.08, 95% CI 1.03- 1.13), and dental practitioners (OR= 1.09, 95% CI 1.04-1.14) increased the availability odds of the analyzed drugs in the service. Conclusion: The structure of the healthcare units and the higher number of professionals were positively associated with the availability of these drugs.
  • High Mobility Group Box 1 and Heat Shock Protein-70 Expression Post (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate in East Java Green Tea Methanolic Extract Administration During Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Wistar Rats ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Nugraha, Alexander Patera; Narmada, Ida Bagus; Sitasari, Putri Intan; Inayati, Fidiyah; Wira, Rahendra; Triwardhani, Ari; Hamid, Thalca; Ardani, I Gusti Aju Wahju; Djaharu’ddin, Irwadi; Rahmawati, Dwi; Iskandar, Regina Purnama Dewi

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the expression of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1) and Heat Shock Protein-70 (HSP-70) during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) after (-)- Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate (EGCG) in East Java Green Tea (Camelia Sinensis) Methanolic Extract (GTME) administration in vivo. Material and Methods: 28 Wistar rats (Rattus Novergicus) was used and divided into 4 groups accordingly: K- without EGCG and OTM; K+ with OTM, without EGCG for 14 days; T1with OTM for 14 days and EGCG for 7 days; treatment group 2 (T2) with OTM and EGCG for 14 days. OTM animal model was achieved through the installation of the OTM device by means of NiTi close coil spring with 10g force placed between the first incisor and first maxillary molars. The samples were terminated on Day 14. The pre-maxillary was isolated for the immunohistochemical examination. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) then continued with Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) (p<0.05) was performed to analyze the data. Results: The highest HMGB1 and HSP-70 expression were found in the K+ group pressure side, meanwhile the lowest HMGB1 and HSP-70 expression were found in K- group tension side in the alveolar bone. There was a significant decrease of HMGB1 and HSP-70 expression in T2 compared to T1 and K+ with significant between groups (p<0.05; p=0.0001). Conclusion: The decreased expression of HMGB1 and HSP-70 in alveolar bone of OTM wistar rats due to post administration of GTME that consisted EGCG.
  • Breastfeeding and Related Factors in Afrodescendant Women From Cartagena, Colombia ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Cardenas, Shyrley Díaz; Puello, Sthefanie del Carmen Perez; Montes, Luis Antonio Buelvas

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To describe practices and related factors to breastfeeding in afrodescendant women from Cartagena de Indias city, Colombia. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted between 2016 and 2017 in 548 mothers who had under 5 years children from afrodescendant communities. A self-reported questionnaire was applied, asking for sociodemographic variables, breastfeeding time and exclusive breastfeeding, family support and factors related to this practice. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and risk estimation by Odds Ratio (OR). Results: Most mothers were young adults (89.8%), having high scholar level (55.2%), family support and they were associated to the public health system. The prevalence of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months was 91.6% and 80.4%, respectively. Breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding practice were associated with mother's age (OR = 3.24, 95% CI= 1.80-5.8) and low mother's educational level (OR = 3.24, 95% CI= 1.8-5.8). Finally, no breastfeeding and the fact of not being performed exclusively was associated with no mother nipples examination, and not or insufficient information supplied about this issue. Conclusion: Breastfeeding practice was associated with mother's age and her educational level as well as with poor preparation to start this practice. Although its prevalence was high, it is necessary to implement policies within health system to encourage its practice and provide measures to solve problems during their development in mothers from vulnerable communities.
  • Effectiveness of Two Types of Photostimulable Phosphor Plate Plastic Barrier Envelopes for Prevention of Microbiological Contamination ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Nikkerdar, Nafiseh; Akya, Alisha; Khavid, Atefeh; Karimi, Atena; Emadi, Setareh

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the effectiveness of two types of commercially available photostimulable phosphor plate (PSP) protective barrier envelopes to prevent microbiological contamination. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 80 barrier envelopes were tested in 40 volunteers. The PSP plates were placed individually in Asia Teb and Soredex protective barrier envelopes and were placed in the mouth for two minutes, similar to periapical films. The protective barrier envelopes were then removed under sterile conditions, and the sensors were placed on different culture media. The number of colonies on each plate was counted. Data were analyzed using SPSS via McNemar and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Bacterial growth was noted in 17.5% of PSPs with Soredex, and 32.5% of PSPs with Asia Teb barrier envelopes. Gram-positive bacilli were the most commonly isolated bacteria. The difference between the Asia Teb and Soredex barrier envelopes for the protection of microbiological contamination was not significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: The use of different types of protective barrier envelopes was not sufficient for prevention of microbiological contamination of PSP plates, and some adjunct modalities were required to decrease microbiological contamination of PSP plates.
  • Effect of Glass Fiber Post Diameter on Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Nokar, Saied; Mortazavi, Mahsa Sadat; Niakan, Somayeh

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with three different diameters of glass fiber posts and metal-ceramic crowns. Material and Methods: Thirty human maxillary canines were selected and subjected to root canal therapy. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups of glass fiber posts with 1.4 mm diameter (Group I), 1.6 mm diameter (Group II), and 2.0 mm diameter (Group III). The teeth were restored with metal-ceramic crowns and subjected to the compressive load applied at 45º angle to the longitudinal axis until fracture. The mode of failure was determined. Data were analyzed using ANOVA, followed by Tukey's post hoc multiple comparisons test (p<0.05). Results: The mean fracture resistance of groups I, II and III was 574 ± 91.2 N, 617 ± 85.21 N and 467 ± 99.43 N, respectively. No significant difference was noted between groups I and II, while the fracture resistance was significantly different between groups I and III (p<0.05) and groups II and III (p<0.05). No case of post fracture alone occurred in any group. Conclusion: The diameter of glass fiber posts can affect the fracture resistance of teeth. Based on the results, increasing the diameter of the post up to 1.6 mm may increase the fracture resistance of root, although excessive diameters are not recommended.
  • Cytotoxicity, Morphology and Chemical Composition of Two Luting Cements: An in Vitro Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Said, Farrukh; Moeen, Faisal; Khan, Muhammad Talal; Mansoor, Afsheen; Uzbek, Usman Haider; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Siddiqui, Ammar Ahmed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the cytotoxicity, surface morphology, elemental compositions and chemical characterization of two commonly used luting cement. Material and Methods: The two luting types of cement used were Elite Cement® and Hy-Bond Resiglass®. Freshly mixed (n=6) and set form (n=6) of each cement was placed in medium to obtain extracts. The extract from each sample was exposed to L929 mouse fibroblasts (1x104cells/well). Alamar Blue Assay assessed cell viability. Surface morphology and elemental composition were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The chemical characterization was performed by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. One-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey analysis were conducted to assess results. Results: Hy-Bond Resiglass® was the more cytotoxic of the two types of cement in both freshly mixed (68.10 +5.16; p<0.05) and set state (87.58 +4.86; p<0.05), compared to Elite Cement® both freshly mixed (77.01 +5.45; p<0.05) and set state (89.39 +5.66; p<0.05). Scanning electron microscopy revealed a more irregular and porous structure in Hy-Bond Resiglass® compared to Elite Cement®. Similarly, intense peaks of aluminium, tungsten and fluorine were observed in energy dispersive spectroscopy in Hy-Bond Resiglass. Conclusion: All these three elements (aluminium, tungsten and fluorine) have cytotoxic potential. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy revealed the presence of hydroxyethyl methacrylate in Hy-Bond Resiglass®, which has a cytotoxic potential.
  • Use of Medicines by Infants with Microcephaly Caused by Congenital Zika Virus Infection and Implications to Oral Health ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Arruda, Taynná Dantas de; Fernandes, Liege Helena Freitas; Leal, Jeime Iara Bezerra de Freitas; Aguiar, Yeska Paola Costa; Cavalcanti, Sergio D´Avila Lins Bezerra; Cavalcanti, Alidianne Fábia Cabral

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the use of continued-use medications by Brazilian children with microcephaly caused by Congenital Zika Virus Infection. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study with 76 children of both genders. Information on age, use of continued-use medications, number and type of drugs used was collected. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Continued-use medications were used by 89.4% of the children, anticonvulsants / antiepileptics (88.1%), and those indicated for behavioral disorders (27.1%) were the most frequent. Sodium saccharin, sucrose, and sorbitol are the most common sugars in the composition of these drugs. Conclusion: The use of medicines is high, predominantly anticonvulsants and antiepileptics, which contain sugars in their composition. These drugs can lead to irreversible dental problems, such as tooth decay if proper oral hygiene is not present. Therefore, parents/guardians should be advised about adopting healthy oral hygiene habits after the administration of these drugs.
  • Relationship Between Body Mass Index and Dental Age in 8-15-Year-Old Orthodontic Patients ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Erwansyah, Eka; Mudjari, Susilowati; Akbar, Fuad Husain; Rustam, Adrian

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and dental age in 8-15-year-old orthodontic patients. Material and Methods: Forty-eight children (25 males, 23 females) aged 8-15 years requiring orthodontic treatment participated in this retrospective study. The dental development ages were determined using the Demirjian method and panoramic radiographs. Afterwards, chronological age, height, and weight were recorded. Using the standard equation developed by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, BMI value was calculated and grouped according to BMI percentile classification according to age and gender. Data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: Dental age was significantly accelerated in subjects with increased BMI percentile after adjusting for age and gender (p<0.05). The mean dental age among all subjects was 10.58 ± 2.40. The correlation coefficient (r) showed a strong correlation with a positive direction, which means that the dental age also accelerated by 44.6% in the subjects with increased BMI. Conclusion: There was a linear correlation between increased BMI with accelerated dental age. BMI value and dental age can be considered in determining orthodontic treatment time.
  • Soft Tissue Cephalometric Measurements Among Malaysian Malays and Chinese ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Noor, Nor Farid Mohd; Basri, Rehana; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Haque, Sanjida; Hao, Melvin Saw Jian; Talib, Maisarah Abu

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To obtain the standardized values of individuals of Malaysian Malay and Chinese for further relevant research, such as treatment planning and aesthetical considerations. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, 440 (305 were Malays and 135 were Chinese) standardized lateral cephalometric radiographs of orthodontic patients selected through simple random sampling are profiled using Holdaway’s analysis. The independent t-test was used to assess the disparities in race and gender. The significant level was p<0.05. Results: Significant differences were found between the Malays and Chinese in their skeletal profile convexity, superior sulcus depth, inferior sulcus to the H line and nose prominence. Between Malay females and males, there are significant differences in superior sulcus depth, soft tissue subnasale to H line, basic upper lip thickness, upper lip thickness and nose prominence. Between Chinese males and females, there were differences in their skeletal profile convexity, upper lip to H line, basic upper lip thickness and upper lip thickness. Conclusion: The findings demonstrated the difference between standardized norms and the unique profiles of Malaysian Malays and Chinese. There are significant gender disparities in the soft tissue cephalometric measurements among Malaysian Malay and Chinese subjects.
  • Radiographic Characteristics of Soft Tissue Calcification on Digital Panoramic Images ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Saati, Samira; Foroozandeh, Maryam; Alafchi, Behnaz

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the prevalence of soft tissue calcifications and their panoramic radiographic characteristics. Material and Methods: This descriptive retrospective study evaluated 2027 panoramic radiographs. The type and location of calcifications and the age and gender of patients were evaluated by two radiologists. Data were analyzed via SPSS and the Chi-square, Fisher’s exact and Kappa tests were used to compare the categorical demographic variables among the groups. The confidence interval was set to 95% and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The prevalence of calcified stylohyoid ligament was 11.24%. This value was 3.99% for tonsillolith, 1.33% for calcified carotid plaque, 0.69% for antrolith, 0.39% for calcified lymph node, 0.29% for phleboliths, and 0.19% for sialoliths. The prevalence of these conditions had no significant association with gender or age (p=0.102). The prevalence of bilateral calcified stylohyoid ligament, tonsillolith, and a calcified carotid plaque was significantly higher (p<0.001). The most prevalent type of calcified stylohyoid ligament, according to O'Carroll’s classification, belonged to types 1, 4, 3 and 2 (p<0.001). The most commonly observed radiographic pattern was multiple, well-defined tonsilloliths (75.3%, p<0.001). Conclusion: The prevalence of soft tissue calcifications on panoramic radiographs was relatively low in this Iranian population. The most calcifications were respectively calcified stylohyoid ligament, tonsillolith, calcified carotid plaque, antrolith, calcified lymph node, phleboliths and sialoliths. Calcified stylohyoid ligament, tonsillolith and calcified carotid plaque were more bilaterally. Thereby panoramic imaging can help in primary assessment, epidemiologic and screening evaluation of these calcifications.
  • Reliability of Two Methods of Evaluation of the Apical Limit of Obturation of Root Canals of Primary Teeth: A Pilot Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Duarte, Maysa Lannes; Pepino, Julia Cocchiarale; Sancas, Mariana Coutinho; Moreira, Jéssica Pronestino de Lima; Neves, Aline de Almeida; Pintor, Andréa Vaz Braga; Primo, Laura Guimarães

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To verify the concordance in the evaluation of the apical limit of obturation (ALO) in filled root canals of primary teeth between digital and visual methods. Material and Methods: Twenty periapical radiographs of endodontically treated primary teeth were digitalized and evaluated by an endodontics specialist (E1), a PhD pediatric dentist (E2), and a MSc general dentist (E3). Calibrated evaluators (Kappa = 1.00) analysed the images in a light-isolated environment two times (D1 and D2) with a one-week interval between evaluations. ALO scores were categorized as overfilled, flush-filled and underfilled. Results: The intra-rater reliability between methods was 0.82 (D1) and 0.75 (D2) for E1, 0.93 (D1 and D2) for E2, and 0.94 (D1 and D2) for E3. Inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.71 (E1 × E3) and 1.00 (E1 × E2) for the visual method to 0.76 (E1 × E3) and 0.88 (E1 × E2) for the digital method. Spearman correlation coefficients showed a similar ranking among the evaluators. There was greater disagreement among the underfilled and ideal scores. For all evaluators, the digital method favoured the identification of the ideal score. Conclusion: Both methods are suitable for the determination of the ALO of filled primary teeth and can be used in clinical practice.
  • Sealing Carious Fissures with Resin Infiltrant in Association with a Flowable Composite Reduces Immediate Microleakage? ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Silva, Vanessa Brígido da; Carvalho, Raquel Nogueira de; Bergstrom, Tamiris Gomes; Santos, Thais Maria Pires dos; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Neves, Aline de Almeida

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the immediate microleakage of carious fissures sealed with a caries infiltrant covered by a flowable composite or solely with a flowable composite. Material and Methods: Extracted carious molars (n=20) were selected and paired among the experimental groups according to caries progression scores. Experimental groups (n=10) were divided according to the following sealing techniques: 1) caries infiltrant (Icon) + flowable composite (Z350 flow); 2) flowable composite (Z350 flow). Specimens were immersed in 3% methylene blue and evaluated in a stereomicroscope. Microleakage scores were attributed independently by two calibrated evaluators and the mode value was considered as the mean for the specimen. Binomial tests were used to test differences between two independent sample proportions at 5% significance level. Results: In the flowable composite group, a higher prevalence of dye penetration along the full depth of the fissure was observed, compared with caries infiltrant + flowable composite (p<0.05). For specimens showing dye penetration up to half of the fissure, in caries infiltrant + flowable composite group, all specimens showed dye penetration into the sealant, but not over the infiltrant. Conclusion: Using caries infiltrant as sealing material under a flowable composite cover is effective to improve the immediate sealing ability in carious fissures compared to sealing with flowable composite.
  • Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in a City without Fluoridation in its Water Supply: Effect of Sampling ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Castilho, Maria Cristina de Matos; Zanin, Luciane; Flório, Flávia Martão

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of dental fluorosis in a population not exposed to fluoridated water and to evaluate the effect of the sampling technique on this measurement. Material and Methods: This observational, cross-sectional and quantitative study was conducted in the city of Mariana, Brazil. The participants were selected based on age, so that they had access to fluoridated dentifrice during the formation of the permanent upper teeth. Based on a nominal survey of schoolchildren aged 14 to 19, a probabilistic sample of 304 such children was clinically examined. Dental fluorosis was measured by the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index. The prevalence of fluorosis identified in a previous study, conducted in 2011 in the same city, using the same methodology but employing convenience sampling, was used as a control to compare the effect of the two sampling techniques. Results: The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 3% based on the probabilistic sampling of the subjects. In the previous study, the prevalence of fluorosis was 7% (p<0.05) based on convenience sampling of the same age group. Both studies detected a Thylstrup-Fejerskov fluorosis index value of 1, corresponding to only a mild degree of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: The convenience sampling technique seems to have affected the prevalence of dental fluorosis identified, with a 4% difference between the two studies. The prevalence of dental fluorosis attributed to the use of fluoridated dentifrice in a population not exposed to fluoridation of the water supply was considered low.
  • Mercury Loss From Dental Amalgam Fillings ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Al-Khafaji, Thulficar Ghali Hameed; Al-Timimi, Aymen Hameed Orabi; Abbas, Ahmed Saadoon; Alanz, Mays Ali Azeez; Murshedi, Saja Jawad Kadhim; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the amount of mercury in new and old dental amalgam restorations. Material and Methods: This study analyzed twenty samples of dental amalgam restorations, dividing into two groups. Group 1 consisted of samples of new dental amalgam restoration (n=10) and group 2 consisted of samples of old dental amalgam restoration (5-years old) (n=10). In each group, the mercury involved in the dental amalgam restoration was calculated using the cloud point extraction (CPE) method. The new dental amalgam restorations are taken from the patients' mouth after condensation and analyzed directly after setting. The old dental amalgam restorations are removed from the patients' mouth, after 5 years of use by the patients, and then they are analyzed. The independent-samples t-test was used to analyze the differences (p<0.05). Results: For new amalgam restorations, the mean of mercury was 0.1281 µg/mL, while for old restorations it was 0.1029 µg/mL. There was a significant difference between the new and old amalgam restorations in the amount of mercury available (p<0.001). Conclusion: There is a significant loss of mercury over a five years period in the patient mouth.
  • Impact of Early Childhood Caries and Maternal Behaviors on Oral Health-Related Quality of Life of Children ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Pereira, Joanna Tatith; Knorst, Jessica Klöckner; Luz, Patrícia Blaya; Bonfadini, Inaiá; Scapinello, Monique; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Araujo, Fernando Borba de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the impact of early childhood caries, maternal behaviors and associated factors on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of preschool children. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 163 preschool children aged 3-4 old from Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Mothers completed the Brazilian version of the Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) and answered questions about sociodemographic and maternal behaviors characteristics. The severity of dental caries was assessed by ICDAS criteria for evaluated early childhood caries (ECC). A Poisson regression model was used to investigate the association of ECC and associated factors on OHRQoL. Results: A total of 91.4% of preschooler children was ECC (ICDAS ≥ 1). Mean ECOHIS function domain and parental anxiety domain scores were significantly higher in children with dental caries (p<0.05). The adjusted Poisson regression model showed that household income, maternal education, mother’s job status and breastfeeding time was significantly associated with ECOHIS scores. Regarding oral conditions, child caries experience was associated with worsening child and family quality of life (RR 2.21; 95% IC: 1.43-3.41). Conclusion: Our findings suggest that ECC, socioeconomic and maternal behaviors characteristics influence children’s OHRQoL.
  • Factors Associated with Malocclusion in Preschool Children in a Brazilian Small Town ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Assis, Wagner Couto; Pereira, Jennifer Santos; Silva, Yvina Santos; Brito, Flávia Rocha; Nunes, Lorena Andrade; Ribeiro, Ícaro José Santos; Casotti, Cezar Augusto

