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Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, Volume: 22, Published: 2022
  • Evaluation of Knowledge Levels of Dentistry Students on the COVID-19 and its Effects on Depression Original Article

    Kızılcı, Esra; Demiroğlu, Cansu; Duman, Burcu; Gümüş, Hüsniye

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the level of knowledge of dentistry students regarding the COVID-19 outbreak and to evaluate whether the risk factors of the outbreak cause depression. Material and Methods This study was conducted with 516 dentistry students (3rd, 4th and 5th grades) who started clinical practice in their education. The first part of the questionnaires applied to the students includes questions about demographic information, while the second part contains questions to determine their knowledge levels on the COVID-19 pandemic and protection against it. In the third section, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to examine depression symptoms. The data were analyzed by frequency analyses and Chi-squared tests via the IBM SPSS 22.0 software. Results Of the 516 students, 150 (29%) participants were in the 3rd, 212 (41%) were in the 4th and 154 (30%) were in the 5th grade. 355 (69%) students stated that their knowledge level about COVID-19 was high. 30.9% were conscious of the importance of using masks. 29.6% were aware of the importance of using gloves, 30.3% of not shaking hands. According to BDI scores, 37.1% of the participants seemed to experience moderate to severe and very severe depression. Conclusion It was observed that the students didn’t have a sufficient level of knowledge about the factors affecting the spread of the pandemic. New stress factors such as COVID-19 may increase the incidence of depression.
  • The Effect of Coloring Beverages on Color Stability of Hybrid Ceramics with Different Surface Treatments Original Article

    Jalali, Hamid; Mostafavi, Azam Sadat; Balaghi, Fatemeh

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To assess the effects of coloring beverages on the color stability of two types of hybrid ceramics with different surface treatments. Material and Methods 180 specimens of two hybrid ceramics (Vita Enamic and Mazic Duro) and a feldspathic ceramic (Vita Mark II) were prepared (n=60 in each group). Half of the discs in each group were glazed while the other was polished. The specimens were then divided into three subgroups and immersed in distilled water, carrot juice, and coffee. The overall color difference (∆E) was calculated based on CIE L*a*b* color space. Data were analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA; Tukey’s honest significant difference was also done for pairwise comparisons (α=0.05). Results Vita Mark II specimens revealed less overall color changes compared to other groups. The ∆E of the glazed Vita Enamic specimens was greater than polished specimens following immersion in distilled water (p=0.03) and coffee (p=0.001), but it was not significant for carrot juice. The same results were obtained for polished Mazic Duro specimens. Relatively similar amounts of ∆E were recorded in polished and glazed subgroups of Vita Mark II. Conclusion The ∆E of hybrid ceramics was higher than Vita Mark II. Polishing could be recommended for surface treatment of hybrid ceramics instead of glazing, saving time and facilitating the process.
  • The Xylitol Applicability and its Effects in Health Area Worldwide: A Bibliometric Analysis Based on Randomized Controlled Trials Original Article

    Martins, Mariana Leonel; Leite, Karla Lorene de França; Magno, Marcela Baraúna; Masterson, Daniele; Vicente-Gomila, José Miguel; Cavalcanti, Yuri Wanderley; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe and evaluate the xylitol products’ applicability and its effects in the health area worldwide utilizing a bibliometric analysis from randomized controlled trials (RCT) with humans. Material and Methods Electronic searches were carried out in Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and VHL databases. The main data extracted were: year, area of applicability, type of treatment, country, journal, xylitol posology and concentration, presentation form, outcomes, and effects. Results From 1476 studies, 257 were included. These studies were published between 1973-2021. The majority was carried out in dentistry (73.9%) and under preventive treatment (67.4%). These studies were developed in the USA (15.4%) and published in Caries Research (6.6%). The posology and concentration ranged between 0.004-67 g/day and 0.002-100%, respectively. The xylitol is usually used in the chewing gum form (44.0%), and for antimicrobial activity evaluation (38.5%). A positive effect was observed in 204 studies (79.3%) and was associated with xylitol concentration ≥ 15(p=0.007). Side effects were reported in 8.2and were associated with posology ≥ 5 g/day (p=0.03). Conclusion Most studies with xylitol were conducted to prevent diseases in the dentistry field. The chewing gum form and antimicrobial activity evaluation were more frequent. Most xylitol products have a positive effect, and few studies report side effects.
  • Self-Reported Periodontal Disease and its Association with Dental Anxiety in Lagos, Nigeria Original Article

    Sorunke, Modupeore Ekua; Onigbinde, Olubunmi O.; Oyapero, Afolabi; Coker, Olurotimi A.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To determine the relationship between dental anxiety and self-reported periodontal status. Material and Methods The study was conducted among 263 patients at the Family Medicine Clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH), Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. Self-assessed gingival and periodontal disease was measured using the validated periodontal disease self-report surveillance questionnaire. The Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) was used for evaluating dental anxiety. Student’s t-test was used to test for association between categorical variables. P-value < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results Seventy-seven (29.3%) participants had high dental anxiety, while 49 (18.6%) had very high dental anxiety. The prevalence of periodontal disease was higher among those with very high dental anxiety (77.6%), while female respondents had a significantly higher proportion of self-reported periodontitis (34.1%). There was a significantly higher prevalence of very high dental anxiety among respondents who had never visited the dentist (23.2%). Similarly, females (19.4%), middle-class respondents (30.8%), and those with a primary level of school education (23.5%) had a higher prevalence of high dental anxiety, even though the association was not significant. Conclusion The prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease among the respondents with very high dental anxiety was higher than in those with high dental anxiety and those without dental anxiety, but the difference was not significant.
  • Effect of Chelating Agents on Push-Out Bond Strength of NeoMTA Plus to Root Canal Dentin Original Article

    Anju, Pattath Kunjan; Purayil, Tina P.; Ginjupalli, Kishore; Ballal, Nidambur V.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate and compare the effect of 17% Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid (EDTA), 9% Etidronic acid (HEDP), and 7% Maleic acid (MA) on the push-out bond strength of NeoMTA Plus sealer to the coronal, middle, and apical thirds of root canal dentin. Material and Methods Forty single-rooted human maxillary central incisors were selected and decoronated to 12 mm long root fragments. Working length was established and root canals were then enlarged up to rotary Protaper F3. After each instrumentation, the root canal was irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl. For the final irrigation regimen, the specimens were divided into 4 groups (n=10) and treated with EDTA, HEDP, MA or Saline. Root canals were coated with NeoMTA Plus sealer, and obturation was done with single cone obturation technique. Subsequently, three horizontal sections were taken from the coronal, middle and apical thirds of each specimen, and POBS was measured using a universal testing machine. The type of bond failures was assessed under a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis was done with One-way ANOVA with Tukey’s Post hoc analysis. Results MA and EDTA showed the highest POBS. There was no significant difference in bond strength between MA and EDTA (p>0.05). HEDP and Saline showed lower POBS. Among all the four groups, the coronal third showed the highest values, followed by middle and apical thirds. Conclusion The type of chelating agent used during the root canal treatment significantly affects the bond strength of NeoMTA Plus to the root canal dentin.
  • Evaluation of the Frequency of Occupational Hazards Among a Group of Iranian General Dentists and its Prevention Criteria Original Article

