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Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada, Volume: 23, Published: 2023
  • Evaluation of Dental Interns’ Perception and Self-Confidence Levels Regarding Endodontic Treatment”- A Questionnaire Study Orginal Article

    Gogia, Shambhavi; Jain, Anushtha; Mallya, Laxmish; Shenoy, Ramya; Pai, Swathi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the perception and self-confidence of Dental interns regarding endodontic treatment performed on patients. Material and Methods: A total of 111 dental interns from 5 different educational institutes of a state in South India participated in a questionnaire-based survey. The questionnaire consisted of 12 questions related to root canal procedures performed on patients. Analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. Results: Sixty-five interns (59%) performed less than 10 root canal treatments on patients during the course of the internship. Twenty-eight interns (25% of the intern population) took up more than 10 root canal treatment cases, whereas only 18 interns (16%) did not perform the treatment on patients and answered the questionnaire based on their experience with extracted teeth model work. Only five interns out of 111 were ‘Very confident’ and 22 were ‘Confident’ in performing the root canal treatment. Conclusion: The present study indicates that the self-perceived confidence level among dental interns can affect their clinical performance. It also recommends additional hands-on workshops, problem-based learning and clinical guidance for the dental interns to become more confident with the root canal procedure.
  • Profile of Hospitalizations of Children and Adolescents Victims of Transport Accidents: A Retrospective Study Original Article

    Silva, Naiana Braga da; Rodrigues, Taynná Larissa Santos; Protasio, Ane Polline Lacerda; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To present the profile of hospitalizations due to transport accidents in individuals aged 0-19 years in a reference hospital for urgent and emergency traumatology care. Material and Methods: This retrospective study is grounded on analyzing medical records of children and adolescents hospitalized due to transport accidents in 2016 and 2017. The bivariate analyses included Chi-square and Fischer’s exact tests and binary logistic regression, with a 5% significance level. Results: Four hundred and seventy-five (43.7%) of the 1,088 medical records investigated corresponded to transport accidents, and accidents involving motorcycles were the most frequent (68.3%), affecting adolescents (81.3%), while children were more involved in accidents as pedestrians (57.1%). Advancing age increases the likelihood of the outcome, with a significant association in the multivariate analysis (p<0.001). The mandible was most frequently affected in maxillofacial fractures. Conclusion: Transport accidents predominantly affect male adolescents, involving motorcycles, and the lower limbs are the most affected. The mandible was the most affected bone in maxillofacial fractures.
  • Effect of Ozonated Water on the Color Stability of Denture Teeth and Heat Polymerized Acrylic Base Resin Original Article

    Mirmortazavi, Amirtaher; Chamani, Alireza; Bagheri, Hossein; Rangrazi, Abdolrasoul

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To determine the effect of ozonated water on the color stability of denture tooth and denture bases. Material and Methods: Thirty denture base discs consisting of 15 Acropars and 15 ProBase Hot specimens with the dimensions of 40 × 5 mm were prepared. Fifteen denture teeth in shade A1 (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) were mounted in a specific acrylic jig. All specimens were immersed in three solutions (1% sodium hypochlorite, ozonated water, and distilled water) for four months (one year of clinical use). Color measurements were done with a spectrophotometer and assessed using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks). Data were analyzed using the three-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05). Results: Tukey's post hoc test revealed a significant change in color in the Acropars denture base for the distilled water group compared to the ozonated water and 1% hypochlorite (p<0.05). Regarding the ProBase Hot denture base, significantly less color change was observed in the 1% hypochlorite group compared to the ozonated water and distilled water (p≤0.001). For the denture teeth, significantly less color change was seen in the distilled water group than in the ozonated water (p=0.015) and 1% hypochlorite (p<0.05) groups. Conclusion: The color change of denture bases and denture tooth in ozonated water are acceptable. Ozonated water can be considered a good disinfectant for cleaning dentures.
  • Comparison Between Radiographs, White and Fluorescent Images in the Diagnosis and Treatment Decisions for Occlusal Caries: An Ex Vivo Study Orginal Article

    Silva, Luciana Pereira da; Bastos, Luan Ferreira; Mascarenhas, Clara Silva Avellar; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Pomarico, Luciana; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de; Visconti, Maria Augusta; Neves, Aline de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the agreement of images in white light (WL), fluorescence (FL), and digital radiographs (DR), on the diagnosis and treatment decisions for occlusal caries lesions against a micro-CT gold standard. Material and Methods: Ten extracted third molars, with enamel and/or dentin caries (ICDAS 2-4), were included. Occlusal surface images were acquired with an intraoral camera (SoproLife®) in WL and FL modes. DR was obtained using an intraoral X-ray and a semi-direct digital system. A total of 780 images were needed, organized in a template, to be later examined by twenty-six dentists invited to compose the study. The Generalized Estimation Equations model was used to compare the proportions of the correct answers between the three methods and the gold standard. When significant, Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to identify differences (α=5%). Results: Most of the examiners were specialists (76.9%) with 14.5 years of experience. All diagnostic methods were similar and showed low agreement (DR 12.7%, WL 16.5%, and FL 16.5%) compared with gold standard caries diagnostic scores. Regarding treatment decisions, mean agreement for all diagnostic methods was higher (43.2%; p<0.001), and among all methods, WL (48.1%) and FL (51.2%) modes performed better than DR (30.4%, p<0.001). Conclusion: SoproLife® images could help clinicians to propose rational, minimally invasive treatments for occlusal caries lesions.
  • Knowledge, Dental Anxiety, and Patient Expectations During the COVID-19 Pandemic Original Article

    Rachmawati, Yuanita Lely; Anjani, Isabela; Sasi, Anggiona Dwi Nawang

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To assess the knowledge, dental anxiety, and expectations regarding dental services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: The respondents were Indonesian citizens above 18 years old. An online Google survey was administered using a structured questionnaire with a snowball sampling technique. Survey items comprised knowledge related to COVID-19, dental anxiety assessed using the modified DAS (Dental Anxiety Scale) and expectations regarding dental services using four dimensions of dental service quality. All questionnaires were tested for reliability and indicated acceptable and good agreement. The data were analyzed descriptively. Results: A total of 553 responses were analysed. Most respondents were female (72.9%), 76.7% knew of recommendations to postpone dentist visits and 86.8% knew methods of preventing COVID-19 transmission. More than 70% of respondents knew the precaution procedures in the dental office during COVID-19, and only 27.9% had moderate-severe anxiety. Most respondents’ expectations regarding dental services during the pandemic era were related to the quality domain of reliability and responsiveness. Conclusion: Respondents knew about COVID-19 transmission and prevention, emergency conditions warranting a visit to the dentist and the procedures used at the dental office. Most respondents stated that they were not anxious about visiting a dentist during the pandemic. The respondents expect the dentist to provide sufficient information to improve oral health and treatment plan.
  • Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the “Child Drawing: Hospital” (CD:H) Scale for Paediatric Dentistry in Brazil Original Article

    Custódio, Natália Baschirotto; Mathias, Fernanda Burkert; Cademartori, Mariana Gonzalez; Goettems, Marília Leão

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Objective: To translate and perform the cross-cultural adaption of the CD:H scale for use in Paediatric Dentistry in Brazilian Portuguese language. Material and Methods: The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the CD: H was carried out in four stages: 1) translation of the instrument; 2) reverse translation (back translation); 3) cross-cultural adaptation, and 4) face validation. Face validation consisted of the evaluation of 30 subjects from the target population. A pilot study was conducted with 15 children aged 5-10 years treated at a university dental clinic and their drawings were analysed by two dentists. Data were analysed using Stata 12.0. Results: In the face validation, most items were understood; however, some words were changed, and terms were included to identify the dental environment. Good reproducibility was obtained: inter-examiner reliability was 0.9647 and intra-examiner reliability was 0.9619 for examiner A and 0.8260 for examiner B. Conclusion: The Brazilian version of the CD:H scale is a useful tool for dentists, helping identify children's emotions and being enjoyable for them.
  • Quality of Tooth-Whitening Videos Available on YouTube Orginal Article