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with malocclusions in preschool children. Material and Methods: A census, epidemiological study, with a cross-sectional, descriptive and analytic sample, was carried out with children aged between 4 and 6 years, matriculated in preschools in the town of Aiquara, Bahia, Brazil. Malocclusion in the deciduous dentition was determined through the application of the index proposed by WHO, with the Foster and Hamilton criteria also being incorporated. The data was tabulated in duplicate in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet and following correction, was analyzed using the SPSS, STATA and PAST Software. In order to identify the associated factors, we opted for Multiple Poisson regression analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Results: A total of 148 children were examined and the general prevalence of malocclusions was 69.59%, with 57.5% in the group of 4-year-old, 76.92% those aged 5 years old and 72.46% among children aged 6 years old. In terms of primary canines, 66.2% were identified as class I, 25.7% as class II and 8.1% as class III. Normal overjet was 41.2%, increased overjet 34.5%, edge to edge bite 17.6% and anterior crossbite 6.8%. The normal overbite 51.4%, reduced 20.9% and deep 8.1%. Of the individuals, 20.9% had posterior crossbite. In the Poisson regression analysis and PCA, a statistical association between the malocclusions and dental caries, duration of use of pacifiers, onychophagia and thumb sucking, was identified. Conclusion: The prevalence of malocclusion in preschool children in the small town of Aiquara is high and the associated factors identified are capable of control and prevention.
  • Ricketts’ Cephalometric Analysis for Saudi Population ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Siddika, Ayesha; Rahman, Shaifulizn Ab.; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the cephalometric norm for Saudi sample by Ricketts analysis (RA). Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, cephalometric radiographs were taken for 500 samples. The subjects included 250 males and 250 females. The ages of the subjects ranged from 18-30years. The criteria of selection were based on Class I incisor relationship, no skeletal abnormality and no previous orthodontic treatment. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken, traced and digitized by SPSS software, according to RA. An independent t-test was used to test the level of significance between genders. Results: Significant disparities found between Saudi males and females in dental and soft tissue measurements. The result showed that the distal position of the maxillary first molar to pterygoid vertical plane (U6 to Ptv) measurement was highly significantly greater (p<0.001) in Saudi males than females. Lower incisor to A-Pog (L1 to A-Pog) and lower lip to E plane was significantly longer (p<0.05) in Saudi males than females. Other measurements had no significant difference between Saudi males and females. Conclusion: The craniofacial morphology of the Saudi males was different from Saudi females using Ricketts analysis. This study will help the clinicians to diagnosis and treatment planning of orthodontic and orthognathic patients.
  • Internet Addiction Among Iranian Students of Medical Sciences ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Torabi, Molook; Shahravan, Arash; Bahabin, Atefeh; Mohammadzadeh, Iman; Afshar, Marzieh Karimi

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence of Internet addiction (IA) and associated factors among Iranian medical students. Material and Methods: The cross-sectional survey was conducted on a random sample of 400 students. The self-administered questionnaire consisted of two sections: the first section was sociodemographic data, data about student's relations, and Internet use characteristics; the second part aimed at assessment of the level of IA using Young's 20-item scale for IA. Data analyzed in SPSS 20 at 0.05 significant level. Results: Considering their familiarity with the Internet, 80.3% stated personal experience and 12.3% individuals stated educational periods held outside the university. The most locations of using the Internet were dormitories (21.0%) and houses (43.5%). Concerning hours of Internet use, 45.2% used the Internet more than two hours per day. One hundred sixty-eight individuals (42.0%) stated that they used the Internet less than 15% for university activities. One hundred eighty-eight individuals (47.0%) used VPN and 75.5% were dissatisfied with Internet speed 61.2%. A total of 64.3% had a poor dependency on the Internet and the prevalence of IA was 3.5%. The mean score of IA questionnaire was 43.98 ± 15.92 from 125. The mean score of IA was higher in the male sex, but there was no significant correlation between sex and IA (p>0.05). There was not a significant correlation between the field of study and the year of entrance. Conclusion: The prevalence of Internet addiction among medical students was low. Identification of factors associated with IA can help in the planning of preventive programs to raise students’ knowledge about the hazards IA.
  • Oral Hygiene and Dentition Status in Patients with Congenital Hemorrhagic Disorders: A Comparative Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Kumar, Mathangi; Pai, Keerthilatha M.; Vineetha, Ravindranath; Kurien, Annamma

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the status of oral hygiene and dentition in patients with congenital hemorrhagic disorders with their age-matched healthy counterparts. Also, the prevalence of fear of dentists/ dental treatment among these patients was assessed. Material and Methods: This study was performed on children and adults with von Willebrand disease (vWD), hemophilia (A or B), and healthy subjects. Oral health and dentition status was assessed using the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), plaque index, and the decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) index. One-way ANOVA test was employed to compare the oral hygiene and dentition status of subjects in the three groups. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The DMFT score did not vary significantly between the groups (p>0.05). Higher OHI-S scores and a poor oral hygiene status was observed more in the hemophilia group than the vWD group and healthy controls. A total of 27.3% of the subjects in the vWD group, 18.2% of subjects in the hemophilia group, and no subjects in the healthy group had a fear of dentists or dental treatment. Conclusion: Subjects with vWD had a higher number of carious teeth when compared to the other groups. Poor oral hygiene status was observed in subjects with hemophilia.
  • Self-Perceived Preparedness to Work Independently Among Graduating Dental Students in Saudi Arabia: Traditional Versus Integrated Curriculum ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Vundavalli, Sudhakar

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the perceived preparedness of graduating dental students to work independently and to compare these perceptions between Traditional and Integrated curriculums of dentistry in Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A pretested self-administered questionnaire was filled by 258 dental students from four dental institutions across the country. The questionnaire covered 10 domains consisting of sixty suitable questions. Students were asked to mark their responses at one of five levels of performance for each of the selected skills ranging from 0 (not yet learned) to 4 (can do it confidently). Mean scores for each subscale of the Questionnaire were calculated by individual items and for all comparison, p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 253 graduating students were included in the final analysis, out of which 108 belongs to the Integrated curriculum group and 145 from Traditional curriculum. Overall scores of Traditional curriculum students (176 ± 4.8) were more compared to Integrated curriculum students (161 ± 3.2), which are statistically significant. Integrated curriculum students had more self-perceived skill scores in Orthodontics, Conservative/Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, Dental Public Health and Drug & Emergency management group of clinical skills. Overall, perceived preparedness to practice dentistry for all participants is 60.5% and traditional curriculum students expressed more preparedness (68%) than Integrated curriculum (53%). Conclusion: Overall, preparedness to practice independently is unsatisfactory compared to other countries. The Ministry of Education (KSA) should take necessary actions to bridge the gap between training dentists and to be competent practitioners.
  • Effectiveness of an Oral Health Education Program to Improve Mothers’ Awareness of Natal Teeth: A Randomized Controlled Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Bankole, Olubunmi Olusola; Lawal, Folake Barakat

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of an oral health talk aided by a video on improving the awareness of mothers about natal teeth in two rural communities in southwest Nigeria. Material and Methods: A cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted among 80 mothers in two rural communities in Nigeria, randomized into study and control groups. Baseline information was obtained with a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. The mothers in the study group participated in an oral health education program comprising of a video show on natal teeth in addition to an oral health talk. The control group did not receive any intervention. Post-intervention data was obtained three weeks afterwards. Data collected was analyzed with SPSS using paired t-test, independent t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The sociodemographic characteristics of participants in both groups were similar. The mean knowledge, attitude and practice percentage scores for the study group were 38.9 ± 26.3% (pre-intervention) and 73.6 ± 26.2% (post-intervention); while for the control group, the values were 43.2 ± 31.4% (pre-intervention) and 43.9 ± 32.4% (post-intervention). The study group, had a 34% increase in knowledge, attitude and practice percentage score (CI=23.7-45.5; t=6.4; p<0.001), while the control group, had an increase of 0.7% (CI=-0.7-2.2; t=1.00; p=0.323). Conclusion: An oral health education program comprising of oral health talk and a video about natal teeth improved the awareness of mothers about natal teeth as a normal phenomenon.
  • Comparison of TNF-α and IL-1β Concentrations in Gingival Crevicular Fluid During Early Alignment Stage of Orthodontic Treatment in Adults and Adolescents ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Afshar, Marzieh Karimi; Safarian, Fereshteh; Torabi, Molook; Farsinejad, Alireza; Mohammadzadeh, Iman

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) during early leveling stage of orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on 20 orthodontic patients, including 10 teenagers and 10 adults. Before bonding, GCF was collected with a paper strip in gingival sulcus of maxillary right central incisor on the disto labial aspect for 60 seconds, followed by bonding and insertion of initial 14 NiTi archwire. GCF collection was repeated 24 hours, 7 days, and 28 days after bonding. Measurement of TNF-α and IL-1β levels was done utilizing Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Data were analyzed in SPSS using repeated measurement test. Results: Concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β increased after treatment. There was no significant relationship between TNF-α and IL-1β concentrations subsequent to bonding in comparison to the baseline. There was no significant relationship in TNF-α and IL-1β level changes in the two age groups and between males and females. Conclusion: Concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β increased after treatment. Age and sex had no statically significant effect on the concentration of TNF-α and IL-1β.
  • Oral Habits: Prevalence and Effects on Occlusion Among 7 to 13 Years Old School Children in Aseer, Saudi Arabia ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Zakirulla, M.; Alshehri, Ali Dhafer; Hudaybi, Abdulaziz H.; Fageeh, Sahar N.; Alghothimi, Abeer A.; Ali, Mohammed G.; Almoammar, Salem

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of deleterious oral habits and its effect on occlusion in school going children from 7 to 13 years old, in Aseer region of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted by clinical examination for the total sample of 750, who were attending private/ government schools in Aseer region school. Students were selected by stratified cluster random sampling. Clinical findings of each oral habits, including assessment of malocclusion, were examined involving the following parameters, i.e., crowding, spacing, open bite, crossbite and deep bite. Logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Boys had 26.2 % of crowded teeth, while 16.3% of girls were found to have crowded teeth; the difference was found to be significant (p=0.002). Spacing was present in 26.4% of boys and 16.7% girls; a significant difference was found between the two (p=0.002). Sleep bruxism was observed more among male subjects than females with a statistically significant difference in detrimental habits (p<0.001). Those subjects having tongue thrusting are 1.264 times at more risk of having crowded teeth than those with no tongue thrusting. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of malocclusion associated with harmful oral habits in children. This highlighted the need to implement programs of oral care and health education for preventive orthodontic treatment at an early age.
  • Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) in Patients’ with Dental Prosthesis ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Bandela, Vinod; Munisekhar, Manay Srinivas; Patil, Santosh R.; Nagarajappa, Anil Kumar; Faruqi, Saif; Metta, Kiran Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Kanaparthi, Saraswathi

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) for post-treated fixed dental prostheses in selected sample of patients. Material and Methods: 120 patients treated with fixed dental prostheses, either single crowns or fixed partial dentures in maxillary or mandibular arches were asked to express their views about their quality of life. Patients’ files were randomly selected from the archives of Department of Prosthetic Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia. For this purpose, a self-structured questionnaire was prepared and their responses recorded. The responses were categorized on a 5 point scale and frequencies calculated. Results: Of 120 patients approached, 79 responded with the mean age group of 37 years. From the survey, it was noted that only three variables were statistically significant, those relating to the importance of natural teeth over fixed prostheses (p=0.046), the ability to chew all kinds of foods (p=0.021) and satisfaction with the occlusion (p<0.001). Conclusion: Oral health remains important, which directly or indirectly is related to many systemic diseases. In the present study, the majority of patients were satisfied with the treatment given.
  • Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Effect of Plantago Major Extract on Periodontal Pathogens ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Pensantes-Sangay, Sandra Jessenia; Calla-Poma, Roger Damaso; Requena-Mendizabal, Margarita Fé; Alvino-Vales, María Isabel; Millones-Gómez, Pablo Alejandro

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the in vitro antibacterial effect of different concentrations of the ethanol extract of Plantago major (plantain) on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Material and Methods: Bacterial susceptibility tests were used in conjunction with the agar diffusion test and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test using the broth macrodilution technique. Results: Different concentrations of ethanol extract (25%, 50%, 75% and 100%) dissolved in 70% ethanol were used, with a positive control (0.12% chlorhexidine + 0.05% cetyl-pyridinium chloride) and a negative control (70% alcohol). The extracts at 75% and 100% showed inhibition halos against both strains studied. With 0.12% chlorhexidine + 0.05% cetyl-pyridinium chloride, inhibition halos averaged 14.9 mm, in contrast to 70º alcohol, where no bacterial inhibition was observed. The MIC was 50% for both species. Conclusion: The ethanol extract of Plantago major presents an in vitro antibacterial effect on Porphyromonas gingivalis, they may have potential applications in food and pharmaceutical products.
  • Chilean Health Professionals’ Attitudes Towards Deafness: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Campos, Valeria; Cartes-Velásquez, Ricardo; Luengo, Luis

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the attitudes of health professionals towards Deafness and its association with sociodemographic and Deaf contact experience. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Concepcion, Chile. The sample size was estimated in 171 health professionals. The following variables were considered: sociodemographics, Deaf contact experience, and attitudes to deafness scale (ADS scale). To evaluate the association between the variables, t-test and Spearman correlation test were used (p<0.05). Results: People who had taken a LSCh course had significant more positive attitudes towards item 1 “Deaf people should learn to lipread”, with a 2 points difference and in persons who do not know a Deaf person, with 1-point difference. Also, persons who have received some kind of formation in Deafness have a better attitude in item 3 “I would like to have more Deaf friends” with 1-point difference. An inverse correlation was observed within age (rho = -0.237; p=0.0014), years of academic service (rho = -0.323; p<0.0001) or PHC service (rho = -0.1085; p=0,364). Conclusion: The attitude of health professionals towards Deafness was neutral. This attitude is not modulated by sex, type of profession, type of relationship with Deaf people, type of training in hearing disability, Chilean Sign Language Courses or degree of frequency of healthcare delivery to Deaf patients. However, it is modulated by age and years of service.
  • Oral Health Status Among 12-Year-Old Schoolchildren in Kosovo ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Ferizi, Lulëjeta; Bimbashi, Venera; Kelmendi, Jeta; Olloni, Tetore

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the oral health status of 12-year-old schoolchildren in Kosovo. Material and Methods: The study involved 1204 schoolchildren aged 12 years from urban and rural areas, from different cities of Kosovo. The questionnaire included demographic data, gender, residence, dental status, oral hygiene, and daily brushing habits. The feasibility of the questionnaire was verified replicating it on 10% of the sample. Daily brushing habits were reported to frequency: as once per day, twice a day and rarely. Caries status was recorded in permanent dentition as DMFT and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified (OHI-S) was used to assess oral hygiene status. The analysis included occurrences and means. The differences among means were tested using the student t-test (p<0.05). Results: The highest mean and standard deviation of DMFT and OHI-S index was found among rural schoolboys 3.67 ± 1.98 and OHI-S 1.75. In total sample, 54.1% of them brush their teeth only once a day, 39.7 % brush their teeth twice a day and only 6.2 % rarely brush their teeth. Conclusion: Preventive measures are needed to improve dental health in 12 years old schoolchildren.
  • Frequency and Characteristics of Mesiodens in Indian School Children: A Retrospective Radiographic Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Patil, Santosh R.; Gudipaneni, Ravi Kumar; AlZoubi, Ibrahim; Araki, Kazuyuki; Rao, Krishna A.; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the frequency and characteristics of mesiodens in Indian school children. Material and Methods: 1232 radiographs of patients attending the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology of the age group of 4-15 years studied for the present retrospective study. The intraoral periapical radiographs and occlusal radiographs of the premaxilla were examined to determine the presence of mesiodens. The data regarding the presence of mesiodens, number, position, location on the arch, shape and associated complications were recorded. Results: Eleven patients had 14 mesiodens, with a frequency of 0.8%. The ratio of boys to girls was 1.2:1. Maximum mesiodens observed in the age group of 7-9 years. Most of the mesiodens were conical in shape and found on the palatal side. Fifty percent of the mesiodens were unerupted. The majority of patients (57.1%) had vertically positioned mesiodens. Midline diastema was the most common complication due to mesiodens (66.7%). Conclusion: Routine check-up during the primary dentition and mixed dentition stages helps for early detection of mesiodens and thus preventing complications. Early identification is useful for planning comprehensive management, initiating proper consultation and referral for evaluation and treatment.
  • Evaluation of Tensile Bond Strength of Metallic Prefabricated Posts Cemented with Different Luting Agents ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Vicentin, Morgana; Portella, Fernando Freitas; Reston, Eduardo Galia; Braga, Carlos; Bianchi, André Luis; Arossi, Guilherme Anzilliero