    Afshar, Mehrnaz Karimi; Faryabi, Reza; Afshar, Marzieh Karimi; Torabi, Molook

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the frequency of occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among Iranian dentists. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 general dentists in Kerman. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including personal information (gender, age, marital status, condition and place and years of employment, and the average of weekly working hours) and a valid and reliable questionnaire of occupational hazards, including 24 questions about occupational hazards (6 domain) and nine questions about criteria for the prevention of the risks of dentistry. The t-test, chi-square, and linear regression were used. Results 92 (49.2%) were men. The mean and standard deviation of the score of occupational hazards was 27.04±16.21 out of 96, and the criteria of prevention were 22.00±7.28 out of 36. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between single statuses, years of occupational and type of employment, weekly work hours and occupational hazards, participation in occupational injury identification courses, and hepatitis vaccination. In addition, there were significant correlations between gender, age, weekly work hours, and preventive measures. Moreover, 3.2% of dentists were in a high-risk group and 26.2% were weak in preventive measures. Conclusion A total of 32.6% of dentists are at moderate risk of occupational hazards, and 10.7% meet the prevention criteria properly. It is recommended to hold training classes to identify occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among dentists.
  • Visual Inspection and Toothbrush Care: A Mother-Baby Paired Cross-Sectional Study Original Article

    Ribeiro, Yuri Jivago Silva; Peixoto, Iza Teixeira Alves; Segato, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson Filho, Paulo; Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino de; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the physical conditions and presence of residues of toothbrushes used by mothers and their babies and mothers' knowledge about toothbrush care. Material and Methods This was a cross-sectional study comprising a convenience sample represented by 60 mother-baby pairs. The mothers answered a questionnaire to evaluate their knowledge of toothbrush care. A calibrated dentist performed a visual inspection of the toothbrushes. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests, with a significance level of 5%. Results It was found that 82% of the mothers had never received instructions regarding the care of toothbrushes after use (p=0.024). Most of them believed that their toothbrushes (70%) and their children’s toothbrushes (88%) were in good condition to use (p=0.043). However, most mother’s toothbrushes presented an unacceptable deformity of the bristles (65%) and the presence of residues (60%). In addition, babies’ toothbrushes also presented unacceptable deformities of the bristles (52%) and residues (55%). There was an association between the lack of instructions received by the mother and the presence of deformity and residues on the mother’s toothbrush bristles (p=0.037 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusion Most mothers had never received instructions regarding toothbrush care, which is reflected in the condition of their and their baby’s toothbrushes, which presented unacceptable physical conditions concerning deformation and presence of residues.
  • Cytotoxicity of Reparative Endodontic Cements on Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells Original Article

    Pedrosa, Marlus da Silva; Alves, Tomaz; Rahhal, Juliana Garuba; Nogueira, Fernando Neves; Sipert, Carla Renata

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To compare the cytotoxicity of commercial reparative endodontic cements on human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs). Material and Methods The culture of hPDLSCs was established. Cell density was set at 2 × 104 cells/well in 96-well plates. Extracts of Biodentine, Bio-C Repair, Cimmo HD, MTA Repair HP and White MTA were prepared. Then, the extracts were diluted (pure, 1:4 and 1:16) and inserted into cell-seeded wells for 24, 48, and 72 h to assess cell viability through MTT assay. hPDLSCs incubated with culture medium alone served as a negative control group. Data were analyzed by Two-Way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results At 24 h, pure extract of MTA Repair HP and Biodentine 1:16 presented higher cell viability compared to control. Lower cell viability was found for pure extract of Cimmo HD, MTA Repair HP 1:4 and 1:16, and White MTA 1:16. At 48 h, pure extract of Bio-C Repair and MTA Repair HP presented higher cell viability compared to control. At 72 h, only the pure extract of MTA Repair HP led to higher cell proliferation compared to control. Conclusion Biodentine, Bio-C Repair and MTA Repair HP were able to induce hPDLSCs proliferation. Cimmo HD and White MTA were found to be mostly cytotoxic in hPDLSCs.
  • Staff Knowledge and Attitudes Towards COVID-19 New Biosafety Practices at a Brazilian Dental School Original Article

    Marques-Medeiros, Ana Carolina; Martins, Renata Castro; Silva, Maria Elisa Souza e; Vilaça, Ênio Lacerda; Souza, Leandro Napier de; Martins, Maria Auxiliadora Parreiras; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Guimarães de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate knowledge and attitudes towards biosafety recommendations during the COVID-19 pandemic at a Brazilian dental school. Material and Methods A cross-sectional study was performed in 2020 with the clinical staff of a Brazilian dental school. The whole clinical staff was sent pre-tested self-administered online questionnaires about knowledge and attitudes towards the recommendations for biosafety in dental settings in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Descriptive statistical analyses were carried out for proportion calculation. Results Disposable head covering caps, isolation gowns, and gloves were the most frequently reported personal protective equipment (PPE). The rates ranged from 52.9% to 88.5% for N95 respirators, from 68.6% to 92.6% for face shields, from 47.4% to 67.5% for conventional eye protection shields, and 45.1% to 77.4% for eye protection with solid side shields. Chlorhexidine gluconate was the most frequent mouthwash indicated before clinical dental care. The percentage of agreement to provide clinical care to patients with suspected COVID-19 varied from 23.5% to 50.0%. The percentage of respondents who agreed that bioaerosol-generating procedures should be avoided was higher than 74.5%. Less than 50% knew the correct sequence for doffing of PPE. Conclusion This study revealed important gaps in knowledge and attitudes towards prevention and control measures against infection in dental environments in the context of COVID-19, indicating the need for improvements.
  • In Vitro Microscopic Evaluation of Metal- And Zirconium-Oxide-Based Crowns’ Marginal Fit Original Article

    Heboyan, Artak; Marya, Anand; Syed, Azeem Ul Yaqin; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Rokaya, Dinesh; Anastasyan, Marine