    Rachmawati, Yuanita Lely; Naibaho, Laura Vita Catherine; Aulia, Naufal Rifqi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare how the quality of YouTube videos on tooth whitening uploaded by healthcare professionals and laypersons. Material and Methods: The video that was uploaded in a year was collected on YouTube using the keywords tooth whitening and dental bleaching. The exclusion criteria were duplicate videos, advertisements, no sound, too short duration, and lectures. The variables analyzed were likes/dislikes, viewers, interaction index, viewing rate, usefulness, global quality scale (GQS), and comprehensiveness score. Two observers reviewed the videos independently. Data were analyzed descriptively and analytically. Results: A total of 106 videos were selected, and most were uploaded by laypersons (70.8%). The observer reliability test showed excellent agreement with the intraclass correlation coefficient score minimum of 0.876. There were significant differences in dislikes (p=0.003), views (p=0.016), interaction index (p=0.010), usefulness (p=0.030), GQS (p<0.0001), and comprehensiveness (p=0.014) between healthcare professionals and laypersons. Videos made by laypersons had higher numbers of dislikes and viewing rates, whereas healthcare professionals were higher in usefulness, GQS, and comprehensiveness. Conclusion: Videos uploaded by laypersons provide low-accurate information despite being popular among viewers. Viewers need to be selective in seeking information from YouTube as a resource for oral healthcare decision-related tooth whitening.
  • Dimensions of Occlusoproximal Cavitated Carious Lesions as a Cut-Off Point for Restorative Decision in Primary Teeth Orginal Article

    Scherer, Helena; Cavalheiro, Cleber Paradzinski; Imparato, José Carlos Pettorossi; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira; Ortiz, Fernanda Ruffo; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether the dimensions of cavitated dentin carious lesions on the occlusoproximal surfaces of primary teeth could predict the location of cement-enamel junction (CEJ). Material and Methods: Two hundred extracted primary molars were selected and digital images were obtained. The teeth were set in arch models for clinical measurement. The cervical-occlusal (CO) and buccal-lingual/palatal (BL/P) cavities’ dimensions were obtained by digital (Image J) and clinical (periodontal millimeter probe) assessments. The cervical margin location was also determined. The thresholds (cut-off points) were determined by sensitivity, specificity and the areas under the receiver operating characteristics curves (Az) for the two methods. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to investigate the correlation between clinical and digital measurements. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the association between the dimensions and cervical margin location. Results: There was a strong correlation between methods for all measurements (CO: r=0.90, VL/P: r=0.95). Cavities with BL/P distance higher than 4.5 mm and CO dimension higher than 3.5 mm had a lower chance of presenting the cervical limit above the CEJ, irrespective of the measurement method. Conclusion: CO and VL/P dimensions could be used to predict the CEJ location and, ultimately, as a clinical parameter for restorative decision-making.
  • Relationship of Dental Caries and Body Mass Index amongst School Children in Hail, Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study Orginal Article

    Ali, Alsweed; Ahmed Ali, AlFawzan; Mohammed Ali, Habibullah; Khan, Nubesh; Salama, Mohamed Tharwat; Babaji, Prashant

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine caries prevalence and its association with body mass index in school children between 9-12 years of age in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Material and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 524 school children 9-12 years of age. These children were selected from 9 Public schools in Hail Province. Dental caries was recorded as per criteria established by the World Health Organization using assessment form for children 2013. Children were weighed using an electronic scale nearest to 0.1 kg with children attired in light clothing and wearing no shoes. The height was measured using a stadiometer to the nearest full centimeter with the children in a standing position. Body Mass Index (BMI) was determined using the formula BMI = kg/m2. Results: Caries prevalence in the population was 86%. The comparisons of mean DMFT between the groups demonstrate higher scores in the overweight group (mean=2.43) compared to normal weight (mean=1.85) and underweight children (mean=1.56) which is statistically significant (p=0.000). Bonferroni Post hoc test to compare the underweight and overweight group (p=0.000) and overweight and normal weight (p=0.000) were highly significant. Conclusion: A positive correlation of caries severity, namely DMFT, with BMI is established.
  • Caregivers’ Sense of Coherence and Untreated Dental Caries in Children and Adolescents: A Cross-Sectional Study Original Article

    Mattos, Monica Gentil; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Maia, Lucianne Cople; Neves, Aline de Almeida

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To associate caregivers' sense of coherence (SOC) and untreated caries with oral health status in children covered by a dental public health system. Material and Methods: A convenience sample of caregivers/children in Angra dos Reis, Brazil, was surveyed. Caregivers' SOC was evaluated using the 13-question version questionnaire. For both caregivers/children, sociodemographic information was acquired and caries experience was evaluated by DMFT/dmft and PUFA/pufa index. Statistical associations between children's untreated carious teeth and interest variables from the caregivers were evaluated by binary logistic regression assessed by generalized linear modeling. Results: A total of 233 pairs of caregivers-children were included. Children's untreated permanent and primary carious teeth represented 34.8% and 62.2% of the caries experience, respectively and at least one PUFA/pufa scored tooth was detected in 22.7% of them. Caregivers' DMFT was 13.5±7.0, while 33.6% scored on PUFA. A total of 62.1% of them presented untreated carious lesions. Results from the univariate model, correlating children's untreated caries and caregivers' attributes showed a statistical significance for SOC values (p<0.015), untreated decayed teeth (p<0.035), self-perception of oral health (p<0.022) and oral impact on daily performance (p<0.010). The multivariate logistic first model kept the statistical significance only for the caregiver's untreated decayed teeth. Conclusion: Caregivers' SOC and untreated carious teeth could be used as indicators of dental treatment needs in their offspring.
  • Accelerating Wound Healing of Traumatic Ulcer with Topical Application of Dental Pulp Mesenchymal Stem Cell Secretome and Robusta Green Coffee Bean Extract Combination in vivo Original Article

    Ichi, Ericko; Triwahyuni, Iin Eliana; Sari, Desi Sandra

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the ability of a combination dental pulp mesenchymal stem cell secretome (DPMSCS), robusta green coffee bean extract (RGCBE), and Carboxymethylcellulose-Natrium (CMC-Na) in a Wistar rats model of traumatic ulcers. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight young, male, healthy Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were divided into seven groups randomly: Group K0, group K1-3 (traumatic ulcer rats that received CMC-Na gel for three days), group K1-7 (traumatic ulcer rats that received CMC-Na gel for seven days), group K2-3 (traumatic ulcer rats that received RGCBE for three days), group K2-7 (traumatic ulcer rats that received RGCBE for seven days), group K3-3 (traumatic ulcer rats that received DPMSCS for three days), and group K3-7 (traumatic ulcer rats that received DPMSCS for seven days). An ulcer was made with an amalgam stopper on the right buccal mucosa of the rats. DPMSCS 50% gel was applied to the ulcer on the left buccal mucosa. The ulcer diameter was measured on day 3 and day 7. Results: There was a significant difference in the diameter of the ulcer, the number of neutrophils, and fibroblasts in the treatment group compared to the control group on day 7. Conclusion: A combination of DPMSCS and RGCBE 50% accelerates traumatic ulcer wound healing by lowering ulcer diameter, decreasing neutrophil counts, and increasing fibroblast proliferation in vivo.
  • Identifying the Potential Determinants of Tobacco Counseling Implementation among Oral Health Professionals of India: A Cross-Sectional Survey Original Article

    Agrawal, Neha; Mariam, Sarah; Gupta, Narinder Dev; Tewari, Rajendra Kumar; Gupta, Juhi; Garg, Amit Kumar

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the potential determinants of tobacco counseling implementation among oral health professionals in India. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out among the 298 dentists of Aligarh and Gwalior. The questionnaire used in the study had sections on dentists' sociodemographic data and a 35-item questionnaire to assess the potential determinants of tobacco cessation counseling. Descriptive statistics were carried out, and a Chi-square test was utilized to determine the association. P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Domains "knowledge", "Professional Responsibility and Identity", and "Remembrance, awareness, and judgment" showed a statistically significant correlation with most tobacco cessation counseling behaviors. In addition, undergraduate education received in Tobacco Cessation counseling, and Continuing education received in Tobacco Cessation counseling had significantly impacted the practice of tobacco cessation counseling (p=0.02 and 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: This study suggests that "Knowledge", "Professional Responsibility and Identity" and "Remembrance, awareness, and judgment" are the potential determinants that could be used to design effective strategies to enhance tobacco counseling among dentists in India.
  • Establishing Cephalometric Norms in Primary Dentition Using Comprehensive Craniofacial Growth Analysis - A Digital Cephalometric Study Original Article