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the tensile bond strength of prefabricated metal posts cemented with different luting agents. Material and Methods: Fifty single-rooted endodontically treated human teeth had their crowns cut, mounted into acrylic-resin blocks and then an 8mm depth post space were prepared. Prefabricated cylindrical metal posts were cemented using different luting agents: a zinc phosphate cement (SS White), a conventional glass ionomer cement (Vidrion C), two resin-modified glass ionomer cements (Vitremer and RelyX Luting 2) and a resin cement (RelyX ARC). Samples were stored in distilled water for seven days and then submitted to a tensile bond strength test until complete dislocation of the post. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey test for pairwise multiple comparisons were used to evaluate differences between luting agents. Results: Tensile bond strength was 563.88±203.41 N for zinc phosphate cement, 336.86 ± 137.64 N for Vidrion C, 515.24 ± 239.48 N for Vitremer, 828.47±433.99 N for RelyX Luting 2 and 1262.51 ± 356.29 for RelyX ARC. The Relyx ARC presented the highest tensile bond strength regard the luting agent tested (p< 0.05). Conclusion: RelyX ARC presented the higher tensile bond strength compared to the other luting agents evaluated.
  • Self-Perception on the Institutionalized Elderly Need of Dental Prosthesis ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Oliveira, Arlete Maria Gomes; Carneiro, Joana Danielle Brandão; Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To make an association between self-perception and the implementation of sociodemographic variables for the autonomous and / or partially dependent individuals in nursing homes. Material and Methods: Epidemiological, observational and cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 208 institutionalized elderly, both sexes, 60 years old or older, independent or partially dependent, randomly selected from two long-term residential institutions. Subjective evaluation: self-perception questionnaire, Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index, quality of life assessment, Oral Impacts on Daily Performance (OIDP), oral health self-assessment (OH) and the need for dental prostheses. Bivariate analysis, chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were used, with the variables with p<0.05 remaining in the model. Results: Men were edentulous (53.43%), 68.75% used some type of denture, and 64.91% required dental prostheses, 60.58% self-assessed (OH) as good / excellent; who reported a need for dental prostheses presented 6.7 times (95% CI: 3.2-14.3) and more likely to have an impact on OIDP, those who needed prosthetics had a 2.8 times chance (95% CI: 1.3-6.1) (p<0.0001). The self-reported need for prostheses was associated with prevalence severity of impacts on QoL, eating, pronounce words correctly, Smile without feeling embarrassed; and the main reasons for not having badly adjusted teeth / dentures. Conclusion: The institutionalized elderly self-perceive the need for dental prostheses, but it does not have a negative impact on quality of life.
  • Impact on the Quality of Life of Older Adults Who Use Inadequate Dental Prostheses: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Silva, Michelle Almeida; Batista, André Ulisses Dantas; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães; Forte, Franklin Delano Soares

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the impact of inadequate prostheses on older adult’s quality of life at the Integrated Health Center for Older Adults in the northeastern city of Brazil. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 147 older adults aged 60-90 years old in João Pessoa, Brazil. Interviews and oral examinations were carried out to collect demographic characteristics (age and gender) and clinical dental measures (use of inadequate upper and/or lower dental prosthesis) and Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14 Questionnaire). The Pearson Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used to evaluate the association between the OHIP-14 dimensions and the use of unsatisfactory prostheses (p<0.05). Results: The sample consisted of 90.5% of women being a mean age of 69.86 (± 6.60) years. Individuals with inadequate prostheses had a higher impact on quality of life, with a predominant prevalence ratio for developing physical pain (PRR = 3.52; CI = 4.69-2.65), psychological discomfort (PRR = 5.0; CI = 5.85-4.26) and psychological inability (PRR = 1.71; CI = 2.56-1.14). Conclusion: The use of inadequate prostheses had a negative impact on the quality of life of the older adult population. Therefore, services, which provide health care for older adults, should overcome this reality by providing broad access to oral rehabilitation that is appropriate to the needs of each individual.
  • Assessment of Patient Satisfaction Level to Dental Health Care Services in Indonesia ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Akbar, Fuad Husain; Pasinringi, Syahrir; Awang, Abdul Hair

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To know the level of patient satisfaction with dental healthcare services in Bantaeng, Indonesia. Material and Methods: This pilot pathfinder survey was conducted at Dental and Oral Health Services in Bantaeng and Pa'jukukang Sub-districts of Bantaeng Regency of South Sulawesi Indonesia. The Short-Form Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-18) scaled was used and it consists of 18 questions and seven subscales. The t-test and ANOVA were used with a significance level set at 5% (p<0.05). Results: The female participation (72.8%) was greater than the male (27.2). Regarding age, 74.6% were <40 years, 21.1% were between 40-60 years old and 4.4% were over 60 years old. On the subscale of technical quality, there was significant value in the age variable (p=0.45), education level (p=0.031), job (p=0.026), waiting time (p=0.46), distance to dentist=0.026), and location (p=0.007). There were significant values on the interpersonal aspect subscale that were present at age (p=0.016), education level (p=0.038), and occupation (p=0.007). The highest satisfaction score was found on the technical quality subscale (13.04 ± 1.75) and the lowest satisfaction score was seen on the general satisfaction subscale (4.11 ± 1.75). There was a significant difference between the value of patient satisfaction with age, education, and occupation. Conclusion: Patients from the District Bantaeng and Pa'jukukang Bantaeng regency of South Sulawesi were more satisfied with the service provided. The highest satisfaction score was found on the technical quality subscale and the lowest satisfaction score was found in the general satisfaction subscale.
  • Patients Attitudes' Toward Chairside Medical Screening in a Dental Setting ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Navabi, Nader; Zeynali, Mahdiyeh; Mansori, Mozhdeh; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat; Nassab, Seyyed Amir Reza Gandjalikhan

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess patient’s attitudes toward chairside medical screening in a dental setting. Material and Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, subjects referring to the dental school, dental offices, and clinics of Kerman were evaluated. Each subject filled a questionnaire containing demographic data, patient's attitude towards the performance of examination and the medical status of the subjects. The questionnaire consisted of seven main questions and the subjects were asked to rate them from very important (score 5) to not important at all (score 1). Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests and t-test were used. Friedman's nonparametric analysis of variance was used to compare response items within each question. Results: Screening for medical conditions by dentists was important for most of the participants, and it was important for them to be monitored for their medical condition by the dentists. The majority of patients had the will to be screened for each medical condition by the dentists. Male subjects stated skillfulness and professionality (88.4%) as the most important characteristics of the dentist and compassion as the least important one (56.2%). Female subjects stated knowledge of the dentists (96.3%) as the most essential characteristic and compassion as the least important one (85.8%). The will to undertake screening tests was higher in elder subjects. Conclusion: Dental patients have a positive attitude for medical conditions screening. Screening for medical conditions in a dental setting is a new approach, which might be an important contributor to disease control in the general population.
  • In Vitro Evaluation of the Antibacterial Effect of Photodynamic Therapy with Methylene Blue ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Catão, Maria Helena Chaves de Vasconcelos; Batista, Ana Luzia Araújo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate, in vitro, the effect of photodynamic therapy (PDT) compared to laser therapy and the use of a photosensitizer alone. Material and Methods: The following therapies were used: PDT, laser therapy and photosensitizer alone. For PDT, methylene blue (MB) at different concentrations and red laser InGaAlP 660nm were used. For the use of low-power laser (LPL) alone, red laser InGaAlP 660 nm and infrared laser AsGaAl, 830 nm, both in continuous emission were used. Standard ATCC strains of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) species were used. The antibacterial effect of PDT was quantified by the diameter of the inhibition halos. Results: PDT (LPL 660 nm, 320 J/cm2) with MB at concentration of 50 µg/mL showed antibacterial efficacy only when tested against S. aureus and E. coli strains, as well as with the isolated use of MB at the same concentration. Using LPL alone, whether red or infrared, with different dosimetry, no antibacterial effect was observed. In none of the therapeutic modalities used, P. aeruginosa inactivation was observed. Conclusion: Antibacterial effects of PDT (LPL 660 nm + MB 50 µg/mL) were observed for S. aureus and E. coli, as well as with the isolated use of MB (50 µg/mL). For P. aeruginosa, no antibacterial effect with any of the protocols recommended in the study was observed.
  • Perceptions of the Use of the Diode Laser in Dental Surgery: A Qualitative Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Soares, Kamila Gomes; Carvalho, Tallyta Yohana Andrade de; Santos, Alice Machado Carvalho; Silveira, Lívio Barros; Costa, Lidiane Cristina Machado; Fernandes, Maria Luiza da Matta Felisberto; Fernandes, Alexandre Moreira

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To discover the perceptions of pediatric patients, their parents and undergraduate Dentistry students of the use of the diode laser in frenectomy surgeries. Material and Methods: A qualitative study was conducted through semi-structured interviews, recorded and transcribed with subsequent content analysis. Twelve healthy children (5-8 years old) who needed a frenectomy were selected and invited, together with their parents, to undergo laser diode surgery. In addition, 28 undergraduate dentistry students were invited to attend the procedures. One week after performing the surgical procedures, the children (Group 1), their parents (Group 2) and the students who attended the procedures (Group 3) were individually interviewed for the thematic analysis. Results: The analysis of the conversations identified three emerging contents: positive thoughts on the use of diode laser; frustrations from the use of diode laser; and aspects related to professional training. Conclusion: The results pointed to the acceptance of surgical laser use in pediatric dentistry; however, the feelings of frustration indicate that its use requires guidance from the child and his/her parents, in addition to careful handling and specific training.
  • Evaluation of Canine Transpositions and Related Dental Anomalies in a Turkish Pediatric Population ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Oz, Esra; Kırzıoglu, Zuhal

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of canine transpositions and to evaluate associated dental anomalies in a pediatric population. Material and Methods: This study was carried out by evaluating the panoramic radiographs of 11.750 patients ranging in ages from 6 to 17 presented to a pedodontic clinic over 5 years. The patients with canine transposition were included in the study. Age at diagnosis, gender, classification and location of transposition, presence of other dental anomalies were recorded. Differences were analyzed using the Chi-squared test. Results: Canine transposition was detected in 73 teeth from 69 patients (0.6%). Transpositions were more common in girls than in boys (55.1%). Transposed canine teeth were more frequently observed unilaterally (89%). The most commonly found transposition type was type 2 (42%). A total of 49.3% of 69 patients had retained primary canine teeth, 20.3% had congenitally missing teeth, and 11.6% had peg-shaped, microdont lateral incisors. Impacted teeth excluding third molars and taurodontism were also observed. Conclusion: Although the canine transpositions are generally asymptomatic in children in the period of growth and development, the importance of early diagnosis is crucial to prevent various clinical problems.
  • Assessment of the Need for Dental Treatment Resulting From Dental Trauma in 12-Year-Old Brazilian Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Paiva, Haroldo Neves de; Araújo, Cibelly Mara Pereira; Silva, Kayke Braulio; Silva, Talita Torquato Vinhal; Oliveira, Paulo Messias de; Paiva, Paula Cristina Pelli

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To identify the need for restorative treatment in 12-year-old Brazilian schoolchildren with dental trauma and its association with clinical and socioeconomic factors. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional population-based study was carried out with sample composed of 588 12-year-old students from the city of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Data were collected from August to November 2016 through clinical examination, adopting the Andreasen classification and semi-structured questionnaire to verify the etiology and location of the accident that resulted in dental trauma. Statistical analysis included the frequency distribution and bi and multivariate analysis, with 5% significance level. Results: The presence of 219 traumatized teeth in 176 students was observed (29.9%). The main lesion was enamel fracture (41.4%), followed by enamel and dentin fracture (39.4%). The presence of restorative treatment was observed only in 11.5% of students. Fall (43.5%) was the most frequent etiology, followed by accidents on the streets (35.8%). Need for treatment was present in 53.4% of adolescents. Statistically significant association between males (p=0.010), severe overjet (p<0.0001) and inadequate lip protection (p<0.0001) and presence of dental trauma was observed. Maternal schooling over 8 years of study was statistically associated with need for restorative treatment (OR = 2.047; CI: 1.099-3.813; p=0.023). Conclusion: Prevalence of dental trauma, need for restorative treatment and number of adolescents with no access to restorative treatment in this study were high, point out that the health system is unable to satisfactorily prevent dental trauma and absorb all dental treatment demand resulting from dental trauma.
  • Association Between Periodontal Health Knowledge and Oral Hygiene in Brazilian Adolescents ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Marchetti, Gisele; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Reis, Giselle Emilãine da Silva; Vendruscolo, Joana Leticia; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of oral health knowledge in adolescents’ oral hygiene pattern. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study involving 291 participants aged between 14 and 19 years old enrolled in a public school in Curitiba, Brazil. A self-administered questionnaire containing five affirmations about periodontal diseases and their forms of prevention was arranged on a three-point Likert scale. Correct answers were given a weight=1 and incorrect ones, weight=0. The knowledge score (KS) was determined by the sum. Socioeconomic and demographic data were obtained by a questionnaire sent to those responsible. The oral hygiene pattern was evaluated through the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S) by a calibrated researcher (K=0.89). Mann-Whitney U test and univariate and multivariate Poisson regression with robust variance were used for data analysis (α=0.05). Results: There was an inversely proportional association between KS and OHI-S (p=0.018). The multiple model showed that adolescents with a lower KS (PR = 0.93, CI95%: 0.88-0.99), male gender (PR = 1.17, CI95%: 1.01-1.37) and whose caregivers presented a lower level of education (PR=1.30, CI95%: 1.03-1.64) showed a higher index of dental plaque. Conclusion: The level of oral health knowledge, the gender and the caregivers’ level of education influences the adolescents’ oral hygiene pattern.
  • Development of a Mobile Application for Acquiring Clinical and Laboratorial Skills and Abilities in Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Lins, Renata Matos Lamenha; Alves, Gabriela Freire; Costa, José Claudio Santos; Barbosa, Matheus Santos Mafra; Silva, Caio Barbosa Vieira da; Santos, Jovenildo Wanderley; Pugliesi, Daniela Maria Carvalho; Santos, Valdeci Elias

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To develop an educational mobile application as a dynamic platform provided free of charge, including several clinical and laboratory protocols for a wider range of skills and greater knowledge on the strategic axes of child dental care: Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics. Material and Methods: The prototype tool was structured as follows: development of clinical and laboratory contents to be addressed, software selection, layout format, inclusion of features, applicability and acceptability tests of the operational system, and indexation on the Play Store® application store (free of charge). Results: The mobile application has shown to be a tool capable of storing and providing data through various audiovisual media formats on clinical and laboratory contents of child dental care. Media resources were developed for the following themes: restorative dentistry in pediatric dentistry, radiographic techniques with pediatric patients, pulp therapy in deciduous teeth, traumatic injuries in the primary dentition, and preventive and interceptive orthodontics. The short-duration multimedia content, with different audiovisual formats, proved to be coherent with the peculiarities of each procedure, enabling to better visualize and understand the techniques. Moreover, the rewind, fast forward, and pause features were included in the mobile application, as well as the possibility of saving print screens, as well as highlighting and searching for contents of interest. Conclusion: The OdontoPed-Helpbox® demonstrated to be able to reach new strategies for the dynamic teaching-learning process, through operational efficiency. It proved to be a useful and instant tool for providing information to support clinical decision making in Dentistry.
  • Access to Oral Health Actions According to Social and Individual Determinants ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Freire, Deborah Ellen Wanderley Gomes; Soares, Renata de Souza Coelho; Madruga, Renata Cardoso Rocha; Santos, Antares Silveira; Medeiros, Vanessa Alves de; Lira, Allyson Martim Medeiros; Rodrigues, Anny Mirene Alves Moreira; Bernadino, Ítalo de Macedo; Cardoso, Andreia Medeiros Rodrigues; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the socioeconomic, demographic and health needs that influence the access to oral health actions. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of 609 individuals who lived in areas covered by the Family Health Strategy in a city of the Northeast of Brazil. All individuals living in areas covered by the FHS with age equal to or higher than six years were included. Data analysis included descriptive, bivariate and multivariate statistics using decision-tree based Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID). Results: Most participants were female, aged 25-34 years, ranging in age from 6 to 87 years. It was evidenced that, among the studied variables, the most relevant for understanding the access to oral health actions were: age (p<0.001), educational level (p-value in Node 1 = 0.009; p-value in Node 7 = 0.005) and self-perception of oral health (p=0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that access to oral health actions is influenced by several social and individual factors, and it is marked by inequalities that favor individuals with higher educational level, better self-perception of oral health and lower age groups.
  • Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and Antifungal Potential of an Extract From the Leaves of Guapira Graciliflora Mart. Against Oral Microorganisms of Dental Interest ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Araújo, Thiara Karine de; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Maia, Carolina Medeiros de Almeida; Alves, Pollianna Muniz; Nonaka, Cassiano Francisco Weege; Silva, Priscilla Guimarães; Lima, Rennaly de Freitas; Godoy, Gustavo Pina