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the marginal adaptation of computer-aided designing and computer-aided machining (CAD/CAM) fabricated cobalt-chromium and zirconium-oxide-based ceramic crowns compared to those produced by a conventional method. Material and Methods The study consists of three groups; 45 crowns fabricated from cobalt-chromium (CAD-CoCr) and 45 crowns manufactured from zirconium CAD/CAM technology (CAD-Z), and 45 control (C) which consists of conventional metal-ceramic crowns. The marginal discrepancies in vertical dimensions were assessed utilizing a microscope in four surfaces (mesial, distal, vestibular, and oral) for each crown. On completion of the microscopic evaluation, multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to study the difference in the four surfaces, considered altogether. Two-way ANOVA revealed the effect of three systems used for gap measurements of each landmark. The differences observed were considered significant at p<0.05. Results There were no differences in the four surfaces revealed by АNOVА in the three groups when considered altogether. Two-way ANOVA of each surface discovered no differences among all groups as well. Conclusion The CAD/CAM crowns revealed a comparable and satisfactory marginal adaptation compared to conventional metal-ceramic crowns.
  • Brazilian Adults Believe that Complete Dentures would be the Solution to the Oral Impacts Caused by Reduced Dentition Original Article

    Campos, Fernanda Lamounier; Kawachi, Ichiro; Rhodes, Gabriela Aparecida Caldeira; Sampaio, Aline Araujo; Chalub, Loliza Luiz Figueiredo Houri; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the direct and oral impact-mediated association between reduced dentitions and the self-perceived need for complete dentures (CD) in dentate adults. Material and Methods: Data from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (2010) were analyzed. The outcome was self-perceived need for CD. Functional dentition (FDClassV) was defined by the presence of the following criteria: level I - ≥1 tooth in each arch, level II - 10 teeth in each arch, level III - 12 anterior teeth, level IV - ≥ 3 posterior occluding pairs (POPs) of premolars and level V - ≥1 bilateral POPs of molars. Oral impacts were assessed with Oral Impacts on Daily Performances scale. Results: FDClassV was associated with a less self-perceived need for CD both directly and mediated by oral impacts. Dentitions without level V were associated with the outcome mediated by oral impacts. Between individuals with 10 teeth in each arch, self-perceived need for CD was similar for those who had or not anterior teeth and POPs. Individuals with <10 teeth in each arch and level III did not have a higher frequency of self-perceived need for CD compared to those with level II. Conclusion: Oral impacts mediated the association between reduced dentitions and self-perceived need for CD. Individuals with tooth loss may report need for CD, even when they have dental configurations compatible with functionality.
  • Tooth Loss, Sociodemographic Conditions and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in the Elderly Original Article

    Aguiar, Adriana Drummond de; Oliveira, Elizabeth Regina Araújo de; Miotto, Maria Helena Monteiro de Barros

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To verify the association between impacts produced by tooth loss and sociodemographic variables in the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in the elderly. Material and Methods: This is an analytical cross-sectional study carried out in the municipality of Vitória/ES, Brazil, which sample was composed of 402 older adults. The Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) was used to measure the individuals' OHRQoL. For data analysis, descriptive and bivariate analyses were performed using the Fisher's exact test and the Mantel-Haenzsel test to assess the effects of combined dimensions. The significance level adopted was 5%. To assess the strength of association between independent variables and dimensions, Odds-Ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated. Results: The prevalence of negative impact on OHRQoL in the elderly was 32.6%. The greatest impact perception was found in individuals with up to 10 years of schooling (p=0.021 and OR=1.602), with need for removable partial dentures (p=0.000 and OR=2.873) and those who did not accept the loss of dental elements (p=0.000 and OR=3.064). Conclusion: Older female adults with socioeconomic class C/D-E, with up to 10 years of schooling, who lost 11 or more teeth, who declared the need for removable partial dentures, suffered greater impacts caused by tooth loss on OHRQoL.
  • Evaluation of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy as an Adjuvant in Periodontal Treatment in Individual with Down Syndrome Original Article

    Silva, Maria das Graças Barbosa da; Fernandes Neto, José de Alencar; Catão, Maria Helena Chaves de Vasconcelos

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT), associated with scaling and root planing in the non-surgical periodontal treatment of individuals with Down Syndrome. Material and Methods: A controlled, randomized, split-mouth study was conducted. A total of 8 participants diagnosed with Down Syndrome aged 17-38 years of both sexes with clinical periodontitis were included in the study. Participants were treated at least three times: at the baseline, Plaque Index (PI), Bleeding on Probing (BOP), and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD) were obtained. After one week, conventional scaling and root planing were performed, and two quadrants were randomly selected for aPDT application. The reassessment was obtained one month after the aPDT application. The significance level was set at 5%. Analyses were performed considering a 95% confidence interval. Results: In the intergroup evaluation, no statistically significant differences were observed (p>0.05). In the intragroup evaluation, no statistically significant variations were observed in relation to the PI (p>0.05) and PPD (p>0.05); however, a statistically significant reduction in the BOP was observed between the test group (p=0.013) and control group (p=0.015). Conclusion: The use of aPDT as adjuvant therapy did not promote additional benefits in decreasing PI and PPD after 1 month of treatment. However, a significant reduction in the BOP was observed in the intragroup evaluation.
  • Patients’ Management Patterns for Restorative Treatment Procedures: A 4-Year Overview at the Restorative Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Nigeria Original Article

    Awotile, Adenike Ololade; Oyapero, Afolabi; Adenuga-Taiwo, Olugbenga A.; Enone, Lillian Lami; Menakaya, Ifeoma Nkiruka; Loto, Adolphus Odogun

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the patients’ management pattern for restorative treatment procedures at the Restorative Dentistry Clinic at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital (LASUTH). Material and Methods: A descriptive and retrospective study design was employed to determine patients’ management patterns for the restorative treatment procedures at the Restorative Dentistry Clinic at LASUTH. Treatment records of patients who attended the Restorative Clinic at the Lagos State University Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria, from 2011 to 2014 were reviewed; the effective treatments during the period under review were recorded as treatment procedures and were recorded as operative, endodontic, fixed prosthodontics, and removable procedures. Results: A total of 14,437 (75%) operative; 1,353 (7.0%) endodontic; and 559 (2.9%) fixed prosthodontics and 2,852 (14.9%) removable prosthodontic procedures were carried out during the period under review. This study showed that operative procedures were the most performed restorative procedures, whereas removable prosthodontics and endodontic procedures ranked second and third, respectively, to operative procedures. Fixed prosthodontics procedures were the least performed restorative procedures. Conclusion: This study showed that more efforts were being expended by dentists on operative services compared to endodontic, removable, and fixed prosthodontics services combined. Comprehensive studies, embracing all disciplines of dentistry, should be carried out to determine the level of demand and clinical relevance of procedures in clinical dental practice and hence to set specific and general objectives of dental education for the populace. Access to dental health Insurance services should also be increased in the country.
  • Assessment of Children's Oral Health-Related Knowledge and Self-Efficacy in Expectant Mothers of Najran, Saudi Arabia Original Article

    Khan, Siraj Dain Ali Ahmed; Al-Garni, Musleh; Khurim, Mishary Nasser Al; Alkhathami, Eidan Safir; Sayhab, Bader Hussain Al; Salaah, Farhaan Mahdi Al; Qshanin, Khalaf Nasser Al