    Deshmukh, Seema; Nandlal, Bhojraj

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To establish cephalometric norms in primary dentition among males and females using novel customized Comprehensive Cephalometric Growth (CCG) Analysis. Material and Methods: The study was conducted on 67 subjects with a mean age of 5.5 yrs. Digital lateral cephalometric radiographs were obtained using Planmeca Pro One. The digital images were then transferred to Nemoceph software. Craniofacial Growth (CCG) Analysis was configured in the software with five sub-groups. This sub-grouping was done such that related components were grouped together and comprehensively; it would provide an assessment of every component of the craniofacial region that could be affected either by treatment maneuver or growth process. The same was used for the cephalometric analysis and to determine the cephalometric norms in the primary dentition. Results: Certain linear measurements were higher among males when compared to females. However, most measurements remained similar among males and females during this age group. The CCG analysis provided a comprehensive knowledge of the craniofacial parameters during the growth process. Conclusion: The cephalometric norms during primary dentition thus established using Comprehensive Craniofacial Growth analysis would provide the data for early diagnosis and treatment planning in interceptive orthodontic treatment procedures.
  • A 12-month Follow-Up Study of Pulp Oxygen Saturation in Deciduous Molars After Selective and Nonselective Carious-Tissue Removal: A Randomized Pilot Trial Original Article

    Neves, Pierre Adriano Moreno; Souza, Soraia de Fátima Carvalho; Casagrande, Luciano; Araujo, Fernando Borba de; Costa, Cayara Mattos; Ribeiro, Cecilia Claudia Costa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the pulp vitality of deciduous molars before and after selective caries removal (SCR) or nonselective caries removal to hard dentin (NSCR) over one year, using oxygen saturation percentage (%SaO2). Material and Methods: Deciduous molars with deep occlusal/proximal-occlusal caries lesions were randomized to SCR (n=22) or NSCR groups (n=22). After the caries removal, the teeth were protected with calcium hydroxide cement and restored with composite resin (Filtek Z250). The pulp condition diagnosis was evaluated at baseline, immediately after caries removal, and follow-up (7 days, 1-, 6- and 12-months) by %SaO2. Pulp exposure and pulp necrosis were primary outcomes, and %SaO2 was secondary. Results: Intraoperative pulp exposure occurred in four teeth of the NSCR group (18.2%) and one tooth of the SCR group (4.5%) (p>0.05). Two cases of pulp necrosis occurred in the NSCR group (10%). No difference in %SaO2 pulp was observed in the inter-and intragroup comparison over time (p>0.05). Conclusion: Advantageously, the %SaO2 minimizes preoperatory pulp vitality diagnosis subjectivity before SCR/ NSCR treatments. Furthermore, the pilot study results suggest the pulp response of deciduous molars, when evaluated by clinical, radiographic, and pulp %SaO2 seems not to differ between teeth treated with SCR or NSCR.
  • Efficacy of Buccal Infiltration with or without Palatal Injection for Posterior Maxillary Teeth Extraction - A Split-Mouth Randomized Trial Original Article

    Chatterjee, Abhirup; Gadicherla, Srikanth; Roy, Sreea; Pentapati, Kalyana-Chakravarthy

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of posterior maxillary teeth extraction buccal infiltration with or without the use of palatal injection. Material and Methods: A total of 70 patients underwent extraction of bilateral maxillary posterior teeth under 2% lignocaine hydrochloride with 1:2,00000 adrenaline infiltration in this single-centric split-mouth randomized trial. The test side was administered with a buccal infiltration of 2 mL of anesthetic alone. An extended waiting period of 10 minutes was given before the commencement of the procedure. A standard protocol was followed for the control side. A single operator performed all extractions. Results: A total of 140 posterior maxillary teeth were extracted. Patients marked pain perception on a visual analogue scale in three different instances. During the administration of injections for the test side, the pain score was less than that of the control side and was statistically significant. The overall pain during the extraction procedure was comparable and statistically insignificant. The overall success of the method was 90%. Conclusion: Extraction of posterior maxillary teeth was feasible with a single buccal infiltration without palatal injection in most cases using an extended waiting period. Dentists can attempt extraction without palatal injections with optimal success. However, the alternate technique could be used when there is a necessity for rescue palatal anesthesia.
  • Prevalence and Risk Factors of Bruxism in a Selected Population of Iranian Children Original Article

    Jahanimoghadam, Fatemeh; Tohidimoghadam, Mahsa; Poureslami, Hamidreza; Sharifi, Maryam

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the prevalence of bruxism in Iranian children aged 6 to 12 years. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 600 schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. The questionnaire consisted of two sections: the first section included demographic information, while the second evaluated the occurrence of bruxism. Kruskal-Wallis, Chi-Square, Fisher and Multinomial logistic regression were used. A level of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: 698 questionnaires were distributed, of which 600 participants were returned. According to Multinomial logistic regression, awake bruxism was associated significantly with the following variables: age, sequence of birth, recurrent headache, gastrointestinal disease, nasal obstruction, neurological disorder, easy child crying, sleep disorders, talking in a dream and snoring and jaw disorder. Sleep bruxism was associated significantly with age, premature birth, allergy, gastrointestinal disease, drooling, mouth breathing, nasal obstruction, oral habit, nail biting, sleep disorder, jaw disorders, and family history. Conclusion: Pre-birth and post-birth factors play an important role in the prevalence of bruxism in society. It is possible to prevent complications of bruxism by informing parents and making a timely diagnosis. Parents should be aware of this occurrence to reduce possible related factors to teeth and the masticatory system.
  • Dental Fear/Anxiety in Children and Child Emotional and Behavioural Problems Original Article

    Cademartori, Mariana Gonzalez; Mathias, Fernanda Burkert; Jansen, Karen; Goettems, Marília Leão

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the association between emotional and behavioural problems and dental fear/anxiety (DFA) in children aged four to 12 years treated at a clinic in southern Brazil. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study where mother-child dyads were interviewed, emotional and behavioural problems were investigated using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) (considering five subscales). Children's DFA was evaluated through the Venham Picture Test. For each SDQ subscale, Poisson regression model was explored. Prevalence ratios (PR) were estimated, considering a significant level of p ≤ 0.05. Results: Overall, 128 children participated in this study. Most children were female (54.7%) and aged between 7 and 9 years (39.8%). The prevalence of emotional problems was 47.7% and behavioural problems were 46.1%. The prevalence of DFA was 18.8%. Children with emotional problems had a 2.3 higher prevalence of DFA (95%CI 1.06-5.04). In general, behavioural problems were not associated with DFA (95%CI 0.84-3.34) only when conduct problems were considered (2.20; 95%CI 1.02-4.70). Conclusion: Children aged between 4 and 12 years who present emotional and conduct problems tend to show higher DFA.
  • Assessment of Knowledge Among the Physicians Regarding Dental Screening Prior to Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy Original Article

    Gufran, Khalid; Alyamany, Rama; Alqahtani, Abdullah Saad; Tarakji, Bassel; Alzughaibi, Linah Ibrahim; Alhaqbani, Meshal Mohammed; Basalem, Saeed Abdullah

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the physicians' knowledge regarding the referral for dental screening prior to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Material and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using simple random sampling among 468 physicians from various specialties with diverse experience levels from different regions in Saudi Arabia. A self-reporting questionnaire was distributed among the physicians, which consisted of questions assessing the physicians' knowledge about oral health and complications in patients prior to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Statistical analysis was done after the data was collected employing SPSS, and p<0.05 was taken as significant. Results: Residents were more as expected (39.3%), followed by specialists (2.31%). The majority had a practice experience for more than five years (67.8%).The scores for the knowledge assessment showed that 51.3%, nearly half of the participants, had lower scores. The scores were statistically significant (p<0.05). Conclusion: General physicians and specialists should be aware of the dental complications and associated diseases in patients with malignancies and those undergoing chemo and radiotherapy. It is proposed that more awareness should be raised among physicians to rectify this lapse.
  • Variations in Function and Vocal Acoustic Characteristics After Orthognathic Surgery: Preliminary Results Original Article