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To perform an in vitro analysis of antibacterial and antifungal potential of an alcoholic extract from the leaves of Guapira Graciliflora Mart. against oral microorganisms and determine its chemical composition. Material and Methods: A hydroalcoholic extract of the leaves form G. graciliflora was obtained through maceration, vacuum concentration and freeze-drying. Antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus mitis and strains of Candida albicans using broth microdilution method. Phytochemical analysis determined the total phenolic compounds, protein concentration and total of sugars present in the extract. Results: G. Graciliflora demonstrated antifungal activity against the LM 11 and LM 410 clinical isolates of C. albicans (MIC 0.5 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL, respectively). The other microorganisms tested were resistant to the extract. The phytochemical analysis revealed 3% proteins, 13% total sugars and 17% phenolic compounds. Conclusion: G. Graciliflora has antifungal activity against clinical strains of C. albicans and exhibits proteins, sugars and phenolic compounds in its chemical composition.
  • Smoking-Alcohol-Sex Exposure and Knowledge About Oral and Oropharyngeal Cancer Among Brazilian Adolescents: An Exploratory-Observational Approach ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Santos, Gracielle Bezerra Gracino dos; Wanderley, Arthur Eric Costa; Menezes, Pedro de Lemos; Santos, Vanessa de Carla Batista dos; Barbosa, Kevan Guilherme Nóbrega; Ferreira, Sonia Maria Soares

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the involvement of young Brazilian students about five behaviors: tobacco use, alcohol consumption, sexual intercourse, knowledge about HPV, and knowledge about oral and oropharyngeal cancer. Material and Methods: Through a cross-section design, we explored some factors that might be associated with boys and girls. Statistical Regression methods were applied to identify differences, considering the estimation of the Odds Ratio. Results: Half of the sample had already consumed alcohol and at least 1 in 10 individuals had already tried smoking. One-third of adolescents have had sexual intercourse. Three factors related to boys were associated in the multiple regression analysis: have heard about HPV, have not heard about oral cancer, and think that HPV can cause oropharyngeal cancer. In conclusion, it seems that boys and girls were equally exposed to smoking-alcohol-sex; however, some differences were verified concerning the knowledge about HPV and oral / oropharyngeal cancer. Conclusion: Keep monitoring adolescents should be a priority to our study area, considering that those youngers had already being exposed to the risk factors for cancer.
  • Dispensing Device to Deliver Small and Standardized Amount of Fluoride Dentifrice on the Toothbrush ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Chedid, Silvia José; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of a dispensing device specially developed to standardize the amount of fluoride dentifrice to be delivered on the toothbrush. The amount and variability of dentifrice applied using this device were compared with recommendations to apply dentifrice amounts equivalent to “rice size” or “pea-size”. Material and Methods: Two dentifrices, one used by children (NaF/Silica-based) and one used by the entire family (MFP/CaCO3-based), and five methods to apply them on the toothbrush (pea and rice sizes, and three different amounts using the developed device) were tested by 12 volunteers. The amount of dentifrice placed on the toothbrush was weighed, and the experiment was repeated three times. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: No differences were observed between the dentifrices used (p>0.05), but the method of application significantly affected the amount of dentifrice applied (p<0.05). Smaller amounts (p<0.05) and less variability were observed when the volunteers used the dispenser device than when they were asked to apply a pea or rice size. Conclusion: The device can help parents and caregivers to safely use fluoride dentifrice on children.
  • In Vitro Effect of Acidic Challenges on the Physical Properties of Dental Prosthesis Artificial Teeth ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Gondim, Laísa Daniel; Magalhães, Taís Chaves; Lopes, Alana Gail; Aguiar, Marjorie Izabella Batista; Carlo, Hugo Lemes; Barbosa, Tais de Souza; Carvalho, Fabíola Galbiatti de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of immersion and acid challenge with cola drink on color change (ΔE), Vickers hardness (VHN) and surface roughness (Ra) of artificial acrylic resin teeth. Material and Methods: The artificial teeth were divided into 6 groups (n= 8): TC (Trilux/Control), BC (Biotone/Control), TAC (Trilux/Acid challenge), BAC (Biotone/Acid challenge), TI (Trilux/Immersion) and BI (Biotone/Immersion). The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin and the labial side was serially polished to provide appropriate flat surface. The samples of TC, BC, TI, BI groups were immersed in artificial saliva and cola drink (coke) for 7 days, respectively. The acid challenge was performed with immersion of samples in coke for 5 min, and subsequently immersion in artificial saliva for 2h. This cycle was repeated at 4 times/day, during 7 days. The tests of VHN, ΔE and Ra were analyzed before and after the challenge and immersion groups. Data was analyzed by ANOVA, Tukey and T test (α = 0.05). Results: There was no difference in Ra values between groups after treatments. However, there was a decrease in VHN for all groups. BI (19.2 ± 0.3) presented significantly lower hardness than BAC (19.5 ± 0.9) and BC (20.2 ± 0.5). Groups BI (2.18 ± 0.41) and TI (1.50 ± 0.43) had statistically higher ΔE compared to the other groups. Conclusion: The hardness of resin teeth decreased after acid challenges, but the roughness surface was not affected. The color was more affected by the times of exposure in cola beverage and remineralization in artificial saliva, which were associated to the material degradation.
  • Patterns of Mandibular Third Molar Impaction in an Iranian Subpopulation ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Rezaei, Farzad; Imani, Mohammad Moslem; Khavid, Atefeh; Nabavi, Anna

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the patterns of mandibular third molar impaction in an Iranian subpopulation. Material and Methods: This retrospective descriptive study evaluated 1000 panoramic radiographs retrieved from the archives of a private radiology clinic in Kermanshah city, Iran. Depth of impaction, position of impacted mandibular third molar relative to the mandibular ramus according to Pell and Gregory’s classification and angle of impacted tooth according to Winter’s classification were determined. Data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Wilcoxon tests. Results: Of 1000 radiographs, 230 (23%) showed an impaction of at least one mandibular third molar. Mandibular third molar impaction was more common in females (60%). Mesioangular (35.9%) and vertical (34.8%) impactions were the most common angles of impaction in the right and left sides, respectively. Level C (40.3%) and Class I (63.7%) were the most common types of impaction in terms of depth of impaction and position relative to ramus, respectively. No significant difference was observed between the right and left sides of the mandible in terms of patterns of mandibular third molar impaction (p>0.05). Conclusion: Mandibular third molar impaction was relatively common in the studied population. The mesioangular, level C and Class I impaction patterns were the most frequent.
  • Nasal Septum Perforation Associated to Histoplasmosis: A Retrospective Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Pineda, Jacinto; Merino-Alado, Rommie; Mata-Essayag, Sofia; Landaeta, Maria Eugenia; Garrido, Liseloth; Rosas, Maria del Mar

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of nasal septum perforation associated to Histoplasma sp. Material and Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted with patients who developed nasal septum perforation associated to histoplasmosis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical manifestations and confirmed with mycological direct examination with Giemsa stain, culture, serologic tests (immunodiffusion method), and histopathology with hematoxylin-eosin, Grocott methenamine (GMS) and Periodic Acid-Schiff stain (PAS). Results: Out of 1654 medical records reviewed with diagnosis of histoplasmosis in the study period, we found 22 cases with nasal septum perforation. Autoimmune disease was present in 6 patients; all six were on immunosuppressive treatment. Two patients had HIV/AIDS, one of them had also paracoccidiodomycoses and the remaining had no apparent underlying disease or conditions. Conclusion: Physicians of endemic areas such as Venezuela, must consider this entity in the differential diagnosis with other diseases.
  • Bactericidal and Smear Layer Removal Efficacy of Herbal Alternatives Against Enterococcus Faecalis Dentinal Biofilm - An ex-vivo Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Subbiya, Arunajatesan; Roopchander, Krishnamurthy; Mahalakshmi, Krishnan; Padmavathy, Kesavaram; Vivekanandan, Paramasivam

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the antibacterial and smear layer removal ability of Trigonella foenum, Syzygium cumini, Terminalia chebula seed extracts against E. faecalis dentinal biofilm. Material and Methods: Agar well diffusion, micro broth dilution assay and time-kill curve assay were performed to determine the antibacterial activity. The ability of the herbal extracts to remove the smear layer on the root canal surface was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: Antibacterial activity was observed for the extracts of S. cumini and T. chebula on E. faecalis dentinal biofilm and its planktonic counterparts. The smear layer was efficiently removed by the seed extracts of T. chebula alone. Seed extracts of T. foenum neither possessed antibacterial effect nor smear layer removal ability. Conclusion: The extracts of T. chebula seeds may replace conventional irrigant due to its antibacterial properties and smear layer removing the ability. The extracts of S. cumini may be used as an intracanal medicament as it exhibited a bactericidal effect against the E. faecalis dentinal biofilm following 18 hours of incubation.
  • Occurrence and Severity of Oral Mucositis in Brazilian Pediatric Cancer Patients ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Pires, Hévila de Figueiredo; Bezerra, Paula Maria Maracajá; Silva, Victor Borges da; Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; Serpa, Eliane Batista Medeiros; Sousa, Simone Alves de; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the occurrence and severity of oral mucositis (OM) and the factors associated with the onset of severe oral mucositis (SOM) in pediatric cancer patients. Material and Methods: This was a longitudinal and prospective study with 85 children and adolescents (aged 0 to 19 years) admitted to the Pediatric Oncology Sector of Napoleão Laureano Hospital between November 2016 and July 2019. The patients’ sociodemographic and epidemiological information, as well as hematological and biochemical parameters, were obtained from their medical charts. The oral mucosa of study participants was assessed through the modified Oral Assessment Guide (OAG) at baseline and after the 2nd, 5th and 10th week of antineoplastic treatment. Data were analyzed by Chi-square test to determine the factors associated with the occurrence of SOM (p<0.05). Results: The occurrence of OM was more frequent in the 2nd (60%), 5th (40.9%) and 10th week (43.2%) of antineoplastic treatment. During the follow-up period, SOM was more frequent in the 5th week (34.7%), followed by the 2nd (32.3%) and 10th weeks (29.7%). There was no association between the occurrence of SOM and the patient's age, type of tumor, chemotherapy regimen, and hematological and biochemical parameters. Conclusion: The occurrence of oral mucositis in pediatric cancer patients was significant, especially in the 2nd week of antineoplastic treatment. Severe oral mucositis was more prevalent in the 5th week of treatment and was not associated with any of the study variables.
  • Tobacco and Alcohol Use and Clinical Staging of Head and Neck Tumors ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Silva, Cátia Maria Guanaes; Araújo, Danilo Barral de; Martins, Gabriela Botelho; Campos, Elisângela de Jesus; Araújo, Roberto Paulo Correia de

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the relationship between tobacco and alcohol consumption and staging of head and neck cancer in patients treated at a referral hospital for cancer treatment. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study based on medical records of patients with head and neck cancer treated between 2008 and 2015. The following variables were considered: gender, age, marital status, educational level, place of residence, profession, affected site, clinical staging of neoplasms, histopathological diagnosis, tobacco and alcohol consumption. Results: Of the 154 medical records analyzed, there was a predominance of male patients (72.7%), single (50%), with low education (88.1%), rural workers (38.3%), residents in the state countryside (70.2%) and aged 20-94 years. T3 and T4 size tumors prevailed. A significant correlation was found between alcohol use and tumor size (p=0.03) and presence of nodules (p<0.001), as well as between alcohol use and smoking with tumor size (p=0.04) and presence of nodules (p=0.019). No correlations were observed between tobacco use and injury staging. Conclusion: There was strong significance between tumor size and presence of nodules, both with the use of alcohol alone and with tobacco, thus suggesting the existence of important carcinogenic action of this substance.
  • Socioeconomic Disparities in Oral Health Related Quality of Life of Schoolchildren: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Moro, Juliana Silva; Massignan, Carla; Moccelini, Bárbara Suelen; Klein, Daniele; Cardoso, Mariane; Bolan, Michele

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze whether demographic and socioeconomic factors can influence the OHRQoL in schoolchildren. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study using a representative sample of 1137 children aged 8-10 years, enrolled in public schools in Florianópolis, Brazil, was conducted. Children answered the Brazilian version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10) quality of life questionnaire and their parents responded to socioeconomic and demographic questions. Logistic regression models were used to analyze the data. Results: Higher probability of presenting a negative impact on the OHRQoL was observed in children whose skin color was non-white (OR 1.46, 95% CI 1.04-1.69) and female (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.04-1.69). Children in whom the head of the family had years of schooling 9-11 (p=0.001), 5-8 (p=0.005) and ≤4 (p=0.000) were more likely to have a negative impact on the OHRQoL. CPQ8-10 domains evaluation showed that variables education, gender, skin color, and age were associated with a negative impact on OHRQoL (p≤0.05). Conclusion: The educational level of the head of the family and the demographic characteristics of the children are associated with a negative impact on the OHRQoL.
  • Oral Hygiene and Dental Caries Status on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Gofur, Nanda Rachmad Putra; Handono, Kusworini; Nurdiana, Nurdiana; Kalim, Handono; Barlianto, Wisnu

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the oral hygiene and dental caries status on Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients, also it’s with SLE disease activity. Material and Methods: This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional approach. The study was conducted on 93 SLE patients from 2017 to 2019 on Saiful Anwar Hospital Indonesia. All SLE patients had clinical examination using DMF-T, Personal Hygiene Performance-Modified (PHP-M), Calculus Index (CI), Debris Index (DI), Plaque Index (PI) and Simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S). Clinical examination and laboratory tests are conducted to assess the activity of SLE measured using. The data were analyzed by One Way ANOVA test. Results: A total of 74% of subjects with SLE had dental caries. PHP-M with SLE severity was found significant (p<0.001) and a strong positive correlation (r=0.982). Plaque with SLE severity was found significant (p=0.001) and a strong positive correlation (r=0.938). OHI-S with SLE severity was found significant (p<0.001) and a strong positive correlation (r=0.953). DMF-T levels with SLE severity was found significant (p=0.001) and a strong positive correlation (r=0.974). It showed that the severity of disease activity was related to poor oral hygiene and a high incidence of dental caries. Conclusion: There is a correlation between oral hygiene, dental caries and SLE severity.
  • Disparities in Caries Experience and Socio-Behavioural Risk Indicators Among Private School Children in Lagos, Nigeria ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Olatosi, Olubukola Olamide; Oyapero, Afolabi; Onyejaka, Nneka Kate

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence and socio-behavioural risk factors for dental caries among children at selected LGAs in Lagos State. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study of 592 school children in four Local Government Areas of Lagos, Nigeria. The presence of caries was recorded using the World Health Organization criteria. Descriptive statistics were reported for analysis of comparative DMFT and SiC scores in relation to age, gender, and other socio-demographic variables. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the differential impact of the variables on the probability of being in the high caries prevalence group. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 16.0% with mean dmft for age 6 being 1.3 ± 1.57 while the mean DMFT for age 12 was 0.15 ± 0.67. The mean Sic for age 6 was 1.5 ± 0.53 while the mean SiC for age 12 was 1.09 ± 0.29. The mean SiC values was significantly higher in the primary and permanent dentition among those who had never visited the dentist, female students, those who don’t use fluoridated toothpaste and those who eat sweets and candy several times a day. After logistic regression analysis, those with no previous dental visit (OR=3.05; CI: 1.72-4.67) and females (OR=1.55; CI: 1.16-1.62) still had significantly higher SiC Values. Conclusion: The prevalence of caries was low in the study population. Being female, non-use of fluoride-containing toothpaste and not visiting the dentist were significant predictors of dental caries among children attending private schools.
  • Analysis of the Total Level of Flavonoids in the Brown Algae ( Phaeophyceae ) Extract as Analgesic and Anti-Inflammatory Drugs ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Tajrin, Andi; Chandha, Muh Hendra; Mappangara, Surijana; Ruslin, Muhammad; Samad, Rasmidar; Akbar, Fuad Husain

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the total level of flavonoids in brown algae extract Padina sp., Sargassum sp., and Turbinaria sp., which could serve as an analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. Material and Methods: This is an experimental study with a one-shot case study research design. The study sample consisted of three species of brown algae, namely, Padina sp., Sargassum sp., and Turbinaria sp. The study samples were obtained from Saugi Island, Pangkep, Regency. The sampling method used was convenience sampling. The total flavonoid level in the three extracts of brown algae samples was determined at three concentrations (150 ppm, 300 ppm, and 450 ppm) with three replicates. The analysis used a colorimetric method, a spectrophotometer and aluminium chloride as the reagent. Results: The total level of flavonoids in Padina sp. was the highest at 0.894 ± 0.027%, compared to the levels of 0.786 ± 0.075% in Sargassum sp. and 0.745 ± 0.016% in Turbinaria sp. Conclusion: Padina sp. had the highest total flavonoid levels compared to Sargassum sp. and Turbinaria sp. Flavonoid compounds from brown algae have the potential to be used as analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs.
  • Bacterial Colonization and Dental Implants: A Microbiological Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Manaf, Jasmani Bin Ab; Rahman, Shaifulizan Ab; Haque, Sanjida; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare colony forming unit (CFU) of oral bacterial from buccal mucosa and lingual buccal tongue among patients with a dental implant and normal oral hygiene individuals without a dental implant. Material and Methods: Twenty-six individuals with a dental implant and twenty-six individuals without dental implants were included in this study. The samples were sent to the laboratory to culture with Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI), prepared serial dilution and then spread to the blood agar. CFU was counted when a single layer of bacteria is formed on the blood agar at any dilution level. An independent-T test was used to compare the means different of CFU oral bacterial between control and test groups from buccal mucosa and lingual buccal mucosa, respectively. Results: Buccal mucosa control group (186.19 ± 5.61) and test group (186.65 ± 6.24) (p>0.05). The result from the lingual buccal tongue control group (198.38 ± 6.12) and test group (197.96 ± 6.50) (p>0.05). There was no significant difference between the control group and test group CFU bacterial load. Conclusion: The presence of implants in the oral cavity do not interfere or worsen the oral condition; nevertheless, the effect of implants surrounding oral flora is similar to natural teeth.
  • Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy in the Endodontic Treatment of Deciduous Teeth: In Vivo Pilot Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Fernandes, Maria Luiza da Matta Felisberto; Maia, Caroline Andrade; Santos, Alice Machado Carvalho; Vilela, Camila Rocha; Araujo, Felipe Ribeiro; Mohallen, Maria de Lourdes; Silveira, Lívio Barros; Fernandes, Alexandre Moreira