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the knowledge of pregnant women regarding their child’s oral health. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was developed and the 1st section comprised sociodemographic variables. The second section contained questions about the eruption of teeth, fluoride importance, cariogenic food, and dental visits. The questionnaire was shared electronically via a link to the receptionist of the gynaecologist at different health centres of Najran to be filled by expectant mothers. The convenient sampling method was used to collect the responses. Data were presented using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 572 pregnant women participated in this survey. Three hundred and fifteen (55.1%) knew that 1st primary tooth erupts at the age of 6 months. The majority of the respondents (n=332) agreed that toothbrushes and toothpaste could be used to clean a child's teeth; only 5.4%, 10%, and 24.5% preferred miswak, mouthwash, and toothbrush, respectively. Participants were well familiar with cariogenic food and occasionally allowed their children to take it. They have enough knowledge about fluoride toothpaste, but they were not familiar with the benefits of fluoride varnish. Almost 50% of the respondents agreed that the child should visit the dentist within six months, and 27.4% said they should visit the dentist whenever there is a problem. Conclusion: Almost 50% of participants showed a positive attitude towards most questions. However, there is a need to improve their behaviour and knowledge about many aspects of dental care.
  • Does the Use of Surface Electromyography Could Improve Quality of Life among Patients Rehabilitated by Mandibular Overdentures on Different Attachments? Original Article

    Fera, Maria; Goncharuk-Khomyn, Myroslav; Fera, Oleksandr; Bokoch, Anatoliy; Keniuk, Andrii; Kryvanych, Andriy

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze and compare changes of quality of life parameter among dental patients rehabilitated by the implant-supported overdentures with different attachment systems. Material and Methods: Forty-eight patients were recruited as a study cohort. The implant placement procedure was based on the results obtained by CBCT scanning and individualized surgical templates manufactured for correct implant placement. Each individual received two k3Pro Implants (Sure Type with 4.0 or 4.5 mm in diameter) at the intraforaminal area due to standard protocol of implantation provided by the manufacturer under local anesthesia. All patients were distributed between two groups based on the fact of using either Locator- or ball-attachments. Rank correlation was measured using Spearman correlation coefficient, while linear correlation was evaluated by Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: No statistically meaningful differences were noted regarding patients’ distribution among groups considering age (p>0.05) and gender (p>0.05). Provided patient-level analysis demonstrated that increase of conventional full denture service time was positively correlated with escalation of OHIP-EDENT scores. The most prominent inter-correspondences were noted specifically between longevity of denture service and elevation of scores within “Functional limitation” (r=0.61; p<0.05), “Physical pain” (r=0.51; p<0.05) and “Physical disability” (r=0.57; p<0.05) subdomains. No statistically argumented regressions were noted between increase tendency of OHIP-EDENT scores and gender (p>0.05) or age (p>0.05) parameters. Conclusion: Significant improvements of quality of life measured with OHIP-EDENT were noted for both types of attachments compared to the pre-treatment situation independently of additionally provided surface electromyography-based alignment.
  • Comparison of Oncostatin M in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis with and without Diabetes Original Article

    Kolluri, Amulya; Gopalkrishna, Pratibha; Josyula, Venkat Rao; Gatta, Aditya Kiran; Chakravarthy, Kalyana Pentapati

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the Oncostatin M (OSM) concentrations in tissues of patients with chronic periodontitis with and without diabetes. Material and Methods: Sixty-four subjects visiting the dental outpatient department were categorized as “healthy” (Group 1), “periodontitis” (Group 2), and “diabetes with periodontitis” (Group 3) groups. The clinical oral examination included assessment of plaque, gingivitis, probing depth, clinical attachment level. Blood glucose was assessed for group 3 patients. OSM concentration in the tissues was assessed using ELISA in all groups. Results: The mean OSM was 0.02 ± 0.04 pg/mg in the healthy group, 0.12 ± 0.09 pg/mg in the chronic periodontitis group and 0.13 ± 0.10 pg/mg in the diabetes-periodontitis group. A significantly higher mean OSM was seen in Group 2 and Group 3 than Group 1. The amount of OSM positively correlated with probing depth and clinical attachment level. Conclusion: Periodontal disease causes a rise in Oncostatin M, independent of the diabetic status. Expression of OSM in the gingival tissues can serve as an inflammatory marker.
  • Efficacy of 30% and 38% Silver Diamine Fluoride in Arresting Caries Lesions After Different Application Times: An in Vitro Study Original Article

    Rodrigues, Gabriella Fernandes; Monteiro, Amanda Souza Nunes; Vollú, Ana Lúcia; Pires, Paula Maciel; Silva, Aline Saddock de Sá; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Oliveira, Branca Heloisa; Neves, Aline de Almeida; Barja-Fidalgo, Fernanda; Fonseca-Gonçalves, Andréa

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) in arresting dentin caries lesions when applied under different concentrations and times. Material and Methods: Forty-two bovine blocks were selected and fixed in 24-well plates. Each well received a mixed bacterial inoculum added to the culture medium with 5% sucrose. The plates were incubated in microaerophilia (7 days) for caries formation, confirmed by micro-CT (M1). SDF was applied over the carious lesions for different times and concentrations (n=6): SDF 30% - immediate removal, 1 minute and 3 minutes; SDF 38%, - immediate removal, 1 minute and 3 minutes. The group without treatment was the control. Then, the samples were again scanned by micro-CT (M2) and submitted to a second cariogenic challenge for 21 days. Then, a final scan was performed (M3). Results: Mean pH at the culture medium and lesion depth were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests. 38% SDF showed the lowest metabolic activity of the biofilm. All 38% groups and 30% 1 and 3 minutes did not show an increase in mean lesion depth comparing M3 with M1. However, only 30% 3 minutes and 38% 1 and 3 minutes showed a significant reduction of lesion depth. Conclusion: The minimum application time of 30% SDF to arrest dentin caries lesion was 1 minute, while 38% SDF arrested with application and immediate removal.
  • Pediatric Oral Health Self-reported by Caregivers of NormalHearing and Hearing-Impaired Children Original Article

    Miranda, Mayane Sarah Soares; Mourão, Aline Mansueto; Lamenha-Lins, Renata Matos; Nogueira, Raquel Fabiane; Carcavalli, Larissa; Lisboa, Sara Oliveira; Ferreira, Fernanda Morais; Serra-Negra, Junia Maria