    Palone, Mario; Mannelli, Edoardo; Pontarolo, Elisabetta; Nardi, Flavia; Menegus, Teresa; Santoni, Paolo; Baciliero, Ugo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the effects of orthognathic surgery on oral function and vocal quality in order to assess the need for speech therapy after surgery. Material and Methods: Thirty-seven patients scheduled for mono-jaw surgery, specifically maxillary (G1:15 patients), mandibular advancement (G2:10 patients) or mandibular set-back (G3:12 patients), were recruited for this prospective cohort study. Evaluation of oral functions, video recordings of speech articulation and audio recordings of voice were obtained before surgery (T0), and at 1 (T1) and 6 months (T2) after surgery. Spectrographic analysis and self-evaluation questionnaire regarding the vocal performance (VAPP) were performed. Both qualitative and quantitative statistical analysis was performed, mainly using generalized linear models for dichotomous data (p<0.05). Results: The formant frequencies (F1 and F2) of the main vowels vary after orthognathic surgery according to the type of surgery. Before surgery, 84% of patients analyzed showed difficulties in breathing and positioning the tongue both at rest and swallowing. Thanks to surgical correction of the malocclusion, the major part of these issues were resolved within 6 months. In 25% of cases, a change in the voice and/or articulation had occurred. Conclusion: Vocality improves after orthognathic surgery and it changes in relation to the type of surgery. However, vocality did not normalize completely. Speech assessment should be considered after surgery in order to offer adequate speech therapy if necessary.
  • Oral Condition of Adolescents who Participated in an Oral Health Program During the First Decade of Life Original Article

    Amaral, Jaqueline Canova Paludetto; Gawlinski, Bárbara Curi; Duque, Cristiane; Cunha, Robson Frederico

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the oral health of adolescents who participated in an oral health preventive program during the first decade of life. Material and Methods: For the evaluation of dental caries and gingival condition, DMFT and Community Periodontal Index were used, both recommended by the World Health Organization. To verify the occurrence of dental fluorosis, the Dean index was used. Results: Data collection was obtained from 252 patients aged 12 to 16 years. The average DMFT index was 1.14; in relation to the gingival condition, the index of healthy gingival tissue prevailed and the average of this value was 84%, with code 0 being more registered in tooth 11, code 1, more frequently in teeth 16/17 and 36/37 and for last, code 2, in tooth 31 most frequently. Dean's index showed a percentage of 89% of patients without clinical signs of dental fluorosis. Conclusion: Adolescents participating in an oral health preventive program in the first decade of life exhibited very satisfactory results regarding the prevention of caries disease, healthy periodontal condition and reduced prevalence of dental fluorosis.
  • YouTubeTM as a Tool to Teach Dentists about Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH): Analysis of Quality Content Original Article

    Silva, Danielle Fernandes da; Lobosco, Ana Carolina; Silva, Fernanda Mafei Felix da; Magno, Marcela Baraúna

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the quality of information about Molar incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) on YouTubeTM. Material and Methods: Only videos in Portuguese aimed at dentists were included. The selected videos were analyzed by two calibrated evaluators, who extracted the information (classification, etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of MIH) and the quality was evaluated through a 20-point-checklist, according to the International Association of Pediatric Dentistry and European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. Descriptive analysis and statistical tests were applied to assess the association (ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis) or correlation (Spearman) between the final scores of the videos and their demographics. Results: Nineteen videos with 13.8±4.76 mean points were considered eligible. Most of the videos did not report the possible involvement of other groups of teeth (n=12), presence of atypical restorations (n=8) and hypersensitivity (n=7); and the different treatments for MIH were very variable. Twelve videos discussed differential diagnosis and 78.95% possible etiological factors; however, all of them presented clinical images. Data related to the video source and viewer interaction were not related to its quality (p>0.05). The number of likes (r=0.26), views (r=0.34) and video time (=0.58) show a weak and moderate correlation, respectively, with video score. Conclusion: Videos on YouTubeTM about MIH presented moderate or high quality, with heterogeneous information, and can act as a complementary aid source of information.
  • Use of Images and Clinical Experience to Calibrate Dental Surgeons for the Diagnosis of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization Original Article

    Vieira, Heloisa Aparecida Orsini; Araújo, Lisa Danielly Curcino; Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono de; Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino de; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate an imaging protocol for use as a diagnostic and calibration tool for dentists before and after practical activity. Material and Methods: Thirty photos of children's teeth with or without changes in dental enamel were selected and evaluated by a group of experienced dentists previously calibrated to establish the diagnosis defined as the gold standard. After instructions, the images were shown to a group of postgraduate dentists for free identification of dental changes. Subsequently, a lecture on molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) was carried out, and, at 14 days and all calibration was performed using the criteria previously. The retest was performed at 28 days. After experience in clinical activity in the following two weeks, the post-test was performed at 49 days. Data were analyzed using Cohen's kappa coefficient. Results: Theoretical learning on the subject showed low inter-examiner agreement when the diagnosis of defects was made from images obtained from intraoral photographs. After clinical practice, there was greater intra-examiner agreement. After theoretical training, dentists started to identify different types of enamel alteration, although with low agreement between them. Conclusion: Clinical experience in theoretical and imaging training favored the identification of defects. However, it is necessary to improve the protocol to establish a reliable and viable diagnostic method for calibration in MIH.
  • Antibiotic Prescription in Endodontics: A Transversal Observational Study Comparing Dental Students and General Dental Practitioners in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Original Article

    Figueiredo, Ana Clara Miranda; Matos, Isabella Soares de Oliveira; Alves, Bruna Thurler; Vianna, Morgana Eli; Lins, Renata Ximenes

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare antibiotic prescriptions for endodontic infections of last-year undergraduate Dentistry students and dental surgeons from Brazil. Material and Methods: A questionnaire comprised of 15 questions was applied, including a series of hypothetical clinical cases through multiple choice questions. The survey respondents had the option to respond in favor or against the prescription of antimicrobials in each case. Afterwards, the commented answer keys of all topics contained in the survey form were released for educational purpose. Results: A total of 42 undergraduates and 115 dental surgeons answered the survey. Regarding the questions about antimicrobial prescriptions, 91.3% of the professional dentists and 69.8% of the dentistry students indicated that they prescribe antibiotics for a limited number of patients. However, when they responded about drug recommendations, most professionals (76.5%) and students (76.7%) chose to recommend antimicrobials without any clinical recommendation. Conclusion: In the groups herein evaluated, many antibiotic prescriptions could have been avoided. The rational use of these drugs is still a conduct that needs further disclosure and commitment among prescribers.
  • Development and Validation of an Educational Comic Book for Guidance on the Safe Use of Fluoride Toothpaste by Children Original Article

    Flório, Flávia Martão; Rached, Enzo Abi; Victorelli, Gabriela; Silva, Almenara de Souza Fonseca; Arsati, Ynara Bosco de Oliveira Lima

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the elaboration and content validation of a comic book for guidance on the safe use of fluoride toothpaste by children. Material and Methods: Study on the development of educational technology carried out in four phases: 1 - literature review and script; 2 - elaboration of the material (illustrations, layout and design), 3 - validation (Content Validity Index = CVI and Flesch Readability Index = FI), 4 - pilot test to legitimize the material with the target population. Thirty-one individuals participated in the validation, being 07 expert judges and 24 representatives of the lay population, responsible for the daily care of preschool and school-age children. Results: In the validation, CVI= 0.97 (97%), indicating high agreement of the judges' answers; and FI = 92%, which corresponds to “very easy to understand” reading. In the pilot test carried out with the lay population, the 3 assessment blocks had CVI=1.0 (100%). Conclusion: The comic book proved to be valid regarding appearance and content and can be used for health education activities for adults on the use of fluoride toothpaste for oral hygiene in children.
  • Assessment of Panoramic Radiographic Variables as Predictors of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Injury During Third Molar Extraction Original Article

    Shaukat, Lubna; Khan, Zafar Ali; Issrani, Rakhi; Ahmed, Naseer; Ahmad, Muhtada; Hazim, Farrukh Abu; Prabhu, Namdeo

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the role of radiological predictive markers on orthopantomogram for inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury related to the removal of mandibular third molar surgery and the occurrence of post-operative IAN paresthesia. Material and Methods: This prospective observational study was conducted on 60 patients (aged 17-35 years) indicated for extraction and showed one or more of the seven previously known panoramic radiographic risk signs of IAN injury. Variables such as age, sex, tooth angulation, and relationship with the inferior alveolar canal (IAC) were assessed to see their outcome on IAN injury. Data analysis is presented through tables and descriptive methods. Results: Among patients, 26 were male and 34 were female, with a mean age of 26.17 years. Out of seven radiological predictive markers, only six were found in this study, whereas one marker, viz. interruption of white line of the canal was not found. After surgical removal of the lower third molar, only two patients with radiographic signs showing the deflection of roots and darkening of roots continued with sensory deficit 5 weeks post-operatively. Conclusion: The risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury during lower third molar surgery is very low, even in patients with radiological predictive markers.
  • Factors Associated with the Intake of Ultra-Processed Cariogenic Foods by Preschoolers During the COVID-19 Pandemic Original Article