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) in infected deciduous teeth by quantifying the viable bacteria in root canal treatment. Material and Methods: Radicular canal cultures were collected (n= 10). Four intra-canal samples were collected at four different times in each of the sampled teeth, as follows: Time 1 (T1), baseline: After opening the pulp-chamber; Time 2 (T2): After application of aPDT; Time 3 (T3): After mechanical, chemical manipulation; Time 4 (T4): After a second application of aPDT. The aPDT was performed with a 4J/cm energy low-intensity diode, together with 0.005% methylene blue as a photosensitizer. The clinical specimens were taken to the laboratory for a bacteria count (colony forming units) and the results were statistically analyzed using the Friedman and Wilcoxon tests, with a significance level of α=0.05. Results: Statistical differences were seen between the numbers of bacteria at times T1-T2, T1-T3 and T1-T4 on the cultivated plates. However, no significant statistical differences were observed between the number of bacteria in samples T2-T3, T2-T4 and T3-T4. Conclusion: Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy can be a good co-adjuvant in root canal decontamination of necrotic primary teeth.
  • Effect of Experience in Landmark Identification on 2D Lateral Cephalograms on Performance of Dental Students Concerning Landmark Identification on 3D Cone Beam Computed Tomography Scans ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Golshah, Amin; Khavid, Atefeh; Nikkerdar, Nafiseh; Godiny, Mostafa; Imani, Mohammad Moslem; Mozafari, Neda

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the effect of experience in landmark identification on two-dimensional (2D) lateral cephalograms on performance of dental students concerning landmark identification on three-dimensional (3D) cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans. Material and Methods: This quasi-experimental study evaluated 40 dental students in two groups (n=20). Group 1 included senior dental students who had experience in landmark identification on 2D lateral cephalograms and Group 2 included third-year dental students with no such experience. Both groups received instructions on identification of eight landmarks on 3D CBCT scans. The coordinates of the landmarks were determined in x, y and z axes. One orthodontist determined the mean coordinates of each landmark as a reference by twice measurements with a one-week interval. The mean distance from the identified points to the reference points was reported as the mean consistency (MC), and the standard deviation of the mean was considered as precision of landmark identification. Data were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Results: The mean distances from the points identified as nasion, point B, orbitale, anterior nasal spine (ANS), menton, coronoid process and pogonion in x, y and z axes and point A in x and z axes (p<0.001) to the reference points in Group 1 were greater than those in Group 2 with no such experience. Conclusion: Previous experience in landmark identification on 2D cephalograms does not help in landmark identification on 3D CBCT scans and may even adversely affect the results.
  • Modeling the Growth of Bacteria Streptococcus sobrinus Using Exponential Regression ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Rohim, Rabiatul Adawiyah Abdul; Ahmad, Wan Muhamad Amir W; Ismail, Noor Huda; Ghazali, Farah Muna Mohamad; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To build an exponential regression model based on parameter estimation. Material and Methods: We developed a simple mathematical model to simulate the growth of bacteria and the exponential growth is often used to model population growth as such cell growth while the exponential decay is portraying a declining or decreases in the size of the population. An exponential regression method was used to fit the data and estimate growth parameter values Streptococcus sobrinus using statistical software SPSS version 20. Results: Based on the results of the parameter estimates, which is constant are 83.039 and b1 is 0.005 while R-square is 0.952. According to the R-Square results obtained, the model is good and appropriate. Conclusion: The model can be used to find the potential biological parameters, which may be able to predict the treatment outcome. This study helps researchers to understand the specific growth rate(s), which can be used to best grow the organism.
  • Diversity of Sub-Gingival Fluids Microbiota Compositions in Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients: A Case-Control Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Sutanti, Viranda; Suyanto, Eko; Mufidah, Mufidah; Kurnianingsih, Nia

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the diversity of microbiota in the sub-gingival fluids from periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and to know the relationship of microbiota abnormalities between periodontitis and RA. Material and Methods: Samples were collected from sub-gingival fluids of nine participants by swabbing technique. The participants were divided into 3 groups, namely the control (not periodontitis and RA), periodontitis, and RA. The total number of bacteria was calculated by using direct culture in serial dilution by applying the total plate count method. Isolation of microbiota was conducted by pour plates and incubated in an anaerobic jar. The bacterial diversity was performed by Simpson index and DNA Isolation. Results: There were differences in the concentration of sub-gingival fluids bacteria in the control group with the periodontitis and RA group. The microbiota composition profiles were different for each group. The bacterial isolate 4, 5 and 22 were found in all groups, while isolate 14 was assumed to be related to the metabolic pathway in microbiota abnormalities associated with disease progression. Conclusion: The Simpson index has a value >0.61 with high bacterial dominance; however, the diversity of microbiota is at a low level of diversity. We assumed that isolate 14 was associated with development of RA disease.
  • Effect of Listerine Mouthwash with Green Tea on the Inhibition of Streptococcus Mutans: A Microbiologic Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Moein, Niloofar; Alavi, Fereshteh Naser; Salari, Ashkan; Mojtahedi, Ali; Tajer, Amir

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate in vitro the antimicrobial effect of Listerine-green tea mouthwash on Streptococcus mutans (SM) in comparison with 0.12% Chlorhexidine (CHX) and Listerine-Zero. Material and Methods: The sensitivity and growth inhibition of SM bacterial species were evaluated and compared between Listerine-green tea, 0.12% CHX and Listerine-Zero mouthwashes. Sixty plates containing SM colonies were prepared in three groups (n=20), and growth inhibition zones were measured using the disk diffusion agar test in mm. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the efficacy of the three mouthwashes tested. Post hoc Tukey tests were used for two-by-two comparisons. Statistical significance was defined at P<0.05. Results: Analysis of data showed significant differences between the three groups (p<0.001); 0.12% CHX was the most effective mouthwash, and Listerine-Zero exhibited the least effect on the growth inhibition of SM (p<0.004). Conclusion: All three mouthwashes were significantly effective in inhibiting the growth of SM. The effect of Listerine-green tea mouthwash was higher than that of Listerine-Zero and less than that of 0.12% CHX.
  • Association Between Water Sanitation and Living Conditions and Dental Caries in Brazilian Schoolchildren ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Martins, José Carlos; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Vieira, Lucilene Conceição; Gaudereto, Diana; Andrade, Danielle Alves; Pinto, Rafaela da Silveira; Lucas, Simone Dutra

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the association between water sanitation and living conditions and dental caries in Brazilian schoolchildren. Material and Methods: A list containing names of children enrolled in 18 urban public schools was obtained. Then, data registered by community health agents from the family health strategy were consulted, aiming to obtain information about socio-environmental variables such as house type, number of rooms in the house, water supply, water treatment, waste, feces and urine disposal. For sample calculation, 95% confidence level, 80% test power and 5% error rate were used A total of 199 5-year-old and 137 12-year-old schoolchildren participated in the research. For examinations, World Health Organization recommendations for epidemiological surveys of dental caries were followed. Results: For 5-year-old children, dental caries prevalence was related to municipality of origin, water supply system and sewage system. For 12-year-old children, untreated water and waste collection were related to higher dental caries rates. Conclusion: Dental caries was associated to house type and water sanitation.
  • Efficacy of the Tent-Pole Technique in Horizontal Ridge Augmentation ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Doan, Tu Lam; Le, Lanh Duc

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of the technique for ridge augmentation prior to implant placement. Material and Methods: Six patients with nine sites presenting an initial ridge width of smaller than 4 mm were included in this study. The tent-pole technique (combination of osteosynthesis screws measuring 1.5 mm in diameter, ABBM, and resorbable collagen membrane) was applied at defect sites. After eight months of healing time, implants were placed in the treated sites. The primary outcomes (radiographic initial ridge width, re-entry ridge width, ridge width gain) were measured by cone-beam computed tomography in reference buccopalatal cross-sections and the secondary outcomes (clinical parameters) were recorded by a digital caliper at the first and second stages. Results: After grafting, the radiographic ridge width increased by 3.02 ± 1.11 mm (1.57-4.75 mm) at 2 mm below the crest and 3.32 ± 1.70 mm (0.23-5.66 mm) at 6 mm below the crest significantly (p< 0.05). For clinical results, the mean horizontal dimension gain was 3.21 ± 1.04 mm (1.83-4.57 mm), while the mean reduction in dimension was 0.38 ± 0.33 mm. These results were statistically significant (p<0.05). Uneventful healing and no infections or membrane exposure were recorded at all sites during the study process. Three of nine (33.33%) defect sites required additional bone grafting. Conclusion: The tent-pole technique is an effective method for increasing the horizontal ridge dimension, minimizing postoperative complications, and facilitating subsequent implant placement.
  • Different Molarities and Dissolution-Precipitation Duration Affect the Formation of Carbonate-Apatite Blocks for Bone Graft Material ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Eriwati, Yosi Kusuma; Yulfa, Raudhea Vala; Wijatmo, Irena; Irawan, Bambang

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine diametral tensile strength and water absorption ability of Carbonate-apatite blocks fabricated from gypsum precursors (CaSO4) through a dissolution-precipitation method, with different solution molarities and immersion times. Material and Methods: Thirty-six CaSO4 gypsum specimens with 6 mm diameter; 3 mm height (Group A for diametral tensile strength) and 36 specimens of 6 mm diameter; 3 mm thickness (Group B for water absorption ability) were used. Each group was divided into 4 group treatments of: 1) dissolution-precipitation in solution of 0.5mol / L Na2CO3 + 0.5mol / L Na3PO4 for 48 hours and 72 hours; 1mol / L Na2CO3 + 1mol / L Na3PO4 for 48 hours and 72 hours. The C-Ap blocks were then tested using ATR-FTIR spectrometer to identify the formation of C-Ap functional groups. Furthermore, Group A specimens were tested for diametral tensile strength using Universal Testing Machine, and Group B specimens were tested for water adsorption ability using an analytical balance by measuring initial and final weight after immersion in saline solution at 37oC for 24 hours. Results: The formation of carbonate-apatite (C-Ap) in groups with solution molarity of 1 mol/L for 48 hours and 72 hours resulted in a lower diametral tensile strength and water absorption ability than the groups with a 0.5 mol/L solution. Conclusion: Solution with different molarities and dissolution-precipitation duration affect the formation of carbonate-apatite blocks.
  • Mother’s Knowledge and Behaviour Towards Oral Health During Pregnancy ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Soegyanto, Anandina Irmagita; Larasati, Ratu Nabila; Wimardhani, Yuniardini Septorini; Özen, Buğra

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and behaviour of mothers in maintaining their oral health during pregnancy. Material and Methods: This study included 167 women in five community primary health centres in Central Jakarta whose last child ranged between 0-59 months. The participants were asked to fill the questionnaire “Knowledge and Behaviour Towards Oral Health during Pregnancy” (KBOHP). This questionnaire assessed the knowledge and behaviour in maintaining oral health during pregnancy. Results: Almost 80% of participants reported that they had government dental health coverage. Only about 16% of participants reported that they visit dentist before pregnancy and only about 32% of the participants reported to have oral health problems during pregnancy. Although they have oral health problems, only 18% of them visited the dentists during pregnancy. Only 33% of the participants knew that the periodontal problems can affect pregnancy outcome, and 54.5% of participants had never heard of a possible connection between oral health and pregnancy. About 74% of participants reported that they never had specific oral health care instruction during pregnancy. Participants who received oral health instruction from their health providers also tend to have dental visit during pregnancy. Conclusion: Knowledge and behaviour towards oral health during pregnancy in this population was still low. A program that is developed to improve knowledge and behaviour in maintaining oral health during pregnancy is needed.
  • Association Between Psychosocial Status and Orthodontic Treatment Needs in Indonesian High School Students ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Sari, Cinta Nurindah; Jazaldi, Fadli; Ismah, Nada

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine whether psychosocial status is associated with orthodontic treatment needs in high school students using the Psychosocial Impact of the Dental Aesthetic Questionnaire (PIDAQ) and the Index of Orthodontic Need (IOTN). Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study comprised 95 adolescents, both genders, aged 15-17 years old. PIDAQ was used to assess psychosocial status. The IOTN Aesthetic Component (IOTN-AC) and the IOTN Dental Health Component (DHC) was used to assess treatment needs. Examination of the oral cavity was carried out with the help of the IOTN ruler by observing the MOCDO components: missing teeth, overjet, crossbite, displacement, and overbite. The Chi-square test was used to determine the association of psychosocial status and orthodontic treatment need. The reliability test was carried out by using Cronbach’s Alpha test (0.978). Results: There was an association between psychosocial status and orthodontic treatment need based on the IOTN-AC (p=0.001) and between psychosocial status and orthodontic treatment need based on the IOTN-DHC (p=0.140). Conclusion: There is an association between psychosocial status based on the PIDAQ and subjective orthodontic treatment need based on the IOTN-AC, but there is no association between psychosocial status based on the PIDAQ and objective orthodontic treatment need based on the IOTN-DHC in students of SMAN 27 Jakarta.
  • Evaluation of Sleep Quality and Daytime Sleepiness in Dentistry Students ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Angelin, Thâmara Joyci; Mota, Kelly Rodrigues; Santos, Valdeci Elias dos; Silva, Leopoldo Cosme; Heimer, Mônica Vilela

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness in undergraduate dentistry students. Material and Methods: This research is characterized as an observational study of transversal type, having analysed undergraduate students in dentistry from a public university in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The sample consisted of 325 students enrolled between the 1st and 10th academic semester. Sleep quality was evaluated using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), while excessive daytime sleepiness was analysed through the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). The t-Student and Mann-Whitney tests were used for the numerical values, with the F-test (ANOVA) or the Kruskal-Wallis test being used to compare more than two categories. Results: It was observed that 71.1% of students presented a poor sleep quality, with more than half of the students exhibiting excessive daytime sleepiness (58.1%). A relationship between sleep quality and the academic semester was verified. However, gender and age were not associated with sleep quality or with excessive daytime sleepiness. Conclusion: A high prevalence of poor sleep quality and excessive daytime sleepiness was observed among undergraduate students in dentistry. The data suggest that the undergraduate degree in Dentistry can influence the students’ quality of sleep, regardless of age or gender.
  • Influence of Vestibular Bevel on the Success of Traumatized Teeth Restorations: Single-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial - Preliminary Results with 6-Months Follow-Up ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Magno, Marcela Baraúna; Jural, Lucas Alves; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the influence of cavosurface vestibular bevel (CSVB) application on the clinical success (CS) of class IV restorations of traumatized permanent teeth, the influence of the number of fracture angles and dental trauma recurrence (DTR) on the restorations retention rate (RRR) and incidence of pulp necrosis (PN). Material and Methods: Fifty-seven children and adolescents with enamel and dentin fractures requiring C-IV restorations were randomly allocated in groups with CSVB and without CSVB. The primary outcomes were the CS of restorations, evaluated using modified USPHS criteria, and the incidence of PN after a 6-months follow-up. As secondary outcomes, the influence of the number of fractured angles and the DTR on the RRR and on the incidence of PN were evaluated (p>0.05). Results: Of 57 children and adolescents, 74 teeth were restored, and 71 completed the six-month follow-up analysis. Teeth restored with and without CSVB displayed similar CS as well as the same incidence of PN (p>0.05). The number of fractured angles did not influence the RRR and DTR was not associated with PN (p>0.05). DTR was associated with a lower RRR (p<0.001). Conclusion: Cavosurface vestibular bevel did not influence the clinical success of Class IV restorations or incidence of PN after 6-months follow-up. DTR did not influence the incidence of pulp necrosis, but did negatively influence the restorations retention rate. The number of fracture angles did not influenced in the restorations retention rate.
  • Effect of a Resin Coating Material on the Microleakage of Class V Restorations With or Without Post-Operative Bleaching ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Hajilou, Samira; Zajkani, Elham; Naghili, Armaghan

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of a resin coating material on the microleakage of Class V composite resin restorations with and without post-operative bleaching. Material and Methods: Eighty class V cavities (3×3×1.5 mm) were prepared and filled with Z250 XT composite resin in the buccal and lingual surfaces of 40 sound human molars. Then the samples were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=20) and treated as follows: Group A: applying a resin coating (G-Coat Plus) on the restoration, then bleaching with 40% hydrogen peroxide; Group B: Post-Operative bleaching without prior use of resin coating; Group C: applying resin coating agent, and no further bleaching; and Group D: no resin coating, no bleaching. The specimens were thermocycled and immersed in 1% methylene blue for 24 hours, then cut into sections bucco-lingually. The samples were scored regarding the amount of dye penetration under a stereomicroscope (x20). Data were analyzed with Chi-squared and Fisher exact tests (p<0.05). Results: The maximum gingival and occlusal microleakage was detected in group B, while the minimum was seen in group C. In all the groups, microleakage at gingival margins was higher than occlusal margins (p<0.001). Conclusion: Application of a resin coating is an effective method in reducing microleakage of the restorations before and after bleaching.
  • Prevalence of Sleep Bruxism and Association with Oral Health Conditions in Schoolchildren in a Municipality in Southern Brazil ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Traebert, Eliane; Nazário, Andréia Clara; Nunes, Rodrigo Dias; Margreiter, Sissiane; Pereira, Keila Cristina Raush; Costa, Simone Xavier Silva; Traebert, Jefferson