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To verify and compare the sociodemographic data and caregivers’ self-perception of children’s oral health condition, hygiene habits and seek for dental services among family units of deaf and normalhearing children. Material and Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted with 64 parents/caregivers of 16 deaf and 48 normal-hearing children of 3-14 years old, belonging to reference centers in Belo Horizonte, southeastern Brazil. Deaf and hearing children were matched according to their sex and age. Sociodemographic characteristics of the family units and self-report of oral health conditions and care were assessed using a structured questionnaire, including information regarding seeking pediatric dental services. Descriptive analysis and chi-square test were performed (p<0.05). Results: Most individuals in the sample were mothers (84.4%). Low family income (p=0.024) and higher education level of guardians (p=0.018) were associated with families of hearing children. The report of clinical treatment or toothache as the main reason for the children’s last dental appointment was associated with families of deaf children (p=0.047). Conclusion: Based on caregivers’ reports, hearing-impaired children demonstrated greater vulnerability to present dental pain or clinical treatment as the main reasons for their last access to dental appointments.
  • Daily Toothbrushing Frequency and the Association with Parental Report of Dental Pain and Discomfort in Preschool Children Original Article

    Menoncin, Bruna Letícia Vessoni; Felipak, Patrícia Kochany; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Menezes, José Vitor Nogara Borges

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the impact of daily toothbrushing frequency on parental reports of dental pain and discomfort in preschoolers. Material and Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted involving 376 children between four and five years of age at public preschools in the city of Campo Magro, Brazil. Parents/guardians answered a socioeconomic questionnaire that contained a single question on the child's daily toothbrushing frequency and the Brazilian version of the Dental Discomfort Questionnaire (DDQ-B). Statistical analysis involved bivariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses (α=0.05). Results: After the adjustments in the multivariate analysis, the prevalence of dental pain and discomfort was lower among children whose last visit to the dentist was for prevention (PR = 4.42; 95% CI: 1.75– 11.14; p=0.002) and those with a higher daily toothbrushing frequency (PR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.12–4.05; p=0.021). Conclusion: A lower toothbrushing frequency is associated with parental reports of dental pain and discomfort in preschoolers. Educational and preventive measures that stimulate an increase in daily toothbrushing frequency can contribute to a better oral health status in preschoolers, consequently, less prevalence of dental pain and discomfort.
  • Smile Arc Esthetics in Middle-Aged Man from the Layperson’s Perspective Via Eye-Tracking Original Article

    Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro; Ribeiro, Vitor Gouveia; Gasparello, Gil Guilherme; Reyes, Ariel Adriano; Taffarel, Itamar Antonio; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the perceptions of smile esthetics associated with variations in the vertical plane of the maxillary incisors in the smile arc using eye-tracking software. Material and Methods: An image of a 59-year-old Caucasian male model was adapted and edited to make three changes in the vertical plane, simulating a convex, straight, and reverse smile arc. Four areas of interest were inserted at the right and left eyes, nose, and mouth. Forty laypeople raters between 18 and 45 years of age participated of the study. Eye-tribe hardware and Ogama software were used to perform eye-tracking. Attractiveness and age-perception questions were also incorporated into the study. ANOVA test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, at p < 0.05. Results: The most observed AOI in images with convex, straight, and reverse smiles, as assessed using heatmaps and point maps, was the mouth, followed by the right eye. A significant difference for the eye (p=0.02) was found when comparing convex and reverse smiles, whereas a significant difference for the mouth was observed between the straight and reverse smiles (p=0.03). Conclusion: Convex and straight smile arcs were associated with equal levels of attractiveness; the reverse smile was less attractive. No significant difference was noticed regarding age perception and the smile arcs. However, the reverse smile recorded a more complete fixation time.
  • Effectiveness of Chewing Gum Containing CPP-ACP for Remineralisation of Demineralised Enamel around Orthodontic Brackets: An in Situ Study Original Article

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; Santos, Amir Felipe Souza dos; Santos, Adrielle Mangabeira dos; Fidalgo, Tatiana Kelly da Silva; França, Adilis Kalina Alexandria de; Coqueiro, Raildo Silva; Andrade, Ana Carolina Dias Viana de; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of chewing gums containing CPP-ACP in remineralisation of demineralised enamel around orthodontic brackets. Material and Methods: Enamel blocks from 120 bovine incisors were used. The blocks were flattened and polished, followed by the development of incipient subsurface caries. The blocks have been subjected to a baseline microhardness analysis. Orthodontic brackets were bonded to the exposed area of the blocks, reserving an area for hardness analysis. An in situ crossover (three-way crossover phases of 21 days with an interval of one week between them), controlled, randomised and blind experimental model was used, with the participation of 12 volunteers divided into groups: G1 – negative control group, without chewing gum; G2 – conventional sugar-free chewing gum, without CPP-ACP (placebo); and G3 – sugar-free chewing gum with CPP-ACP. The following parameters were analysed: superficial linear (Ra), volumetric roughness (Sa), and superficial structural loss, which was indicated by Gap measurement (difference between the healthy and treated area). Statistical tests used were the Friedman, Wilcoxon and Shapiro-Wilk, Kruskal Wallis' nonparametric tests and ANOVA. Results: There was a significant reduction in enamel microhardness after demineralisation in all the groups (p<0.05). This deleterious effect was attenuated in the three groups after the final evaluation, although there were no statistical differences (p<0.05); however, the final values did not return to the baseline values (p<0.05). Conclusion: Chewing gum containing CPP-ACP did not promote in situ remineralisation of demineralised enamel around orthodontic brackets.
  • Psychological Factors in Temporomandibular Disorders Patients during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Study Original Article

    Rocha, Thaís de Oliveira; Oliveira, Wagner de; Paula, Ângela Renata de; Oliveira, Daniela Lobo; Rode, Sigmar de Mello

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on levels of anxiety, stress, and orofacial pain in individuals with and without TMD. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the participants were divided into two groups (n=10, each) experimental group (EG) TMD patients and control group (CG), without TMD. The presence of TMD was confirmed using the RDC/TMD. The Beck Anxiety Scale (BAI), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), and Oral Analog Scale were used for assessment. The Beck Anxiety Scale is composed of 21 multiple-choice questions describing symptoms of anxiety, while the PSS is a measure that evaluates life situations as stressful. An Oral Analogue Scale was applied to each individual to quantify orofacial pain, with 0 (zero) without pain and 10 (ten) being the worst pain ever felt. The comparison between groups was performed using the Mann-Whitney test. Logistic regression was used to verify TMD dependence in relation to BAI and PSS-10. Quantitative variables were correlated with each other by Pearson's correlation coefficient. The level of significance considered for all tests was 5%. Results: The association was statistically significant (p≤0.05) for BAI and PSS with a TMD. Conclusion: Although the COVID 19 pandemic has had a psychological impact on the general population, patients with TMD have higher levels of anxiety and stress than the control group.
  • Oral Health Literacy – Adult Questionnaire: Psychometric Properties and its Influence on Oral Health Status of School Teachers in Bhubaneswar, India Original Article

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Mahapatra, Ipsita; Satyarup, Dharmashree; Mohanty, Sharmistha