    Crema, Aline Fabris de Araujo; Menoncin, Bruna Letícia Vessoni; Crispim, Sandra Patricia; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the characteristics and factors associated with the intake of ultra-processed cariogenic foods (UFC) by preschoolers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: This is a cross-sectional study involving parents of 672 children from two to five years old enrolled at public schools in Curitiba, Brazil. Parents answered a questionnaire about socioeconomic and demographic data, their behavior regarding the dietary education of their children (Parent Mealtime Action Scale - translated and validated for use in Brazil), and children's food intake (qualitative food frequency questionnaire - list of foods based on a report from the Pan American Health Organization). The data were analyzed using Poisson regression analysis (α=0.05). Results: About 43% of parents/guardians reported changes in their children's diet during the pandemic, being that diet got worse and better in 19% and 24% of the cases, respectively. The ultra-processed cariogenic foods with the highest daily intake frequencies were sweetened juices/sweetened drinks (0.52), followed by cookies (0.37), and candies (0.35). Parents with a lower level of education reported a daily frequency of UCF intake 1.36 times higher (PR=1.359; CI 95%: 1.106-1.669) in their children compared to those with a higher level of education. On the other hand, parents’/guardians’ report of higher intake and greater offer of fruits and vegetables to children was associated with low UCF intake (PR=0.716; CI 95%: 0.592-0.866). Conclusion: The lower level of formal education of parents/guardians and lower availability of fruits and vegetables were related to higher consumption of ultra-processed cariogenic foods by children.
  • Effect of Quality of Dental Health Services to Patient Satisfaction in Indonesia 2019: Importance-Performance Analysis Original Article

    Akbar, Fuad Husain; Awang, Abdul Hair; Rivai, Fridawaty

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the effect of the quality of dental health services based on dimensions of empathy and responsiveness to patient satisfaction in urban and rural areas in Bone District, Indonesia. Material and Methods: This survey used an analytical observational method with a pilot pathfinder survey design. The total of participants included in this survey was 442, with 223 in the urban area and 219 in the rural area. This survey was held on 25 February - 1 March 2019. The Mann-Whitney test was applied, adopting a significance level of 5%. Results: Empathy and responsive dimensions in urban (3.58 ± 0.94 and 3.50 ± 0.94) and rural (3.43 ± 0.99 and 3.63 ± 0.86) areas were in the moderate category. The administration staff was able to complete administrative procedures, and the Dental assistant responded promptly to the patient's request and needs. Conclusion: The quality of empathy and responsiveness dimensions in dental treatment fall in the moderate category for urban and rural areas; this means that empathy and responsiveness dimensions in dental service in hospital/public health need to be improved.
  • Mechanical Properties of Mini-Implants Used in Extra-Radicular Anchorage Original Article

    Lopes, Gabriela Barros; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Mordente, Carolina Morsani; Nojima, Lincoln Issamu; Horta, Martinho Campolina Rebello; Oliveira, Dauro Douglas; Soares, Rodrigo Vilamarim

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the mechanical properties of mini-implants (MIs) manufactured from stainless steel and compare them with conventional titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy MIs. Material and Methods: The following groups were formed: G1 (n=24), 8×1.5 mm steel MIs; G2 (n=24), 12×2.0 mm steel MIs; and G3 (n=24), 10×1.5 mm titanium MIs. The 72 MIs were inserted in the infra zygomatic crest region of the maxilla and retromolar trigone in the jaw of 10 pigs. Pull-out, insertion torque, fracture and percussion tests were performed in order to measure the tensile strength, primary stability and fracture strength of MIs. A digital torque gauge was used to measure insertion and fracture torque, a universal mechanical testing machine was used for pull-out testing and a periotest device was used to measure the micromovement of MIs. For morphological and MI component evaluation, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed. D'Agostino & Pearson, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn post-hoc and normality tests were used. Results: G2 insertion and fracture torques were significantly higher than G1 and G3 insertion and fracture torques (p<0.05). The pull-out and percussion tests presented similar values among the groups. SEM revealed that the fracture point was predominantly on the fourth thread for steel MIs (G1 and G2) and on the seventh thread for titanium-aluminum-vanadium MIs (G3). Conclusion: The mechanical properties of stainless steel MIs are superior to those of titanium-aluminum-vanadium alloy MIs.
  • Channa Striata and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Combination for Pressure Areas in Orthodontic Treatment Original Article

    Brahmanta, Arya; Marya, Anand; Fauzia, Bunga; Juwono, Alriama Wiraningtias; Putra, David Firangga Eko

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the effect of using a combination of Channa Striata gel and hyperbaric oxygen therapy on pressure areas during orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: The study was conducted using the ARRIVE Essential 10 guidelines. In this study, 35 3-4 months male guinea pigs (Cavia Cobaya) weighing 300-400 grams were used and divided into 5 groups (n=7). Decalcification was performed to dissolve the dental calcium and jawbone to cut the tissue properly. The decalcification was performed for 30 days. Then preparations were made with HE (Hematoxylin Eosin), observed using a microscope, and counted the number of osteoclasts and macrophages on a light microscope with 400 times magnification. The results of the preparations were analyzed using the SPSS program. Results: The Kruskal-Wallis test of macrophage cells and the ANOVA test of osteoclast cells showed significant results between all groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy 2,4 ATA administered on days 8-14 and Channa Striata extract gel administered on days 3-14 can increase the number of macrophages in the periodontal ligament and osteoclasts in the alveolar bone in the pressure area during orthodontic tooth movement.
  • Clinical and Radiographic Success Rates of Pulpotomies in Primary Molars Treated with Formocresol, BiodentineTM, and Endo Repair: A Randomized Clinical Trial Original Article

    Gisour, Elham Farokh; Jalali, Farzaneh; Jahanimoghadam, Fatemeh; Dehesh, Tania

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the clinical and radiographic success rates of formocresol, BiodentineTM, and Endo Repair agents in primary molars after 12 months. Material and Methods: This randomized double-blind clinical trial was conducted on healthy children referred to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Kerman, Iran, in 2018. One hundred twenty children (human primary molar teeth) aged 3-9 years were selected and randomly divided into three interventions (with pulpotomy medicament agents), including formocresol, BiodentineTM, and Endo Repair. All pulpotomized teeth were restored using stainless steel crowns and evaluated clinically and radiographically during a 12-month follow-up. Fisher exact test was used to determine the association of categorical variables and the data were analysed with SPSS 25. Results: All the available teeth in formocresol and BiodentineTM groups obtained clinical success, whereas 62.5% of the Endo Repair group was successful in this regard. Radiographic success rates of the formocresol, BiodentineTM, and Endo Repair groups were 94.7%, 70%, and 28.1% after a 12-month follow-up, respectively. Moreover, pulp canal obliteration was observed in 26.3%, 25%, and 12.5% of the formocresol, BiodentineTM, and Endo Repair groups. Conclusion: This study reported a high rate of clinical success using both BiodentineTM and formocresol pulpotomy techniques. However, the radiographic success rate of formocresol was higher than that of BiodentineTM, and Endo Repair was not considered a suitable pulpotomy medicament agent.
  • Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire into Brazilian Portuguese Language Original Article

    Sousa, Karina Guedes de; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte; Ultremari, Natalia de Freitas; Chaves Júnior, Samuel de Carvalho; Barbosa, Taís de Souza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To translate, cross-culturally adapt and test the psychometric properties of the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire (PFSQ) to Brazilian Portuguese language. Material and Methods: Three stages were carried out: 1st, the 27-item of PFSQ was translated, back-translated, reviewed by a Committee of Experts and pre-tested (n=60), obtaining the cross-culturally adapted version. 2nd, the final version was self-applied by 42 mothers for internal consistency (Cronbach’s Alpha). After 2-weeks, 19 mothers answered the PFSQ again for reproducibility (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC). 3rd, 204 mothers of children aged 4-5 years answered the PFSQ for translation validation [convergent validity and exploratory factor analysis (EFA)]. Results: For subscales, Cronbach’s alpha ranged from 0.65 to 0.82; the overall reliability was 0.69, indicating substantial internal consistency. The ICC for overall PFSQ was 0.78 and for domains 0.56-0.89, indicating moderate to excellent reproducibility. ‘Control over eating’ correlated positively with ‘prompting/encouragement to eat’ and negatively with ‘instrumental feeding’; ‘prompting/encouragement to eat’ correlated positively with ‘emotional feeding’. By EFA, PFSQ items were loaded on four factors. ‘Control over eating’ and ‘prompting/encouragement to eat’ settled into two factors, whereas the ‘emotional’ and ‘instrumental feeding’ domains into one factor each. Conclusion: Despite the different factors found by AFE related to the original PFSQ, the reliability was satisfactory, making the Brazilian Portuguese version of the PFSQ adequate to assess parental feeding style.
  • Dynamic Self-Determination of Self-Care and Positive Deviance Model for Stunting Prevention in Indonesia Original Article