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To estimate the prevalence of sleep bruxism and its association with oral health conditions in schoolchildren. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study carried out in public schools of Tubarão, SC, Brazil with students aged 10 to 15 years. The oral examination was performed in classrooms by dental surgeons, using the WHO criteria. Data on malocclusions, caries and dental trauma, fluorosis, bleeding gums and the presence of dental calculus were collected. For the diagnosis of bruxism, the criterion of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine was adopted. The chi-square test was used to assess the association between sleep bruxism and oral health conditions. Prevalence ratios and confidence intervals were estimated by Poisson regression with robust estimator. Results: A total of 389 students were examined. The prevalence of sleep bruxism was 22.0%. Schoolchildren with malocclusion, increased overjet and dental calculus showed a statistically higher and independent prevalence of 9.0% (p=0.003), 6.0% (p=0.006) and 19.0% (p<0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Prevalence of sleep bruxism was 22% in the study population and was associated with malocclusions, particularly increased overjet, and the presence of dental calculus.
  • Protein Profiles of Individuals with Erosive Tooth Wear ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Mulic, Aida; Tveit, Anne Bjorg; Vieira, Nicholas Modesto; Limesand, Kirsten; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine if protein profiles identified in saliva could be used to determine risk and severity of erosive tooth wear. Material and Methods: Three types of saliva sampling were performed to obtain saliva from 34 18-year old individuals that received regular dental check-ups, along with clinical status of the dentition and risk factor related to erosive tooth wear using the VEDE scale. Protein profiles in saliva were determined using electrophoresis and the calculation of the percentage of a specific band at a specific molecular weight in relationship to the total protein in that sample (% of total) using molecular weight standards. This quantification was repeated for each protein band across a range of molecular weights for each sample to test for association with erosive tooth wear status. Results: There were no differences in the number of detectable proteins sourced from the parotid gland, nor the unstimulated and stimulated whole saliva. Five out of the 34 individuals had no signs of erosive tooth wear despite an acidic diet and were more likely to have proteins with molecular weight smaller than 1 KDa (p=0.03). Conclusion: There is potential for the use of protein profiling to determine risks for erosive tooth wear.
  • Surgical Management of Frenula: Laser Therapy Compared with Z-Frenuloplasty Technique ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Marra, Paola Martina; Itro, Angelo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare intra- and post-operative consequences associated with Z-frenuloplasty and laser therapy for both upper labial and lingual frenulectomies. Material and Methods: Clinical data of 120 consecutive patients with a mean age of 11 years and 2 months (age range from 9 years and 1 month to 14 years and 3 months) with hypertrophic labial and lingual frenula were assembled. Of the 70 labial frenula, 35 were removed through Z-frenuloplasty (Group 1) and 35 with laser (Group 2); of 50 lingual frenula, instead, 25 were extracted through Z-frenuloplasty (Group 1A) and 25 with laser (Group 2A). The cutting device was Laser Diode Handy 10 in continuous mode. Finally, the time of the surgery, pain and swelling were measured 24-48 hours after the removal. VAS scale was used. Results: The time of the surgery, VAS score after the removal and the swelling were lesser in Group 2 and 2A. Conclusion: Both Z-frenuloplasty and Laser therapy are valid instruments to remove frenula. Moreover, laser offers more advantages like less use of anesthesia, no bleeding in the operating phase, no need for suturing, a faster tissue healing and minor limitations in speech and nutrition.
  • Patterns of Maxillary Canine Impaction in Iraqi Population ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Al-Turaihi, Bassam Ali; Ali, Israa Hussein; Alhamdani, Ghsaq Mahmoud; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction and whether the impacted canine cases have had a potentially good or poor prognosis if interceptive treatment was practiced at earlier ages. Material and Methods: 1755 panoramic radiographs of patients, aged 13 to 60 years, attending the University of Babylon, College of Dentistry for the period from November 2016 to July 2018 were collected and assessed for the presence of impacted maxillary canines. Subsequently, four suggested prognostic factors for each impacted canine were analyzed and recorded. Results: The prevalence of maxillary canine impaction was 119 (6.78%) with 89 unilateral impaction and 30 bilateral impaction resulting in a total of 149 impacted canines. Regarding the gender, impaction was more evident in females 70 than in males 49 with no statistical significant difference. For the side, impaction was more prevalent on the left (77) than on the right (72), also with no statistical difference (p>0.05). Following the analysis of the four prognostic factors, most of the cases, 117 (78.5%) had at least one prognostic factor to be poor. Although 82 (55%) of the cases had at least one prognostic factor to be good, only 4 had all the prognostic factors to be good. Conclusion: Although the cases that had a potentially good prognosis were little (4 cases), interceptive extraction of primary canines would mostly be beneficial for these patients as it will minimize the treatment time, cost and complications.
  • Measurement of Oral Medicine Learning Motivation in Dental Students Using Indonesian Version of Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II) ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Rahmayanti, Febrina; Irmagita, Anandina; Wardhany, Indriasti Indah; Gunawan, Billy

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the learning motivation level in Oral Medicine (OM) among Universitas Indonesia dental students. Material and Methods: This research used an analytic-descriptive study with a cross-sectional design by gathering data directly from total population of Universitas Indonesia dental students. Participants were divided into three groups based on curriculum: G1: pre-clinical who have not had OM, G2: pre-clinical who had taken OM, and G3: clinical years. Data gathering was using Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II), which include five motivation components: intrinsic motivation, self-efficacy, self-determination, grade motivation and career motivation. Results: The response rate of this study was 96.6% (743 subjects). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.941 indicated good internal consistency. In discriminant validity test, grade motivation and career motivation of pre-clinical groups showed no significant difference. Among three, G3 acquired the highest mean score for highly motivated groups (67.27), followed by G2 (65.89), ended by G1 (62.54). The highest mean score for overall motivation, acquired by G3. Conclusion: Clinical years group have the highest motivation level to learn in Oral Medicine.
  • Do Parents’ Oral Health Literacy Levels Influence Their Response to Interventions to Improve Their Knowledge of Traumatic Dental Injuries? ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Lisboa, Sara Oliveira; Assunção, Cristiane Meira; Junkes, Mônica Carmem; Yokoyama, Márjori Frítola; Couto, Ana Carolina Fernandes; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Paiva, Saul Martins; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To measure the influence of oral health literacy (OHL) level in the improvement of knowledge about traumatic dental injuries (TDI) after an educational intervention. Material and Methods: A total of 257 parents of children aged 0-12 years had their OHL level evaluated (BREALD-30). A leaflet with information about how to respond to TDI Emergency was developed and delivered to the parents. A questionnaire about attitudes towards TDI was administered before (TDIQ1) and after (TDIQ2) parents read the educational leaflet. The hypotheses were evaluated by non-parametric tests, correlation analysis and logistic regression. Results: The mean OHL score was 21.6. The means of correct answers in TDIQ1 were 5.5 and 5.9 (p = 0.066) and in TDIQ2 were 6.6 and 7.7 (p=0.003) between the groups with inadequate and marginal/adequate OHL, respectively. In the logistic regression, the total score of BREALD-30 and the maximum number of correct answers in TDIQ2 maintained statistical association when adjusted for schooling, gender, age of the parents, family income and the number of correct answers in the first application of the questionnaire. Conclusion: The level of OHL influenced the improvement of parents’ knowledge about emergency care in cases of TDI in children from an educational intervention using a leaflet, and this intervention was more effective for parents with adequate OHL.
  • Can Denture Wearing Increase the Nutritional Status in Pre-Elderly and Elderly Patients? ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Budiman, Liliana; Masulili, Chaidar; Ariani, Nina

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the relationships among tooth loss, denture wearing, nutrition intake, and nutritional status. Material and Methods: This observational cohort study was conducted on 26 patients (≥ 45 years old) at the Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia. Tooth loss was classified according to the Eichner Index. The Semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to measure nutritional intake (kcal). Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) and Handgrip Strength (HGS) assessments were employed to measure the nutritional status at baseline (before denture insertion), 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after denture use. Results: Significant differences in nutritional intake (p<0.05) between the Eichner B and C groups were noted at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after using dentures. Significant increases in nutritional intake were noted after wearing the dentures (p<0.05) when compared with the baseline values. The nutritional status was considered normal in 65.4% of the patients at 12 months and 38.5% at baseline. Furthermore, the nutritional status 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after wearing denture was significantly improved compared with the baseline values (p<0.05). Significant differences in HGS (p<0.05) were observed between the Eichner B and C groups at 6, 9, and 12 months after using the denture. However, no significant differences in HGS were noted before and after wearing the denture (p<0.05). Conclusion: Denture wearing can improve the nutritional intake and status of pre-elderly and elderly patients.
  • Maxillofacial Injuries in Brazilian Children and Adolescents Victims of Physical Violence: A Single Forensic Center Analysis ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Cavalcanti, Alidianne Fábia Cabral; Costa, Suellen Rabelo Rocha da; Goncharuk-Khomyn, Myroslav; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence of maxillofacial injuries resulting from interpersonal violence in Brazilian children and adolescents. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at a Center of Forensic Medicine and Forensic Dentistry with a sample of 335 medical reports of victims aged up to 19 years. Variables involved sex and age group, perpetrator, occurrence of the event, characterization of injuries, presence of maxillofacial injuries, type of tissue involvement, and injuries in the oral cavity. Data were analyzed using descriptive, and the Chi-square was used for categorical data. Results: Most victims were female (60.3%) and aged 15-19 years (57.6%). Aggressions occurred at home (50.6%), in the evening (39.5%) and involved perpetrators known to the victim (91.5%). Most victims had multiple injuries (75.8%), involving up to three regions of the body (93.4%). Injuries with blunt objects were the most frequent (86.2%). The prevalence of maxillofacial injuries was 36.7%, with low involvement of the oral cavity (8.4%). A significant association between the presence of injuries on the face and variables “perpetrator” (p=0.015) and “number of injuries” (p=0.006) was observed. Conclusion: Female adolescents were the main victims of physical violence, with repercussions in different regions of the body. The prevalence of maxillofacial injuries was high, although with little involvement of oral cavity structures.
  • Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-Kappa Ligand and Osteoprotegerin Expressions on Hyperglycemic Wistar Rats (Rattus Novergicus) During Orthodontic Tooth Movement ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Alida, Alida; Winoto, Ervina Restiwulan; Narmada, Ida Bagus

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the differences of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and Osteoprotegerin (OPG) expressions between normoglycemic and hyperglycemic Wistar rats (Rattus Novergicus) during Orthodontic Tooth Movement (OTM). Material and Methods: This study was true experimental with post-test group only. Thirty-two healthy male Wistar rats, weighted around 200-250 grams, 12-20 weeks old, were used as OTM animal study. They were divided into 2 groups (n=16), normoglycemic rats (normal blood glucose 80-120 mg/dl) and hyperglycemic rats (>250 mg/dl) induced by Streptozotocin with a dose of 30 mg in PBS injection intraperitoneally. A NiTi closed coil spring was mounted between maxillary first molar and incisors with the light force 10gf/mm2 in both groups to induce OTM. The studied animals were then terminated on days 1, 3, 6, and 9, respectively, and premaxilla was extracted. RANKL and OPG expression were examined utilizing immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis. One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD (p<0.05) were utilized to analyze the differences in the expression of RANKL and OPG between groups. Results: The hyperglycemic group on day 1, 9 rats showed a significant increase in the expression of RANKL, whereas OPG expression decreased significantly on days 1, 3, and 9. Conclusion: There was a significant increase of RANKL expression and a decrease of OPG expression in hyperglycemic rats as documented immunohistochemically.
  • Comparative Effect of Calcium Mesoporous Silica Versus Calcium and/or Fluoride Products on the Reduction of Erosive Tooth Wear and Abrasive Enamel Lesion ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Justino, Isabella Barbosa dos Santos; Alexandria, Adílis Kalina; Canto, Fernanda Michel Tavares; Leite, Karla Lorene de França; Vieira, Thiago Isidro; Cabral, Lucio Mendes; Silva, Raphael Ferreira da; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of a calcium nanocompound on the reduction of erosive tooth wear and abrasion. Material and Methods: Bovine enamel specimens (BE), were randomly assigned to the following groups (n = 10): G1 = Calcium mesoporous silica nanoparticles (Ca2+MSNs); G2 = casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP, 2% CPP-ACP, GC®); G3 = casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium fluoride phosphate (CPP-ACFP, 2% CPP-ACP + 900 ppm F-, GC®); G4 = sodium fluoride NaF (900 ppm F-, positive control); and G5 = distilled and deionized water (negative control). Each product was applied to the exposed area for one minute, three times per day for three consecutive days, and followed by the immersion of the specimens in Sprite Zero™ - a low-pH solution (2.58) for five minutes (Coca-Cola™). After the first and last erosive challenges of the day, the specimens were submitted to abrasion in a toothbrush machine for 15 seconds (200 g/BE). The specimens were analysed using 3D non-contact optical profilometry, with tooth structure loss (TSL) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). TSL values were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (p<0.05). Results: There were no significant differences between G1 (10.95 µm) and G3 (10.80 µm) treatments for TSL values; however both resulted in significantly reduced TSL values compared with the G5 (16.00 µm) (p<0.05). The G4 (12.26 µm) showed no statistically significant difference when compared to the G5 (16.00 µm). The groups G1 and G3 presented higher surface preservation than the G5. Conclusion: Ca2+MSNs was effective for reducing tooth surface loss caused by erosive tooth wear and abrasion.
  • The Substantiation of the Pre-Polymerization Heating Efficiency of the Dental Nanocomposite Material ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Khabadze, Zurab; Kulikova, Alena; Abdulkerimova, Saida; Bakaev, Yusup; Bakaev, Yunus; Todua, David; Mordanov, Oleg; Adzhieva, Anzhela; Davreshyan, Georgy; Solimanov, Shamil; Nazhmudinov, Shamil

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of pre-polymerization heating of nanocomposite filling materials on their strength properties within one manufacture group. Material and Methods: Two nanocomposite filling materials Enamel Plus HRi Universal Dentin® and Universal Enamel® were used. The linear thermal expansion coefficient (LTEC), Young's modulus and penetration depth were determined during the tests. Changes in the structure of materials were evaluated using electron scanning microscopy. Results: Dentin nanocomposite samples after pre-heating and polymerization have higher LTEC after 30°C compared to dentine nanocomposite untreated samples with statistically significance started at 62°C (p<0.05) and higher temperature. Pre-polymerization heated samples had a statistically higher LTEC (p<0.05) at 57°С. It was revealed that Young's modulus of the dentin nanocomposite samples after thermal processing at 55°C was higher in total after the first heating cycle by 15% compared to the untreated dentin nanocomposite samples (p<0.05). The volume of total porosity after pre-heating decreased to 5-7% (p<0.05). Conclusion: The material that has undergone preliminary heat processing is significantly less deformed under load than the material that does not have thermal processing during the research was established and also has a denser structure.
  • Clinical Comparison of Eggshell Derived Calcium Hydroxyapatite with Dycal® as Indirect Pulp Capping Agents in Primary Molars ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Reddy, Suravarapu Pavani; Prasad, Madu Ghanashyam; Radhakrishna, Ambati Naga; Sandeep, Rayala Venkata; Divya, Dangeti Venkata; Santosh Kumar, KVK

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite with Dycal® as indirect pulp capping material in primary molars. Material and Methods: A total of 32 carious primary molars from 22 children (6-10-years) were screened, of which 26 primary molars meeting inclusion criteria were selected and equally divided into two groups. At the first appointment, the infected dentin was excavated using a spoon excavator after treating the carious part with Carie-Care™ chemomechanical caries removal agent. After this, eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite in Group 1 and Dycal® in Group 2 were used as liners followed by restoration of the cavity with type IX glass ionomer cement. Clinical assessment for pain and radiographic assessment for measurement of the amount of reparative dentin thickness formation was performed at baseline, 8 weeks and 3 months. The data were subjected to statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results: Higher mean reparative dentin formation was found in eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite group than Dycal® group at the end of 8 weeks and 3 months and the difference was significant statistically (p<0.001). Conclusion: Eggshell derived calcium hydroxyapatite seems to be a suitable alternative to Dycal® (calcium hydroxide) that can be used as a liner for indirect pulp capping in primary molars.
  • Cytotoxicity of Calcium Hydroxide on Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Prasetyo, Eric Priyo; Widjiastuti, Ira; Cahyani, Febriastuti; Kuntjoro, Mefina; Hendrijantini, Nike; Hariyani, Ninuk; Winoto, Ervina Restiwulan; Nugraha, Alexander Patera; Goenharto, Sianiwati; Susilowati, Helen; Hendrianto, Eryk; Rantam, Fedik Abdul