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To translate Oral Health Literacy – Adult Questionnaire from English to Odia language and test its psychometric properties and assess its influence on oral health status of school teachers. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was performed among 400; 116 (29%) males and 284 (71%) female school teachers of Bhubaneswar. OHL-AQ questionnaire subsequent to being translated to Odia language utilizing World Health Organization recommended translation back translation protocol was then tested for the establishment of its psychometric properties with assistance from the selected expert panel of academicians. The oral health status of participants was assessed using the WHO oral health assessment form-2013. Chi-square, t-tests, one-way ANOVA, and linear regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: Internal consistency of OHL-AQ-O was acceptable with an alpha value of 0.70. Test-retest reliability showed almost perfect agreement (ICC=0.90, CI=0.85-0.93) indicating highly reliable translated scale (p=0.001). Overall mean oral health literacy scores were 13.02±1.86, with about 80% belonging to the high oral health literacy level group. Caries prevalence was 78%, with a mean DMFT of 3.04±2.55. Shallow pockets were absent majorly in teachers belonging to the high oral health literacy group (p=0.01). The multiple linear regression model depicted that only the teaching experience variable added significantly to the prediction (p=0.008). Conclusion: OHL-AQ-O questionnaire was found valid and reliable to measure OHL. Further application of the instrument in other communities and populations will support establishing the external validity of the OHL-AQ-O.
  • Pain Perception Before Endodontic Treatment: from Primary Care to Specialized Care Original Article

    Lima, Rafael Franco; Magalhães, Maria Beatriz Pires; Oliveira, Douglas Vaz; Freitas, Daniel Augusto Sabadini; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Martins, Renata Castro

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze patients’ pain perception requiring endodontic treatment referred to a Dental Specialties Center. Material and Methods: Data was collected through a self-administered questionnaire for patients about their experience of pain and another for endodontists about the treatment performed. The results were analyzed descriptively using Pearson’s Chi-square test and Fisher’s Exact test, with Bonferroni correction (p≤0.05). Results: The median age of the patients was 39 years, and 71.1% were female. The median waiting time for treatment was five months. Pain was reported by 75.2% of patients, occurred more than one month earlier (63.6%), with moderate/severe intensity (66.9%), and most patients sought emergency treatment more than once (79.1%). In addition, pain was associated with sex (female; p=0.008); moderate/severe intensity (p<0.001); the number of times that patient had to go to the dentist because of the tooth treatment (twice or more; p=0.002); and type of tooth treated (posterior tooth; p=0.002). Conclusion: Severe pain episodes resulted in a repeated search for emergency services, which may overload the primary care service, especially if the waiting time for endodontic treatment is long.
  • Antibacterial and Antiadhesion Effects of Psidium guajava Fractions on a Multispecies Biofilm Associated with Periodontitis Original Article

    Gómez, Pablo Alejandro Millones; Mendizábal, Margarita Fe Requena; Poma, Roger Damaso Calla; Cifuentes, Tania Valentina Rosales; Quispe, Federico Martin Malpartida; Torres, Dora Jesús Maurtua; Amaranto, Reyma Evelyn Bacilio; Medina, Carlos Alberto Minchón; Contreras, Lusin Antonio Ponce

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the antibacterial activity of Psidium guajava fractions and their effects on adhesion of a multispecies biofilm consisting of Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. Material and Methods: Guava leaves were obtained from the mountains of northern Peru, where they grow wild and free of pesticides. The antimicrobial activity of 25 mg/mL petroleum ether, 25 mg/mL dichloromethane and 25 mg/mL methanol fractions of P. guajava was evaluated by measuring inhibition halos, as well as the effect on the adhesion of multispecies biofilms at 4, 7 and 10 days of growth by measuring the optical density. In addition, antimicrobial susceptibility was compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test and its multiple comparison tests, and differences in mean biofilm adhesion between each fraction were assessed by repeated measures analysis and the Tukey multiple comparison test. Results: The rank-based Kruskal-Wallis test highlighted differences in the effects of the fractions on the zone of inhibition for each oral bacterium, including S. gordonii (p=0.000), F. nucleatum (p=0.000), and P. gingivalis (p=0.000), the Tukey test showed that the group treated with 0.12% chlorhexidine exhibited the least amount of adhesion, followed by the group treated with the 1.56 mg/mL methanol fraction. Conclusion: The methanol fraction of P. guajava had an antibacterial effect on S. gordonii and P. gingivalis, and the 1.56 mg/mL methanol fraction decreased biofilm adhesion.
  • Qualitative Assessment of Surgical Repair of Three Types of Unilateral Cleft Lip Original Article

    Adetayo, Adekunle M.; Taiwo, Abdurazzak Olanrewaju; Adetayo, Modupe Olusola; Akinola, Moses A.; Adeyemo, Wasiu Lanre

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the effect of the three types of unilateral cleft lip (UCL) [cleft lip only, cleft lip and alveolus, and cleft lip alveolus and palate] on the outcome of the repair. Material and Methods: This study was a case series of effect of types of UCL on the outcome of the repair. Fifteen subjects each were in three UCL phenotypes groups. Evaluation of the scar, lip, and nose was done qualitatively by both parents/guardians and professionals using a modified form of the criteria described by Christofides et al. (2006). Results: In the assessment of the surgical scar, the parents found a difference between the three types of cleft in terms of texture, shape, and width of the scar and presence of columella deviation. The professional assessors, however, only found the three types of cleft to be different in the presence of alar flattening. Conclusion: Differences truly exist in the outcome of surgical repair of the three types of unilateral cleft lip, especially in the aesthetics of the nose and in the width and shape of the residual lip scar. Thus, it is important to consider this in the assessment of UCL repair because putting the subtypes together might have a negative impact on the assessment.
  • Level of Satisfaction and Quality of Life of Caregivers of People with Disabilities in Secondary Dental Care Original Article

    Couto, Graziane Ribeiro; Fonseca, Emílio Prado; Amaral, Regiane Cristina do

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the level of satisfaction and quality of life (QOL) of caregivers of Patients with Special Needs seen at the Dental Specialties Center in Aracaju, Brazil. Material and Methods: The Program for Primary Care Access and Quality Improvement (PMAQ – DSC) and the World Health Organization's Quality of Life - Brief (WHOQOL-BREF) questionnaires were applied to PSN and caregivers. Results: The PMAQ questionnaire was applied to 31 patients or caregivers; 97% had no paid work and 61% used public transportation to reach the Dental Specialties Center. The WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was applied to 20 caregivers; 60% considered their life to be good; however, 60% had practically no leisure time. Correlation tests (Pearson’s coefficient) showed a statistically significant correlation between the physical and psychological domain (p=0.02; r=0.64), the psychological and social domain (p=0.033; r=0.48), and the psychological and environment domain (p<0.001; r=0.80). Conclusion: The caregivers and patients with special needs felt satisfied with the specialized oral health service offered by the municipality. Concerning the quality of life of caregivers, the majority stated they had a good quality of life, despite not having the opportunity to participate in leisure-oriented activities and often having negative feelings.
  • Comparison of the High Cycle Fatigue Behavior of the Orthodontic NiTi Wires: An in Vitro Study Original Article