    Ain, Hurun; Solikhah, Fitriana Kurniasari; Pertami, Sumirah Budi; Kasiati, Kasiati

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe the dynamic self-determination of self-care (DSDoSC) and positive deviance (PD) models in changing stunting prevention behavior. Material and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental study with a sample of 90 mothers taken by purposive sampling. Thirty mothers were given the DSDoSC intervention, 30 were given the PD intervention, and another 30 were in the control group. This research was conducted in July - October 2019. The variables studied were feeding behavior, nurturing behavior, personal hygiene behavior, environmental cleanliness and air sanitation, and behavior seeking health services. To analyze the difference in mother behaviour before and after test, we used Paired t-test. Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was used to analyze the difference of mother behaviour among groups. The level of significance was p<0.05. Results: The PWD group showed that eating behavior, parenting behavior, personal hygiene behavior, environmental hygiene and water sanitation, and behavior seeking health services had significant numbers. In the DSDoSC group, eating behavior, parenting behavior, environmental hygiene, water sanitation and health service-seeking behavior were significantly (p<0.05). The results of the Manova test showed that there was an effect of PD and DSDoSC on stunting prevention behavior. Conclusion: Self-dynamic for self-care model and the positive deviance model both can change a mother's behavior for the better in feeding, parenting, environmental hygiene, and water sanitation, seeking health services, but not changing behavior about personal hygiene behavior.
  • Use of Restorative Materials in Primary Teeth - A Retrospective University-Based Study Original Article

    Pion, Luciana Antonio; Segato, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino de; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the types of restorative materials used for restorative treatment in primary teeth through a retrospective university-based study. Material and Methods: The sample consisted of all clinical records of children attended at the Pediatric Dentistry Clinic at the School of Dentistry of Ribeirão Preto at the University of São Paulo in Brazil. Inclusion criteria were primary anterior and posterior teeth that received dental restorations for treatment of dental caries lesions, dental trauma or dental development defects from 2013 to 2018. Restoration repairs and interim restorations during this period were also recorded. Descriptive analyzes were performed to assess the distribution according to the type of restorative material used over the years. Results: A total of 5,236 restorative procedures were performed in primary teeth, including restoration repair and interim restorations. Of those, 69% were done in posterior teeth and 31% in anterior teeth. Sixty percent of the procedures performed during this period were made of composite resin and a lower percentage of glass ionomer cement (18%) followed by silver amalgam (1%). The number of interim restorations was smaller but proportional to those of composite resin over the years. Conclusion: A tendency to carry out restorative treatment of primary teeth with composite resin during the 6 years of follow-up was observed.
  • Child Stress and Behaviour During Restorative Treatment under Non-Pharmacological Techniques and Sedation: A Case Series Original Article

    Moterane, Mônica Maia; Anabuki, Anna Alice; Costa, Luciane Rezende

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the behaviour and stress of children undergoing restorative treatment with and without sedation. Material and Methods: Participants were 14 healthy children aged between 2.5 and 6 years and with a history of dental behavioural management problems. In the dental treatment visit, the child was treated with non-pharmacological techniques, and in the second, moderate sedation was added. The child received the same procedure performed by a paediatric dentist in both visits: composite resin restoration using local anaesthesia and rubber dam isolation. In both visits, saliva was collected at the children's arrival at the dental clinic, during local anaesthesia and at the end of treatment. The visits were filmed for later analysis of behaviour according to the Ohio State University Behavioural Rating Scale. Results: About 78.5% of children improved their behaviour from the first to the second visit. The salivary cortisol curve of the first visit was maintained in the second visit for 21.4% of children but varied in the remaining participants. Conclusion: Most children presented better behaviour and less stress when sedation was added to non-pharmacological techniques during dental care.
  • Relationship between Malocclusion, Bullying, and Quality of Life in Students from Low Social Development Area: A Cross-Sectional Study Original Article

    Tristão, Sylvia Karla de Paiva Cabral; Ammari, Michelle Mikhael; Tavares, Maisa Costa; Pomarico, Luciana; Pintor, Andréa Vaz Braga; Souza, Ivete Pomarico Ribeiro de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the relationship between malocclusion and bullying and its impact on the well-being and quality of life of students from low social development areas. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 243 schoolchildren between 10 and 17 years. Malocclusion was analyzed using Dental Aesthetic Index. Bullying and self-perception of the impact of one’s oral condition on quality of life and interpersonal relationships were assessed by questions from National Survey of Schoolchildren's Health and Child Perceptions Questionnaire 11-14 (CPQ11-14). Data were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient and Mann-Whitney tests, considering groups: 10-11, 12-14 and 15-17 years. Results: No correlation was observed between malocclusion and bullying. However, in the 12-14 group, poor correlations were found between malocclusion and the CPQ11-14 (0.226) and between malocclusion and being shy/embarrassed due to oral aspects (0.298). Positive correlations were observed between bullying and the impact on the quality of life in the 10-11 (0.420) and 12-14 (0.425) groups. In the older group, a positive correlation (0.724) was observed between the concern about what others think of their oral health and the impact on their quality of life. Conclusion: There was no evidence of a relationship between malocclusion and bullying. However, the oral conditions negatively affected the interpersonal relationships and the student's quality of life.
  • Effect of Glycolic Acid, Maleic Acid, and EDTA in the Removal of Smear Layer from Root Canal Dentin Original Article

    Mullick, Tarini; Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the efficacy of 5% Glycolic Acid (GA), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 7% maleic acid (MA), in removing the smear layer (SL). Material and Methods: For the experiment, forty single-rooted human teeth were selected. To perform the chemo‑mechanical preparation, the root canals were instrumented to an apical size of #30, along with simultaneous irrigation of 2.5% NaOCl. The samples were allotted to the experimental groups based on the final irrigating solution (n=10): (1) The GA group: 05%, (2) the EDTA group: 17%, (3) the MA group: 7%, and (4) the control group: Distilled water. The teeth were evaluated for the presence or absence of SL using SEM. Results: Comparing the 5% GA, 7% MA and 17% EDTA groups, no statistically significant differences were found at the coronal and middle thirds (p>0.05). However, in the apical third, MA had greater efficacy than EDTA (p=0.002) and GA (p=0.041), with a significant difference in the SL removal, while there was no significant difference between the latter (p=0.148). Conclusion: Thus, it was concluded that 7% maleic acid as a final irrigating solution is more efficacious than 17% EDTA and 5% glycolic acid in eliminating the smear layer from the apical portion of the root canal.
  • The Effect of Chlorhexidine on Bacterial Contamination of Hall Technique Elastomeric Orthodontic Separators and Gingival Health: A Pilot Study Original Article

    AlNoman, Nada; Halabi, Manal Al; Kowash, Mawlood; Khamis, Amar H.; Salami, Anas; Senok, Abiola; Nassar, Rania; Hussein, Iyad

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To study the effect of chlorhexidine on elastomeric orthodontic separators (EOS) bacterial-colonisation and gingival-health in Hall technique (HT) patients. Material and Methods: Prospective in-vivo pilot clinical study of EOS bacterial colonisation and primary-molar gingival health assessment in 20 patients (mean age 5.45±1.27 years) requiring bilateral HT crowns (40 teeth). One side received 1-minute 0.12% chlorhexidine-soaked-EOSs (Chx-EOSs), and the other side dry-EOSs (NoChx-EOSs). The EOSs were removed five-days later and underwent a bacterial enumeration technique. Plaque (PI) and Gingival (GI) indices were assessed pre-, five-days and three-months post-treatment. Wilcoxon-Signed-Rank/McNemar-Chi-square statistics were used (p<0.05). Results: Baseline unused/packaged EOSs’ sterility check yielded zero colony-forming-units (CFU) per millilitre, but 100% of the used EOSs became colonised by oral-microorganisms. An overall trend of lower mean CFU count in Chx-EOSs (3.415± 0.78 x105 CFU/ml) compared to NoChx-EOSs (6.157±1.48 x105 CFU/ml) was observed (p=0.009). Both NoChx-EOSs and Chx-EOSs insertion sites showed evidence of gingivitis with no difference between PI and GI indices by site over time. Conclusion: There was a lower trend of bacterial colonization in chlorhexidine treated EOSs and an occurrence of gingivitis pre/post HT-treatment regardless of EOS type. The lack of difference in the gingival health may be inconclusive due to this pilot’s low power suggesting the need for robust large scale studies.
  • A 14-Year Follow-Up Study of Sequelae in Primary Teeth and Permanent Successors After Dental Trauma Original Article