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To examine the cytotoxicity of calcium hydroxide on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSC) to understand the characteristics for use in regenerative dentistry procedures especially regenerative endodontics. Material and Methods: HUCMSC was isolated, cultured, and confirmed by flow cytometry. The biological characteristics, such as cell morphology, proliferation, and protein expression, were screened. To check the cytotoxicity, HUCMSC was cultured and divided into two groups, the control group (cultured in minimum essential medium (MEM) alpha) and calcium hydroxide group (cultured in MEM alpha and calcium hydroxide). Methyl-thiazole-tetrazolium (MTT) assay was done on different concentrations of calcium hydroxide (0.39 to 25 µg/mL) and the cells were observed and counted. One-way ANOVA test was used with a significance level set at 5%. Results: Flow cytometric analysis confirmed positive of CD73, CD90, CD105, negative of CD45 and CD34. A significant difference was found between the concentration of 6.25 and 3.125 µg/mL (p=0.004). There was no significant difference among 6.25, 12.5 and 25 µg/mL concentrations. There was also no significant difference among 0.39, 0.78, 1.56, and 3.125 µg/mL concentrations. Conclusion: Even though calcium hydroxide is a medicament of choice in clinical endodontics, it decreases the viability of HUCMSC. The lower the concentration of calcium hydroxide, the higher the viability of HUCMSC.
  • Can be Grandmother as Child’s Daytime Caregiver a Risk Factor for Higher Caries Experience in Early Childhood? A Retrospective Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Pires, Bruna Thober; Pedrotti, Djessica; Silva, Cássia Mendes da; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Cançado, Márcia Figueiredo; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between child’s daytime caring person and risk for higher early childhood caries (ECC) experience. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of all clinical records (census) of children (0-3 years old) attended in a public dental clinic, which contained information about caries experience and child’s daytime caring person (mother, grandmother or others). Caries experience was dichotomized as dmft ≤ 2 or dmft >2. Data were analyzed by the chi-square (α = 0.05). Binary logistic regression models were built. Results: From a total of 310 children, 19% of children had the grandmother as daytime caring person. There was no association between child’s daytime caring person and caries experience (p=0.32). Logistic regression analysis showed that low daytime caregiver schooling (OR: 5.76 95%CI 1.18-28.18; p=0.02) and child’s age (OR: 1.14 95% CI 1.09-1.19; p=0.00) were risk factors, and breastfeeding duration (> 9 months - OR: 0.38 95% CI 0.21-0.68; p=0.00), no nocturnal feeding (OR: 0.50 95% CI 0.27-0.91; p=0.02), and absence of sugar consumption between main meals (OR: 0.50 95% CI 0.28-0.89; p=0.02) were protection factors for ECC. Conclusion: A higher caries experience in early childhood is not associated to child’s daytime caring person. On the other hand, the higher caries experience is associated with low caregiver schooling and older children.
  • Impact of the SARS-Cov2 Pandemic on Orthodontic Therapies: An Italian Experience of Teleorthodontics ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Putrino, Alessandra; Caputo, Martina; Giovannoni, Denise; Barbato, Ersilia; Galluccio, Gabriella

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the possibility of controlling patients at a distance according to principles of teleorthodontics to understand its possible usefulness in the future routine activity and the impact pandemic may have had on different types of orthodontic treatments. Material and Methods: One hundred orthodontic patients (57 F, 43 M, age 7-46) during quarantine were checked through videocalls and photos sent by patients following proper instructions. Three groups have been distinguished based on the type of therapy: A-fixed appliances; B-removable appliances; C-clear aligners. Relevant events about dental and gingival health, integrity of appliances, orthodontic therapies related symptoms and overall progress of treatments were recorded. Results: A and B groups reported higher percentages of gingival inflammation (27 and 22%), dental plaque (16 and 13%), deciduous tooth loss (8 and 16%). Bracket and attachment detachment were the most frequent events in A and C groups (22 and 23%). Pain and discomfort were reported in A and B groups (35 and 32%). Therapies continued to progress better in C (51% improved dental alignment) and B (31% improved malocclusions) groups. Conclusion: Orthodontics is safe and allows during emergencies to postpone checks. Everyday mobile-technology is useful in managing orthodontic patients unable to carry out in-person control. When their effectiveness equals other systems, treatments with clear aligners without attachments should be preferred in patients unavailable for regular checks.
  • Chronic Periodontitis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Analysis of the FokI Polymorphism and Perception of Quality of Life ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Santos, Romário Correia dos; Pinho, Roberto Carlos Mourão; Cimões, Renata

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze whether the FokI polymorphism (rs228570) present in the vitamin D receptor gene in type 2 diabetics is related to chronic periodontitis's clinical status and evaluates the influence of chronic periodontitis on the perception of quality of life. Material and Methods: It is a clinical and laboratory study, composed of a sample of 59 individuals with previous diagnosis of type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and chronic periodontitis, of both sexes. On clinical examination, socio-epidemiological data and quality of life of patients with the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) were recorded and a periogram was performed. Subsequently, saliva was collected spontaneously in sterile Falcon tubes (15 ml) and stored in the freezer at -20 °C. The purification of the genetic material was done with a PROMEGA kit (Wizard®), and the polymorphism studied was FokI (rs228570), found in the vitamin D receptor promoting region, with rs: 228570. After extraction of saliva DNA and purification, genotyping was performed by real-time PCR using specific allele probes (TaqMan® System). Results: The polymorphism of the vitamin D receptor gene was not positively associated with the severity and clinical characteristics of periodontitis, but suggested a relationship with the extent of the disease. Periodontitis also had no positive association with patients' perception of quality of life. Conclusion: The perception of quality of life of patients with chronic periodontitis and type 2 diabetes mellitus was compromised by the systemic condition, secondary to oral health, although some dimensions of OHIP-14 have been more frequently mentioned, such as psychological discomfort, physical pain and physical disability.
  • Variations in the Cross-Sectional Shape of the Apical Thirds of the Root Canals in Maxillary and Mandibular Teeth ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Arfianti, Rizky Putri; Artiningsih, Dewa Ayu Nyoman Putri; Nazar, Kamizar

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the prevalence of cross-sectional variations in the apical thirds of the root canals in maxillary and mandibular teeth. Material and Methods: Eighty tooth samples (maxillary second premolar, maxillary first molar, and mandibular first molar) were scanned using micro-computed tomography. The apical third area of each root canal was sectioned and the maximum and minimum diameters were calculated from the mesiodistal and buccolingual diameters. The shapes were categorized as a round, oval, long oval, and flat based on the ratios obtained. Results: The most common shape of the apical third of the root canals in the maxillary second premolars was oval (66.7%), followed by long oval (24.6%), flat (7%), and round (1.7%). The corresponding values in the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molars were oval (68.2%), long oval (22.7%), flat (9.1%), 94.1% of the distobuccal roots were oval, while the remaining were long oval (5.9%). All the palatal root canals were oval. In the mesiobuccal root of the mandibular first molars, 47.4% were long oval in shape, followed by 36.8% oval and 15.8% flat canals. All the mesiolingual root canals were oval, whereas, in the distal root, 68.4% were oval, 21.1% long oval, and 10.5% were flat. Conclusion: The oval shape was most commonly observed in the majority of the root canals. Knowledge about the apical anatomy of the root can help the operator improve the root canal treatment's success.
  • Effectiveness of Dental Health Education Intervention Using the 16-Surface Tooth Brushing Program Among 7-9-Year-Old Schoolchildren in Indonesia ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Setiawati, Febriana; Darwita, Risqa Rina; Fadillah, Fatiany; Adiatman, Mellisa; Soekanto, Sri Angky; Sjarkawi, Gita Ariffa

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the effect of dental health education for teachers and parents on children aged 7-9 years old. Material and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with a nonrandomized control group and a pretest-posttest design. The intervention group comprised 20 teachers and 66 mothers, whereas the control group consisted of 10 teachers and 54 mothers. Data on the knowledge and behavior of teachers and mothers were retrieved by pretest and posttest questionnaires. The 66 children in the intervention group underwent a 16-surface tooth brushing program, whereas the 54 children in the control group were only provided theoretical education by their teachers and mothers. The evaluation was conducted after one month to measure the children's dental plaque index. Results: An increase in teachers' oral health knowledge (16.7%), teachers' oral health behavior (20%), mothers' oral health knowledge (16.7%), and mothers' oral health behavior (20%) was noted; the children's plaque index was decreased (47%). Conclusion: The dental health education of teachers and parents (mothers) supported by the 16-surface teeth brushing program resulted in a significant reduction in the dental plaque index in children aged 7-9 years old.
  • Risk Factors for Early Childhood Caries Based on Identification of Veillonella spp. Using RT-PCR ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Setiawan, Asty Samiaty; Darwita, Risqa Rina; Susilawati, Sri; Maharani, Diah Ayu; Djais, Ariadna Adisattya

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To identify the occurrence of Veillonella spp. in children using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and to determine its role as a risk factor for ECC in children aged 2-3 years. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted and samples from 87 children aged 2-3 years, who lived in selected villages in the Bandung City area, Indonesia, were collected. Examination for dental caries was performed using standard checks for decay, missing, and filled surfaces (dfms), and saliva samples were taken. Microbiological examination was performed using RT-PCR with primers consisting of one primary set for Veillonella spp. and one universal primary set for 16S rDNA. We performed statistical testing using the Mann Whitney rank-sum test. Results: A total of 87 children were sampled, and an ECC prevalence of 71.3% was found, with a mean dmfs of 7.1 (± 9.1). The proportion of Veillonella spp. in caries-free children was 2.13 ± 2.30, while in children with ECC, it was 3.29 ± 6.83. Conclusion: The proportion of Veillonella spp. in children with ECC was higher than in caries-free children; therefore, Veillonella spp. may be a risk factor for ECC.
  • Clinical Evaluation of Ghana Shyam's TEFF (Telescopically Expanding Fixed Functional) Space Maintainer Versus Conventional Band and Loop Space Maintainer ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Raviteja, Narra Venkata Krishna; Prasad, Madu Ghanashyam

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of Ghana Shyam's TEFF space maintainer with band and loop space maintainer. Material and Methods: This split-mouth randomized clinical trial was conducted on 20 children (7-9 years), requiring bilateral/contralateral space maintenance therapy. After consent, all the selected children received both space maintainers and were followed up periodically every six months up to two years for clinical assessment according to the evaluation protocol. Instructions and motivation were given to the children. OHI (S) index was recorded before cementation of appliances. The following aspects were analyzed: 1) efficiency and function; 2) dislodgement due to cement loss; 3) breakage at soldered parts; 4) carious or gingival inflammation affecting abutment teeth; 5) distortion of band; 6) being embedded in gingival tissues / gingival slopping; and 7) initial and final S-OHIS scores. Statistical analysis was done using Fisher exact test for survival time and Chi-square test for chewing efficiency. Results: At 24th-month follow-up, 14 Ghana Shyam's TEFF space maintainers and 16 band and loop space maintainers were found to be intact. Conclusion: As both space maintainers demonstrated similar mean survival time Ghana Shyam's TEFF space maintainer with the added advantage of being functional can be recommended as an effective alternative to band and loop in premature loss of primary molar clinical situations.
  • Lipopolysaccharide’s Cytotoxicity on Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Kuntjoro, Mefina; Prasetyo, Eric Priyo; Cahyani, Febriastuti; Kamadjaja, Michael Josef Kridanto; Hendrijantini, Nike; Laksono, Harry; Rahmania, Primanda Nur; Ariestania, Vivin; Nugraha, Alexander Patera; Ihsan, Igo Syaiful; Dinaryanti, Aristika; Rantam, Fedik Abdul

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To show the cytotoxicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (HUCMSCs) to better understand the characteristics for its application in regenerative procedures under periodontopathogen LPS influence. Material and Methods: Ultrapure Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS was used in this study. This research used a frozen stock HUCMSCs, previously confirmed by flow cytometry. The biological characteristics, such as cell morphology, proliferation, and protein expression, were screened. To check the cytotoxicity, HUCMSCs were cultured and divided into two groups, the control group and LPS group with various concentrations from 25 to 0.39 µg/mL. MTT assay was done and the cells were observed and counted. The significance level was set at 5%. Results: The percentage of living HUCMSCs on LPS group were not significantly different among concentrations (p>0.05) from 25 to 0.39 µg/mL, even though there were slight mean decrease between groups, but they were not significant. The duration of 24 hours of exposure of LPS does not significantly lower HUCMSCs viability. Conclusion: LPS does not affect the viability of HUCMSCs. The lower the concentration of LPS, the higher the viability of HUCMSCs.
  • Torsional Resistance of Two New Heat Treated Nickel Titanium Rotary Instruments: An in Vitro Evaluation ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Gambarini, Gianluca; Miccoli, Gabriele; Nardo, Dario Di; Giudice, Andrea Del; Mazzoni, Alessandro; Seracchiani, Marco; Testarelli, Luca

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the difference in torsional resistance, angular deflection and fragment length between two new rotary instruments: AF Blue S4 and S-One. These files share all features except cross-sectional design. Material and Methods: A total of 40 new Nickel-Titanium instruments of 25 mm in length were tested in this study and divided in two groups: 20 AF Blue S4, tip 25 and constant 6% taper and 20 AF-Blue S4 tip 25 and constant 6% taper. The torsional test was performed by the use of a torque recording endodontic motor (KaVo, Biberac, Germany). Torque to Fracture (TtF), Angular Deflection (AD) and Fragment Length (FL) was recorded for each instrument. To ensure an immovable block at 3mm of the instrument tip, an auto-polymerizing resin (DuraLay; Reliance Dental Mfg Co, Worth, IL) was used. Each file was rotated clockwise at a speed of 300 rpm until fracture occurred. Results: Group A (AF Blue S4) showed higher TtF and AD than Group B (S-One), and statistical analysis found significant differences between the two instruments (p<0.05). The mean values for FL showed no significant differences (p>0.05) between the two instruments. Conclusion: The AF Blue S4 seems to have a higher resistance to torsional stress in vitro. Clinically, the use of AF Blue S4 could be safer in narrow canals.
  • Effect of First Aid Management of Dental Avulsion Posters on Primary School Teachers’ Knowledge ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Enikawati, Marianti; Fauziah, Eva; Budiardjo, Sarworini Bagio

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To investigate the effect of deploying a “First Aid Management of Dental Avulsion” poster in a primary school setting to improve teachers’ knowledge. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at public primary schools in central Jakarta, with 54 teachers meeting the inclusion criteria. The questionnaire contained 13 questions, divided into two sections. The first section consisted of questions about sex, age, education, length of service, field of education, and whether the teacher had received first aid management education before. The second section consisted of 7 questions about the teacher’s knowledge regarding dental avulsion and its management. Baseline knowledge was defined by using a questionnaire and then teachers were shown the educational poster covering the first aid management of dental avulsion. Next, the teachers answered a post-education questionnaire, which included the same questions as the first questionnaire. A paired t-test or Wilcoxon’s signed-rank test was used based on the distribution of data to determine the significance of the differences between before and after education. Results: The median score before reading the poster was 5, while the median score after reading it was 10. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: “First Aid Management of Dental Avulsion” poster could improve the knowledge of primary school teachers in Jakarta.
  • Types of Feeding and Presence of Harmful Oral Habits in Children with Cleft Lip and/or Palate: A Pilot Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Gárate, Kriss Melani Sanga; Martins, Mariana Leonel; Castro, Gloria Fernanda Barbosa de Araújo; Costa, Beatriz

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To verify the relationship between the types of feeding and presence of harmful oral habits (HOH) in children with cleft lip (CL), palate (CP) and cleft lip and palate (CLP), as well as to compare the different types of cleft to each other. Material and Methods: A form was applied to the parents of 162 children (3-5 years old), addressing the following variables: gender, cleft type, age, socioeconomic conditions, type of breastfeeding, presence of HOH, and the parents' knowledge about the consequences of oral habits. The data obtained were analyzed by chi-square test (p<0.05). Results: The majority of children (83.3%) were bottle-fed and 12.3% were exclusively maternal breastfed. The main reason for weaning was the presence of cleft (59.9%). Breastfeeding was significantly higher in children with CL (75%) in comparison with CP (20%) and CLP (5%) (p<0.001). Children with CLP were 12 times more likely to be bottle-fed than children with CL (OR=12.21; CI=4.09-36.45). The prevalence of HOH was 37%. Sociodemographic characteristics were not associated with the presence of HOH (p>0.05). The type of feeding and cleft were not decisive to present some type of HOH (p>0.05) and 87% of parents stated that HOH could lead to serious complications of tooth misalignment. Conclusion: The type of feeding and fissure did not determine the acquisition of harmful oral habits in children with cleft. However, the greater the fissure's complexity, the lesser the chance of children receiving exclusive breastfeeding.
  • Prevalence of Peg-Shaped Lateral Incisors in Non-Syndromic Subjects: A Multi-Population Study ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Alhabib, Silham; Alruwaili, Abdullatif; Manay, Srinivas Munisekhar; Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Gudipaneni, Ravi Kumar; Faruqi, Saif; Patil, Santosh; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and gender-wise distribution of peg-shaped maxillary permanent lateral incisors among populations in Saudi Arabia representing different geographical locations (Saudi, Jordan, Egypt, Syria, Philippine, Pakistan, India and Bangladesh). Material and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 9945 patients attending outpatient university dental clinics of College of Dentistry, Jouf University, Saudi Arabia between February 2014 and January 2018 were collected from the archives randomly. Two calibrated investigators examined the data, which were collected from the dental radiology department archives with prior permission from the authorities. The anomalies of maxillary lateral incisors (right and left) were investigated. Results: Among all geographic locations, the prevalence of peg laterals was more in males in comparison to females except in Pakistani and Philippine populations. Among the Saudi population, peg laterals' prevalence was more in case of right lateral incisor than the left incisor. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of peg laterals was found in Saudi. Conclusion: A higher prevalence of peg laterals was found in Saudi region, followed by Egypt. Among all geographic locations, the prevalence of peg laterals was higher in males than females except for Pakistan and Philippines populations. Among Saudi population prevalence of peg laterals was found to be higher in case of right lateral incisor when compared to the left.
  • Prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation Among School Children aged 7-12 years in Tunis, Tunisia ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Sakly, Emna Hidoussi; Amor, Wiem Ben; Zokkar, Neila; Charavet, Carole; Amor, Faten Ben