    Farzanegan, Fahimeh; Shafaee, Hooman; Norouzi, Hamid; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the high-cycle fatigue behavior of four commercially available NiTi orthodontic wires. Material and Methods: Twelve NiTi orthodontic wires, round, 0.016-in, three per brand, were selected and divided into four groups: G1 - Heat-activated NiTi, G2 - Superelastic NiTi, G3 - Therma-Ti, and G4 - CopperNiTi. The atomic absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the chemical composition of investigated NiTi wires. We also performed a fatigue test at three-point bending using a universal testing machine for 1000 cycles in a 35 °C water bath. For the first and thousandth cycle, the average plateau load and the plateau length were determined in the unloading area of the force versus displacement diagram. In addition, we calculated the difference between the average plateau load of the first and thousandth cycle (∆F), as well as the difference between the plateau length of both cases (∆L). Results: According to our results, there were no significant differences between the average plateau load of the first and thousandth cycles of each group (p>0.05) and in the plateau length of the first and thousandth cycles of the groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: There were no significant differences between the groups changing the superelasticity property after high-cycle fatigue.
  • Oral Health Care of Children and Adolescents with Different Impairments of Cerebral Palsy: Barriers and Challenges Original Article

    Silva-Selva, Elizabeth Louisy Marques Soares da; Lins Filho, Paulo Cardoso; Macêdo, Thuanny Silva de; Freitas, Jaciel Leandro de Melo; Aguiar, Camilla Siqueira de; Vasconcelos, Márcia Maria Vendiciano Barbosa; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; Caldas Júnior, Arnaldo de França

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To evaluate the barriers to access and oral health care faced by children and adolescents with Cerebral Palsy (CP) according to their motor impairment through the perception of caregivers. Material and Methods: A case series study was carried out at three health institutions in Pernambuco, Brazil. The study sample consisted of 94 caregivers of 5-to-18-year-old patients with CP, according to GMFCS (The Gross Motor Function Classification System). Data were collected using a semi-structured form to evaluate the barriers to access and analyzed statistically by the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, adopting a 5% level of significance. In addition, binary logistic regression was performed to determine the weight of the variables in explaining the outcome variable. Results: There were major difficulties involving transportation (p=0.04) and structural accessibility to dental services (p<0.01) among children and adolescents with severe CP. In addition, the more severe the CP, the greater the difficulty of accessibility (OR=4.09,) and the lower the income (OR=8.80), the greater the motor impairment. Conclusion: Despite the availability of access to dental services, low-income families have more severe CP patients, contributing to the daily difficulties already faced by them in oral health care.
  • The Clinical Pattern and Prevalence of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus among Adult and Children Patients with Dental Caries Original Article

    Zubaidah, Nanik; Dianawati, Nur; Ridwan, Rini Devijanti; Shirakawa, Toshiro; Kuntaman, Kuntaman; Setiawatie, Ernie Maduratna; Tanzil, Muhammad Iqbal; Kunarti, Sri

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To explore the clinical pattern, host factors, and presentation of Streptococcus mutans related to caries incidence among children and adults visiting Universitas Airlangga dental clinic. Material and Methods: This was an observational study with a cross-sectional approach with 50 patients in each group of carious children (6-12 years) and adults (18-35 years). Dental decay samples were taken by sterile excavator, put in a BHI’s transport medium, and directly incubated overnight at 37 ºC. The next day, they were sub-cultured microbiologically in Tryptone Yeast Cystine Sucrose Bacitracin (TYCSB) selective medium. Bacterial species and serogroups were examined by PCR. All patient’s data were collected from medical records and direct observation. Results: Caries were mostly media type in both children and adults. Oral hygiene (OHIS) in children was higher than in adults but not significantly different according to their DMFT. The highest scores for decay, missed and filled teeth were 16, 8 and 7, with an average of 6.82, 1.22 and 0.63, considered quite high. Conclusion: The prevalence of S. mutans was higher in children’s caries than in adults, but among the adult patients the co-incidence of S. mutans and S. sobrinus was associated with higher DMFT. The mutans serotypes e, f, and d were more prevalent among children than adults.
  • Fluoride Concentration in Public Water Supply in a City in the Amazon Region Original Article

    Bandeira, Rejane Helena Laranja; Rebelo, Maria Augusta Bessa; Freitas, Yan Nogueira Leite de; Quadros, Larissa Neves; Gomes, Andressa Coelho; Gomes, Andreia Coelho; Leite, Sarah Debora Camardella; Vieira, Janete Maria Rebelo

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To analyze the fluoride concentration in the public water supply in Manaus, Brazil. Material and Methods: Water samples were collected in 50 mL polyethylene bottles, identified, and labeled. The collection was performed from September 2016 to August 2018. For the selection of collection points, all neighborhoods of the city of Manaus, divided into four health districts (North, South, East, and West), were mapped. From each district, 30 samples were collected, totaling 120 monthly samples. Water samples were analyzed using an ion analyzer, ORION 720-A, and a specific electrode, ORION 96-09. The ion analyzer and electrode were calibrated in standard solutions. The levels were classified in intervals based on technical consensus to guide the health surveillance agencies. Results: Of the 2,874 water samples, 50.3% were within the recommended range, and 49.7% were inadequate, with 31.6% considered above the parameters and 18.1% below. Among the districts, the North had the highest percentages of unsatisfactory samples, resulting in limited action to prevent tooth decay. During the 24 months of analysis, there were large oscillations in the values in all four districts of Manaus. Conclusion: Results reinforce the importance of heterocontrol for the city to guarantee the effectiveness of this public health measure.
  • In Vivo Detection of External Apical Root Resorption Induced by Apical Periodontitis Using Periapical Radiography and Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Original Article