    Costa, Mariana Pires da; Jural, Lucas Alves; Silva, Leticia Lopes de Almeida da; Parada, Matheus Cesar da Silva; Leão, Anna Thereza Thome; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Lenzi, Michele Machado; Magno, Marcela Baraúna; Soares, Thais Rodrigues Campos; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the presence of sequelae in primary teeth and their permanent successors, as well as associations between TDI and the presence of sequelae in both teeth. Material and Methods: In this 14-year retrospective study, 2.290 records were reviewed, 192 patients who suffered dental trauma in primary teeth were followed until the eruption of successor teeth were included. Descriptive, chi-square, and regression logistic with generalized estimating equations tests were performed (p<0.05). Results: 362 primary and successor teeth were followed. Sequelae were present in 71.8% of primary teeth and 25.7% of their successors. Teeth with complicated fracture (100%), extrusion (100%) and avulsion (100%) resulted in the largest amounts of sequelae in primary teeth and intrusion (61%) on their successors. Age was associated with sequelae in permanent teeth (p<0.01). Extrusion (OR 10.06; CI 2.12-47.63) and intrusion (OR 7.51; CI 2.73-20.70) had a higher risk to cause sequelae in primary and permanent teeth, respectively. Conclusion: The type of injury involved influenced the sequelae in traumatized teeth and their successors, and the age of the child influenced the presence of sequelae in permanent teeth.
  • Impact of Mobile Dental Clinics on the Quality of Life of Children Original Article

    Amorim, Almerinda Cavalcante de; Zanin, Luciane; Flório, Flávia Martão

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the impact of mobile dental clinics on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQL) of children. Material and Methods: A longitudinal epidemiological study was conducted with participants from seven mobile dental clinics carried out between May 2019 and January 2020 by the NGO Missão Sorrisos. Parents and children who attended the program had their sociodemographic data collected. Both completed the Scale of Oral Health 5 (SOHO-5) self-reported questionnaire before treatment and again 30 days after treatment. Results: The improvement in the children's oral health after treatment at the mobile clinics is reflected in the pre-and post-treatment medians measured by the SOHO-5 total score from the children's own reports from the parents' reports. The procedures performed were effective in reducing pain and difficulties in eating, drinking, and sleeping. An improvement in the perception of the children's appearance and self-confidence was reported, both from the perspective of the parents/guardians and the children themselves. The chance of improvement in the perception of the children’s oral health was greater for parents (OR=5.96; CI95%: 1.32-26.84) and children (OR=5.76; CI95%: 1.28-25.95) from families whose main caregiver was not professionally active at the time of the study. Conclusion: The mobile dental clinics had a positive impact on the OHRQL of children from the perspective of the participants of the study.
  • Effectiveness of Platelet-Rich Fibrin with Decalcified Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft Compared to Decalcified Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft Alone in Mandibular Grade-II Furcation Defects: A Quasi-Experimental Study Original Article

    Ittycheria, Prameetha George; Veliyaveetil, Thomas George; George, Annie Kitty; John, Saumya; Thomas, Nebu George; Cherian, Sunu Alice

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the effectiveness of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) compared to DFDBA alone in mandibular grade-II furcation defects. Material and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted on nine patients with chronic periodontitis, each having two almost identical mandibular grade II furcation defects. Test sites (left mandibular first molars) were treated with open flap debridement (OFD), DFDBA, and PRF, whereas control sites (right mandibular first molars) received OFD and DFDBA alone. Clinical parameters (plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), vertical clinical attachment level (VCAL) and horizontal clinical attachment level (HCAL) into the furcation defect) and radiographic measurements (mean alveolar bone defect) were done at baseline and after six months postoperatively. Results: The gain in relative horizontal clinical attachment level (RHCAL) in the test sites was 2.94±0.52 mm compared to 1.33±0.35 mm in control sites (p=0.01). Improvement in mean alveolar bone defect (MABD) (was 1.21±0.5 mm2 at test sites compared to 1.15±0.7 mm2 at control sites) probing pocket depth (PPD), recession, relative vertical attachment level (RVCAL), and percentage of bone fill was found in the test sites compared to control, which statistically insignificant. Conclusion: The test sites had better outcomes than control sites, which was significant for the parameter RHCAL. Therefore, combining the biological benefits of autologous PRF with DFDBA is an efficient and economical treatment modality for the management of mandibular grade II furcation defects.
  • Comparison of Accuracy Between Pulp/Tooth Ratio and Tooth Coronal Index Methods for Dental Age Estimation Using Digital Panoramic Radiographs Original Article

    Abdinian, Mehrdad; Emami, Hossein; Aminian, Maedeh

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the reliability and the accuracy of Tooth Coronal Index (TCI) and Pulp/Tooth Ratio (PTR) methods in dental age estimation using digital panoramic radiography. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 237 dental panoramic images were collected. The two methods (TCI and PTR) were applied to all left mandibular first and second molars based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. In order to analyze the acquired data, statistical methods were used. The estimated ages derived by exclusive formula were compared to the chronological age, and the error ranges for each indicator were measured to determine their accuracy. Results: There were negative correlations between PTR in the first molar (r=-0.89) and in the second molar (r=-0.788), as well as TCI in the first molar (r=-0.587) and in the second molar (r=-.242). In this study, we found that the Pulp/Tooth Ratio (PTR) accuracy rate for mandibular first and second molar teeth was 79.21% and 62.09 %, respectively, although the Tooth Coronal Index (TCI) value for these teeth was 34.45% and 5.85%. Conclusion: Pulp/Tooth Ratio and Tooth Coronal Index are potential age estimation indices. Although PTR was the more accurate one in our study. The results also demonstrated that indices related to the first molar tooth could be used to estimate age with greater accuracy and validity.
  • Oral Healthcare Services Delivered During COVID-19 Lockdown: A Report from Eastern Mediterranean Region Original Article

    Abu-Hammad, Osama; Abu-Hammad, Shaden; Elsayed, Shadia; Jambi, Safa; Alhodhodi, Aishah; Othman, Ahmad; Abdullah, Abdel Aziz Baiomy; Al-Shorman, Hisham; Fayyad, Mostafa; Taim, Duaa; Abouzaid, Basant Hamdy; Dar-Odeh, Najla

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe oral healthcare services administered during the lockdown in the Eastern Mediterranean region and to investigate the role of socio-professional characteristics of dental practitioners or their self-reported COVID-19 infection. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to dental practitioners in all healthcare sectors in Jordan, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia. Results: There was a total of 335 participants, with the majority being females (N=225, 67.2%) and general practitioners (N=202, 60.3%). Cellulitis was the most common emergency encountered (N=108). The most common urgent procedures were for pulpitis, abscesses, and pericoronitis (N=191, 130, and 95, respectively). Country-specific significant associations were pulpitis in Egypt and Jordan, broken symptomatic teeth in Jordan, and biopsy in Egypt (p<0.05). The Ministry of Health was significantly associated with the management of dental infections, avulsion, and orthodontic emergencies, while university hospitals were significantly associated with advanced restorative procedures (p<0.05). Male practitioners performed significantly more procedures, particularly surgical emergencies (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dental infections were the most common complaints among dental patients during lockdown. Countryand sector-specific dental procedures are detected. Male gender seems to play a determinant role in performing a higher number of procedures, particularly for surgical emergencies.
  • Class I and Class II Patients Treated with Damon System: A Study of Transversal, Sagittal and Torque Values Variations Original Article