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and the characteristics of Molar Incisor Hypomineralisation (MIH) in 7-12-year-old children in Tunis, Tunisia. Material and Methods: This study was designed as a cross-sectional study, in which school children aged 7 to 12 years were included. A total of 510 children (257 girls and 253 boys) who had their first permanent molar and incisors were evaluated using the 2003 European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry (EAPD) recommendation criteria were examined. Descriptive data analysis and Pearson’s chi-squared test were performed (p<0.05). Results: A total of 510 children were included in the study. MIH was present in 35.4 % of our study population. Boys exhibited slightly higher MIH (19,4%) and Post Eruptive Breakdown (PEB) (7,3%) prevalence compared to girls, but the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.07). Moreover, demarcated opacities were more prevalent than PEB. More precisely, the main prevalence without PEB was MIH with white/creamy demarcated opacities, which was more frequent than yellow/brown demarcated opacities (p<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of MIH in Tunis was 35.4%, with no difference between girls and boys. The main MIH type prevalence was white/creamy demarcated opacities without PEB.
  • What do Parents Know About Oral Health and Care for Preschool Children in the Central Region of Saudi Arabia? ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    Ali, Sanaa N. Al-Haj; Alshabaan, Sondos H.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the knowledge level of parents from the central region of Saudi Arabia about oral health and care of preschool children and its relation with sociodemographic variables, parents’ self-perception toward their dental health, importance of teeth, and frequency of dental visits. Material and Methods: A random sample of 754 parents participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an internationally accepted questionnaire. Chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: Mean knowledge score of the parents was 4.8 (out of 11). Less than 20% of the parents were knowledgeable about the best position for tooth brushing, the concentration of fluoride in a child’s toothpaste, timing of first dental check-up, and best time to give a sugary snack. Mothers, parents with high educational level and family income, parents with a positive attitude towards teeth and excellent self-perception of their dental health were significantly more likely to score higher (p<0.05). Conclusion: Knowledge of parents about oral health and care of preschool children in the central region of Saudi Arabia was deficient. Gender, education level of parents, family income, attitude about teeth and self-perception of parents’ own dental health were factors, which influenced their knowledge. To improve parents' knowledge, health professionals' role should be improved, and TV commercials directed toward the areas, which had gaps in knowledge.
  • Defining the Prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization in Brazil SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Silva, Fernanda Mafei Félix da; Zhou, Yuqiao; Vieira, Fernanda Gabriela de Fátima; Carvalho, Flávia Martinez de; Costa, Marcelo de Castro; Vieira, Alexandre Rezende

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To define the prevalence of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) in Brazil since the reports ranged from 2.5% to 40.2%. Material and Methods: We studied 407 children from 7 to 14 years of age. MIH was measured using the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry criteria of 2003. Clinical data were collected by a calibrated dentist (Kappa=0.88) and included affected teeth and degree of MIH severity (mild/severe). Mild MIH cases were considered when the tooth presented demarcated opacity ≥ 1.0mm, without any loss of structure. While severe cases were defined by teeth in which loss of structure was present, or past or current lesion that required treatment, or presence of atypical restorations. In addition, published data (nine studies) reporting MIH in Brazilians were identified, and the heterogeneity of these studies was tested (I2 index/ p≤0.01). Results: In the original sample studied, the majority of patients were males (55.3%; n = 225), with an average age of 10.1 years (± 2.1 years). The prevalence of MIH in this group was 14.5% (59 affected in 407), and most of the affected teeth had a mild degree of alteration (77.4% or 202 in 261 teeth). Conclusion: A meta-analysis including nine published reports, and our original data showed that MIH prevalence in Brazil is 13.48 (95% CI, 8.66% -18.31%).
  • Differences in Proteomic Profiles Between Caries Free and Caries Affected Children SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Vieira, Alexandre Rezende; Vieira, Nicholas Modesto; Limesand, Kirsten; Modesto, Adriana

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine if there are differences in protein profiles in saliva depending if children of caries-free versus caries affected. Material and Methods: A cohort of 91 children with ages between 6 and 19 years, along clinical status of caries experience. Protein profiles in saliva were determined using electrophoresis and the calculation of the percentage of a specific band at a specific molecular weight in relationship to the total protein in that sample (% of total) using molecular weight standards. This quantification was repeated for each protein band across a range of molecular weights for each sample. Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and Student t-tests were used to compare the distributions between caries-free and caries affected children (α=0.05). Results: Histatin was more likely to be non-detectable or reduced in caries-free children (OR=7.56; 95% CI 1.62-35.13) and these children had on average one less gel band detected by the assay we used. Conclusion: We have found differences in proteins between caries affected and caries-free children, suggesting that this line of investigation holds the promise of providing new tools for caries management.
  • Sex Identification Based on Tooth Crown Trait Analysis Among the Mongoloid Race SHORT COMMUNICATION

    Ahliya, Syifa; Hartomo, Bambang Tri; Adrianto, Angger Waspodo Dias; Sarwono, Agoeng Tjahajani; Auerkari, Elza Ibrahim

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To determine whether anterior and posterior tooth crown traits exhibit sexual dimorphism and identify traits characteristic to the Mongoloid race, especially among the Indonesian population. Material and Methods: This study cross-sectional study analyzed 108 dental casts from 36 males and 72 females. The traits analyzed included winging, shoveling, double shoveling, canine mesial ridge, canine distal accessory ridge, hypocone, metaconule, Carabelli’s cusp, protostylid, metaconulid, enteconulid, and hypoconulid. All tooth crown traits were scored based on the ASUDAS scoring system. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate the absolute and relative frequencies. The Chi-square tests was used to determine significant differences in anterior and posterior tooth crown traits between males and females. Level of significance was set at 5%. Results: None of the traits showed sexual dimorphism. Moreover, the most common traits among the Mongoloid race were hypocone (94.4%) and shoveling (86.1%). Conclusion: Although none of the traits exhibited sexual dimorphism, most of them had a higher incidence among females than males. Nonetheless, further research including adequate samples and a similar number of females and males, is needed, especially for population studies.
  • The Comparison of Different Irrigation Systems to Remove Calcium Hydroxide from the Root Canal: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Jamali, Samira; Jabbari, Golchin; Mousavi, Elnaz; Ahmadizadeh, Hashem; Khorram, Mohammad; Jamee, Azad

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To examine the effect of a variety of irrigation systems on the removal of root canal Ca (OH)2 residues through meta-analysis and systematic review. Material and Methods: A search of relevant articles was systematically performed on databases of Medline, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, and Google Scholar published from 2013 to 2019. Electronic title management was carried out by EndNote X9 software. Searches were based on the main keywords of “Irrigation Systems”, “Calcium Hydroxide”,” Root Canal”, “Self-adjusting File OR SAF”, “Conventional Irrigation”, “EndoVac System”, “Ultrasonic Irrigation” and “YAG Laser”. Results: The studies investigated were found to lack any standardization concerning the irrigation method used or the measurement of outcomes; for instance, different studies used 5 or 10 mL of 2.5% NaOCl, or 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl, or 0.5 mL, 3 mL and 10 mL of 17% EDTA. Conclusion: The effective techniques for the removal of root canal Ca(OH)2 were PUI, and SAF approaches.
  • The Novel Coronavirus: An Alert for Pacifiers’ Disinfection SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Souza, Vívian Gonçalves Carvalho; Lopes, Danielle Fernandes; Machado, Fernanda Campos; Fabri, Rodrigo Luiz; Apolônio, Ana Carolina Morais

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the best strategy for pacifier disinfection methods. Material and Methods: The literature search was conducted on MEDLINE/PubMed, Scielo, Lilacs, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to find all relevant articles published over the past 20 years, based on PRISMA guidelines. Two reviewers extracted data independently by using a standardized form. The following factors were recorded: country of study, type of study, pacifier material, sample number, microorganisms analyzed, decontamination methods used, method accessibility and results found. Results: A total of 121 articles were obtained from all databases. The selected documents underwent a final screening, resulting in 8 articles. The method of disinfection analyzed by the literature were: 3.5% neutral detergent, apple cider vinegar 70% spray, boiling water during 15 minutes, sodium hypochlorite 2.5, hydrogen peroxide 70% spray, chlorhexidine 0.12%, Brushtox®, sterile water and microwave. Conclusion: Because of the broad methods for pacifier disinfection and different levels of accessibility to disinfectant agents, the pacifier consensus for decontamination remains unclear. Although the disinfection methods are diverse, the methods suggested to its disinfection were identified and described in this article.
  • Dental Pulpal Tissue Regeneration, Pulpal Vitality Testing, and Healing of Apical Lesions Following Stem Cell Transplant: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Jamali, Samira; Mousavi, Elnaz; Darvish, Maryam; Jabbari, Golchin; Nasrabadi, Navid; Ahmadizadeh, Hashem

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze data obtained from animal and human studies using stem cells. Material and Methods: Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE), PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Information Sciences Institute (ISI), as well as Google Scholar were utilized and searched as available electronic databases to perform a systematic literature review of articles published between 2010 and 2019. The Endnote X9 for Windows was also employed to manage electronic titles and abstracts of the selected studies. Searches were conducted using keywords of “pulpal OR pulpal tissue OR pulpal vitality”, “regeneration”, “apical healing”, “stem cells OR progenitor cells”, and “mediated pulpal tissue”. Consequently, 189 titles and abstracts endowed with potential relevance were discovered based on searches into manual and electronic sources. Ultimately, a total of six articles met the inclusion criteria in the present systematic review and meta-analysis. Results: Out of the six articles identified and selected, five studies were categorized as animal experiments and one article was nominated as a human clinical trial. The greatest bias risks were accordingly observed in the majority of animal examinations, but articles related to humans revealed decreased risks of bias, while the human clinical trial showed some concerns. Conclusion: Promising parameters testing functional pulp regeneration could be represented through stem cell transplants.
  • The Using Virtual Computer-Assisted Planning in Orthognathic Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Jamali, Samira; Pourarz, Sobhan; Nasrabadi, Navid; Ahmadizadeh, Hashem; Khorram, Mohammad; Darvish, Maryam

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To use virtual computer-assisted planning in orthognathic surgeries through meta-analysis and systematic review. Material and Methods: This search took place between 2010 and 2019. The databases searched in this domain included MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, and Google scholar. Accordingly, the abstracts of the articles were initially reviewed and the ones that had the most coordination with the study objectives were selected. Then, the full texts of the articles were examined; and finally, five studies were selected. In addition to reviewing the related literature, the results were extracted and entered into the meta-analyzer Stata V.14 to summarize the final results. Results: The sample size in this study was at a range from 6 to 28 patients and a total number of 85 patients had participated in the given investigations. As well, CT and CBCT were selected as imaging methods. Clinical imaging and analysis were also employed in computer-assisted planning in all five studies. Subsequently, surgical planning was performed and the virtual splint was designed while the planning time was 225 minutes and 145 minutes in two studies. Conclusion: The present results supported computer-assisted planning and the quality of scientific evidence.
  • Are Behavior Rating Scales Able to Identify Behavioral Changes in Preschool Children Undergoing a Dental Intervention? A Systematic Review SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Silva, Jéssica Aparecida da; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pereira, Daniele Masterson Tavares; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Primo, Laura Guimarães; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the scientific evidence concerning the behavior rating scales efficiency to identify behavioral changes in preschool children undergoing dental treatment, through a systematic review. Material and Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, BVS databases and grey literature were searched. Also, a hand search of the included studies reference lists was conducted. Studies that evaluated healthy preschoolers’ behavior before and after invasive dental treatments to observe behavioral changes were included. Two independent reviewers selected studies, extracted data and analyzed the risk of bias with a tool for before-and-after studies. The certainty of the evidence was evaluated with the GRADE approach. Results: Three studies were included. The Frankl Scale and North Carolina Behavior Scale were used in these studies. Both scales were able to identify behavioral changes in preschool children undergoing a dental intervention, although two of these included studies were considered fair with a high risk of bias, and one considered good with a low risk of bias. Conclusion: Although Frankl and North Carolina behavior scales were able to identify changes in the children`s behavior during dental treatment, these findings are not supported by strong evidence. Thus, further well-designed studies are needed to confirm this evidence.
  • Evaluating the Effectiveness of Orthognathic Surgery on the Pre-existing Temporomandibular Disorders in Patients with Malocclusion: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Mehraban, Saeed Hasani; Jamali, Samira; Azizi, Amir; Nasrabadi, Navid

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) for those patients with dentofacial deformities, who underwent orthognathic surgery, and the control group. It also identified whether orthognathic surgery had a positive or negative impact on TMD symptoms by comparing TMD patients, who underwent orthognathic surgery, and people did not experience this surgery. Finally, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of orthognathic surgery on the pre-existing TMDs in malocclusion patients. Material and Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, google scholar have been utilized as the electronic databases for systematically reviewing the literature between 2001 and February 2019. Inclusion criteria were undergoing orthognathic surgery, patients with/without pre-existing TMDs, and physical disabilities. Results: A total of 669 abstracts and titles with potential relevance have been identified in the course of the manual and electronic searches. It has been found that five studies met our inclusion criteria for a systematic review. Temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) before orthognathic surgery in comparison to the controls (RR=0.02; 95% CI -0.08-0.13) and heterogeneity among the papers has been I2 = 42.86% (p=0.64). Conclusion: Malocclusion by orthognathic and orthodontics surgeries had a considerable rate of TMD compared to the controls.
  • Hyalinization and Molecular Pathways Involved in Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Jamali, Samira; Khosravi, Setareh; Shadmanpour, Maryam; Gharibpour, Fateme; Payahoo, Salar; Darvish, Maryam

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To systematically review the hyalinization of experimental tooth movement in humans and animals. Material and Methods: The electronic databases of MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, Institute for Scientific Information, and Google Scholar were searched for performing a systematic review of the related literature published until 2019. Moreover, Endnote X9 software was utilized to manage electronic titles. The searches were fulfilled using keywords of "hyalinization," "orthodontic tooth movement" OR "OTM" AND "periodontal ligament" OR "PDL," "molecular pathways," AND "mechanical cell." Therefore, this systematic review was conducted based on the key consideration of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. Results: Forces ranged between 2.3 and 50 CN had been applied. According to the research design, incisors had been included in two experiments, whereas maxillary molars had been displaced by tipping forces in another rat examination. However, a majority of investigations had stated that hyalinization had firstly appeared within the first 24 hours. Moreover, the amount of prostaglandin-end peroxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) had been positively related to force term and size utilizing Western blotching. As PTGS2 had been included in the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) metabolism, the up-regulation of PTGS2 gene expression could be connected with that of PGE2 emission. Conclusion: Gene expression in connection with force term and size and also the first signalling pathways were recognized utilizing protein-protein interactions (PPIs).
  • Efficacy of Lasers Treatment of Exposed Pulps to Stimulate Healing: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Payahoo, Salar; Jamali, Samira; Jabbari, Golchin; Jamee, Azad

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at evaluating the efficacy of laser’s treatment of exposed pulps to stimulate healing. Material and Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, Google Scholar have been searched as the electronic databases for performing systematic literature between 2005 to 2019. Searches were performed with MESH terms. The quality of the studies included was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program checklist. For Data extraction, two reviewers blind and independently extracted data from the abstract and full text of the studies included. Moreover, the fixed-effect model's odds ratio for a 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Random effects were used to deal with potential heterogeneity, and I2 showed heterogeneity. The meta-analysis and forest plots have been evaluated using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis Stata. Results: Five studies (3 RCTs and 2 animal studies) were included in this study. The Odds Ratio was 1.90 (95% CI 1.39-2.42; p=0.00); there was a statistically significant difference between the laser and the control groups (p=0.00). Conclusion: The success rate of laser treatment for exposed pulps is higher than mineral trioxide aggregate, resin, calcium hydroxide and resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. The exact mechanism of this effect has not yet been determined; further research on lasers' impact on exposed pulps treatment is required.
  • Prevalence of Dental Fluorosis in Saudi Arabia: A Meta-Analysis SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Alshammary, Freah; Siddiqui, Ammar Ahmed; Al-Enizy, Abdulmjeed Sadoon; Almalaq, Saleh Ali Saleh; Amin, Junaid; Rathore, Hassaan Anwer; Alshammary, Fatma Ayyad; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Objective: To identify the prevalence of dental fluorosis in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: Literature search for the present study aimed to include all the relevant studies conducted in Saudi Arabia that reported prevalence of dental fluorosis. A literature search was done using keywords (dental, fluorosis, prevalence) using three databases (Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science). Grey literature was also searched using Google Scholar and research gate. Literature was searched from 1939 till April 2020. The risk of bias was reported using JBI Critical Appraisal Checklist for Studies Reporting Prevalence Data. Twelve studies were included based on inclusive criteria. The only inclusive criteria were studies that were conducted among people living in Saudi Arabia, and studies that reported the prevalence of dental fluorosis. Samples from all age groups that reported prevalence of dental fluorosis were included. MedCalc statistical software was used to perform the analysis. Results: The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was found to be 46.52%, 95 CI (26.52% to 67.12%). I2 value was reported 99.8%, 95 CI (99.78% to 99.83%), indicating high heterogeneity amongst the finding of studies. Funnel plots indicate the presence of a strong publication bias. Overall, we found some contrasting findings. One study reported prevalence of dental fluorosis as 0% and other with a comparatively large sample size found dental fluorosis to be 90.6%. Conclusion: The present study adds to the literature regarding dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia by providing an overview of its prevalence. It is concluded that prevalence of dental fluorosis was a bit high. However, findings indicate publication bias. We did not account for severity of dental fluorosis. All the available data was analyzed to measure dental fluorosis prevalence without considering the sample size and sampling technique.
  • Clinical Dental Care: Is There a Risk of SARS-CoV2 Infection? LETTER TO THE EDITOR

    Millones-Gómez, Pablo Alejandro
  • Nonsyndromic Oral Clefts and COVID-19 Crisis: Some Considerations on the Delay in Clinical Management of Patients LETTER TO THE EDITOR

    Martelli-Júnior, Hercílio; Machado, Renato Assis; Martelli, Daniella R. Barbosa; Coletta, Ricardo Della; Swerts, Mário Sérgio Oliveira
Associação de Apoio à Pesquisa em Saúde Bucal Avenida Epitácio Pessoa, 4161 - Sala 06, Miramar, CEP: 58020-388, João Pessoa, PB - Brasil, Tel.: 55-83-98773 2150 - João Pessoa - PB - Brazil
E-mail: apesb@terra.com.br