    Huamán, Stephanie Diaz; Arnez, Maya Fernanda Manfrin; Oliveira, Fernanda Maria Machado Pereira Cabral de; Rossi, Andiara De; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To compare the accuracy of periapical radiography (PR) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for the detection of external apical root resorption (EARR) due to root canal contamination. Material and Methods: Dog’s teeth with experimentally induced root resorption due to root canal contamination underwent or not root canal treatment (n=62). True positives (TP), false positives (FP), true negatives (TN), and false negatives (FN) in PR and CBCT diagnoses were determined using histopathologic findings as the gold standard. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and diagnostic accuracy (TP + TN) in the diagnosis of EARR were calculated. Data were compared using chi-squared test (α=0.05). Results: EARR was detected in 35% of roots by PR, in 47% by CBCT, and in 50% of the roots by microscopy (p=0.03 PR versus microscopy; p=0.67 CBCT versus microscopy). Overall, CBCT produced more accurate diagnoses than PR (p=0.008). PR and CBCT allowed the identification of large resorption in 100% of the cases and showed the same accuracy. However, for small resorptions, PR showed an accuracy of 0.83, whereas CBCT showed an accuracy of 0.96 (p=0.003). Conclusion: Cone-beam computed tomography showed higher accuracy in detecting external apical root resorption of endodontic origin.
  • Systemic Manifestations, Tooth Eruption and Enamel Defects in Children with Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome: 36-Month Follow-up Case Series Original Article

    Cavalcanti, Alidianne Fábia Cabral; Arruda, Taynná Dantas de; Aguiar, Yeska Paola Costa; Melo, Adriana Suely de Oliveira; Leal, Jeime Iara Bezerra de Freitas; Sakly, Emna Hidoussi; Goncharuk-Khomyn, Myroslav; Cavalcanti, Sérgio D’Avila L. B.; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To describe systemic manifestations, the characteristics related to tooth eruption, and the occurrence of enamel defects in children with Congenital Zika Virus Syndrome (CZS). Material and Methods: Prospective case series based on nine children with confirmed CZS diagnosis assisted at a reference center in a municipality in the Northeast Region of Brazil. Through a structured interview directed to mothers, information related to prenatal, delivery, and postpartum periods was collected. Tooth eruption was monitored through clinical examinations for 36 months. The modified developmental defect of enamel index (DDE) was used to identify opacities and hypoplasia. Data were presented using descriptive statistics. Results: A high proportion (77.8%) had microcephaly, and 55.5% had low birth weight. Musculoskeletal disorders, swallowing difficulty, and self-injury practices were present in all children. Among the systemic findings, visual impairment (77.8%) and seizures (77.8%) were widely reported. Concerning disorders related to the stomatognathic system, bruxism (66.7%) and difficulty in sucking (33.3%) were present. For most children (77.8%), the deciduous right lower central incisor was the first tooth to erupt (minimum 8 months and maximum 17 months). Enamel defects were diagnosed in only two children (22.2%). Conclusion: A wide range of systemic manifestations was observed in children with CZS, including visual impairment and musculoskeletal disorders. Delayed eruption of the first deciduous tooth was also observed. Enamel defects were present in a small proportion of children.
  • Are We Hearing Right? The Negative Impact of New SARS-CoV-2 Preventive Measures and Prolonged Use of Treatment Modalities during Orthodontic Treatment Short Communication

    Marya, Anand; Venugopal, Adith; Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Since the dental treatment involves the use of various instruments and machines, there is ample presence of both distracting as well as destructive noise, and these are defined based on various parameters. With an increase in safety measures incorporated into dental practices, such as extra-oral suction devices and respirators, there has also been a corresponding rise in noise levels usually present in a clinic. Previous clinical experiments and trials have shown that the noise in a dental office can permanently bring about hearing damage. In addition to this, working with added safety measures during the pandemic, such as the use of personal protective equipment, respirators, and face shields can decrease operator efficiency and the ability to communicate normally. Dentistry has already been demonstrated to be one of the most hazardous occupations because of the high risk of infections. An Orthodontist must protect their eyes and mouth from potentially hazardous situations and the ears to prevent hearing damage.
  • Impact of COVID-19 on Oral Healthcare for Oncopediatric Patients: The Setting in a Reference Hospital in Northeast Brazil Short Communication

    Damascena, Lecidamia Cristina Leite; Bezerra, Paula Maria Maracajá; Santos, Fabio Gomes dos; Lucena, Nyellisonn Nando Nóbrega de; Vieira, Thiago Isidro; Viana Filho, José Maria Chagas; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; Serpa, Eliane Batista de Medeiros; Sousa, Simone Alves de; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To describe the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dental care provided to pediatric cancer patients assisted in a referral hospital. Material and Methods: This is an observational, retrospective study based on secondary data extracted from worksheets of dental procedures for patients aged between 0 and 19 years assisted in the pediatric oncology sector of a hospital in João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Dental procedures performed by the interdisciplinary team of researchers from August 2018 to February 2020 (19 months prior to the pandemic) and from April 2020 to October 2021 (19 months during the pandemic) were totaled and compared. A descriptive analysis of the data was performed. Results: There was a reduction of 80.2% in dental interventions implemented in the sector during the pandemic, with the number of procedures decreasing from 6,210 (the period before the pandemic) to 1,229 (during the pandemic). Most procedures in both periods were performed for patients assisted in beds, for whom there was a reduction of care provided for 81.2% from 5,275 to 994 procedures. Dental procedures in the outpatient clinic decreased by 74.9%, from 935 to 235. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted dental care provided to pediatric oncology patients by restricting dental procedures to emergency demands, compromising performance prevention and health promotion actions.
  • Computer Vision Syndrome: Will the Pandemic Lead to Eye Problems for Dentists? Critical Review

    Marya, Anand; Venugopal, Adith; Karobari, Mohmed Isaqali; Heboyan, Artak

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Over the past year and a half dental education has been conducted primarily online due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. During the pandemic, we have spent many hours a day on our computers, mobile phones, and tablets to gather information and participate in online seminars and classrooms. Health consequences resulting from the overuse of these devices include carpal tunnel syndrome as well as computer vision syndrome (CVS). Computer vision syndrome, also known as digital eye strain, has several associated features such as eye burning, strained vision, dry eye, blurred vision, and associated neck and shoulder pain. Several predisposing factors have been linked with CVS, but often this problem gets ignored. The management of this syndrome is aimed at educating dentists on computer use, position, and the surrounding environment. Considering all this, we must ensure that we spend some time away from these devices every day to avoid any significant vision problems. The objective of preparing this manuscript was to provide a brief overview of the increased prevalence of computer vision syndrome and its associated features.
  • The Use of Bio-Inks and the Era of Bioengineering and Tooth Regeneration Critical Review

    Tauqir, Saman; Ali, Saqib; Marya, Anand

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To review existing literature and provide an update on the current use of Bio-Inks and potential future use. Material and Methods: A MeSH keyword search was conducted to find out relevant articles for this short review. Results: Bio inks used in 3D printing grafting require various properties essential for the selection. Combining multiple methods and improved properties is essential for developing successful bio-inks for 3D grafting of functional tissues and tooth pulp regeneration from stem cells. To date, researchers have made many efforts to grow teeth based on stem cells and inculcate regeneration of teeth along with surrounding tissues like alveolar bones and periodontal ligaments. Conclusion: 3D printing with Bio-Inks requires strict adherence to safety protocols for successful outcomes, making it difficult to employ this routinely.
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