    Cremonini, Francesca; Guiducci, Daniela; Pierotti, Emanuela

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the transversal and anterior-posterior changes obtained in patients treated only with the Damon system. Material and Methods: 51 patients with either class I or class II division 1 sagittal relationship treated with the Damon system and the same archwire sequence were retrospectively selected. Dental casts of each patient before (T0) and after treatment (T1) were scanned and analyzed using NEMOCAST 3D software. Inter-molar, inter first-premolar, inter-second premolar and inter-canine distances were measured in both upper and lower arches. Initial and final lateral cephalograms were traced using the OrisCeph program. Pre and post-treatment measurements were compared using the t-test for repeated measurements. The Pearson Correlation Index and Linear Regression Analysis were used to determine the dependence between continuous variables. The significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Transversal diameters in the upper arch increase statistically significantly, especially in the bicuspid area. Initial intra-arch diameter was the only statistically significant variable correlated with the final expansion obtained. A linear negative correlation between the initial latero-posterior torque and the final expansion was observed in both arches. Conclusion: Using identical arches in patients with very different initial characteristics, the changes in bicuspids’ diameters remain the most predominant. Patients with initial more negative torque in the posterior region had a higher expansion amount.
  • Assessment of Bite Forces in Restored Teeth with Different Commonly Used Restorative Materials: A Comparative Study Original Article

    Munisekhar, Manay Srinivas; Alruwaili, Bander Fayez; Ganji, Kiran Kumar; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Bandela, Vinod; Sghaireen, Mohammed Ghazi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate and compare bite force (BF) in permanent first molars restored with glass ionomer cement (GIC), composite and amalgam, and normal contralateral permanent first molars. Material and Methods: BF was recorded in decayed permanent first molars, which were filled with GIC (n=30), composite (n=30), and amalgam (n=30), and in healthy contralateral first molars (n=90) with Force Transducer Occlusal Force Meter and compared. Results: BF was significantly higher in normal teeth on the contralateral side compared to teeth restored with GIC and composite. However, in patients with amalgam restoration, though it was less compared to that on the contralateral side, it was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: Restoring teeth with various filling materials may improve bite force. In the present study, it was found that the teeth restored with amalgam had higher bite forces in comparison to the other restorative materials used. However, it was not comparable to that observed in the normal tooth (control) on the contralateral side.
  • A Comparison between Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block and Crestal Anesthesia in Children Undergoing Dental Extraction Procedure Original Article

    Sajadi, Fatemeh Sadat; Poureslami, Parnian; Hajmohammadi, Saeed; Saeedi, Behdad; Hasheminejad, Jelveh

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of crestal anesthesia compared to the inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) in 6-9-year-old children undergoing tooth extraction. Material and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 70 children who needed bilateral mandibular primary molar extractions. The Faces Pain Scale was used to determine the efficacy of the anesthetic technique. Demographic data, onset time of anesthesia, duration of anesthesia, and blood pressure were also recorded. The data were analyzed using SPSS 25 and analytical tests: t-test, chi-squared test, and one-way ANOVA. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. Results: The efficacy of the IANB was significantly higher than the crestal anesthesia (p<0.05). The duration of IANB anesthesia was significantly more than the crestal anesthesia (p<0.05). The two anesthetic techniques showed no significant differences in pediatric blood pressure as a determinant of the pain evoked in children during the injection (p>0.05). Conclusion: Crestal anesthesia proved an effective method to extract primary molars. However, further studies are necessary to confirm this.
  • Bathroom Behaviors Regarding Oral Hygiene Items During COVID-19 Home Isolation: A Cross-Sectional Study in Southern Brazil Original Article

    Lopes, Ida Carolina; Costa, Clara da; Peres, Karen Glazer; Silva, Larissa Gregório; Godinho, Fernando Guimarães; Margreiter, Sissiane; Pagliari, Suelen Paravisi; Figueiredo, Daniela de Rossi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To describe behaviors with oral hygiene items in single-bathroom households during the domiciliary isolation of individuals with positive 'Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction' (RTPCR+) in southern Brazil. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study was conducted with Research and Monitoring Sector of COVID-19 data from Palhoça, Brazil, of individuals aged ≥18 years, living in a singlebathroom household, who had an RT-PCR positive. A link of Google Forms was used. Socio-demographic information, characteristics during the home isolation, oral hygiene, and behaviors with oral hygiene items in the bathroom were collected. Descriptive stratified analyses according to age were conducted (<40 and ≥40 years). Results: Among 524 individuals, 36% were aged ≥40 years. During isolation, according to the behaviors with oral hygiene items in the household single-bathroom, 70% (95%CI 64.9-75.5) of the youngest participants reported sharing toothbrushes in the same container and 30% (95%CI 24.4-35.1) of the oldest; use of the same toothpaste was reported by 67% (95%CI 62.8-71.7) of the youngest and 33% (95%CI 28.337.3) of the oldest participants. For the outcome of sharing the same toothpaste, the chances for the youngest and the oldest to share the same toothbrush container was 11 times and 6 times more, respectively. Conclusion: The individuals related good oral hygiene habits; however, behaviors with oral hygiene items in the bathroom were neglected, especially by the younger individuals.
  • Knowledge of Dentists about Hypomineralization Enamel Defects: A Cross-Sectional Study Original Article

    Costa, Alice Pinheiro; Silva, Fernanda Mafei Felix da; Vieira, Fernanda Gabriela de Fátima; Primo, Laura Guimarães; Costa, Marcelo de Castro

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate a group of Brazilian dentists on their knowledge of Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) and Hypomineralized Second Primary Molars (HSPM) related to clinical aspects, consequences, and diagnostic criteria. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional, the participants were invited by e-mail and Whatsapp® to answer a questionnaire about their knowledge of hypomineralization enamel defects (MIH/HSPM) on the Google Forms® platform. The questionnaire comprised eight questions about personal data and multiple-choice questions about their knowledge concerning clinical aspects, diagnostic criteria of MIH/HSPM and differential diagnosis through clinical images. Chi-square test was applied with the significance level set at 5%. Results: Most participants (n = 492; 91.1%) reported having knowledge about MIH/HSPM. The general dentists gave more incorrect answers (n = 40; 65.6 %;) about dental tissues affected by MIH/HSPM. Overall, 83.3% of the dentists gave the correct answer to which dentitions are associated with this condition. In addition, most dentists presented knowledge about the consequences related to possible fractures (n= 487; 90.2%) and about an increased risk of caries (n= 479; 88.9%) in the affected teeth. Regarding the differential diagnosis performed through clinical images, most participants gave incorrect answers (p≤0.001). Conclusion: The participants presented knowledge about the dentition associated with this condition and possible consequences related to the teeth affected by MIH/HSPM; however, they showed difficulties concerning clinical diagnostic criteria.
  • First Thousand Days of Child Life and the Development of Risk Factors for Malocclusions Original Article

    Traebert, Eliane; Schneider, Ione Jayce Ceola; Lunardelli, Sandra Espíndola; Lunardelli, Abelardo Nunes; Martins, Luiz Gustavo Teixeira; Traebert, Jefferson

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the association between individual and socioeconomic factors during the first thousand days of the child's life and the occurrence of risk behaviors for the development of malocclusions. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study. A sample of 655 6-year-old schoolchildren and families was included. Interviews with mothers were performed at home. The dependent variables were risk behaviors to the development of malocclusions. Independent variables were socioeconomic conditions, aspects of gestation, birth and health of the child up to two years of age. Bivariate and multivariate analyzes were performed through Poisson regression. Results: Maternal education of less than eight years was independently associated with the interruption of exclusive breastfeeding until the fourth month (PR=1.58 CI 95%; 1.07; 2.37). Occupation of the mother with income [PR=1.26; 1.02; 1.56)], occupation of the father without income [PR=1.46 (1.01; 2.14)] were associated fwith interruption of breastfeeding until the sixth month. Pregnancy in adolescence [PR=0.83 (0.70; 0.98)] and nursery attendance [PR=1.15 (1.02; 1.28)] were associated with bottle use. Nursery attendance [PR=1.27 (1.01; 1.59)], hospitalization in the first 29 days of life [PR=1.34 (1.01; 1.80)], occurrence of reflux [PR=1.30 (1.01; 1.70)] were associated with pacifier using. Conclusion: Variables related to the period of the first thousand days of life are associated with higher risk behaviors for the occurrence of malocclusions.
  • COVID-19 Related Knowledge, Attitude, Practice Evaluation among Indian Dental Patients: A Cross-Sectional Survey Original Article

    Karkada, Deeksha; Acharya, Shashidhar; Nayak, Prajna P.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the awareness about COVID-19 among dental patients and determine the association between COVID-19 awareness and perceived stress among dental patients. Material and Methods: A selfadministered knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) questionnaire and perceived stress scale (PSS) were employed to assess the knowledge and attitude among dental patients visiting the outpatient department. A p-value of ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. An independent t-test was used to compare the KAP and PSS scores based on age, gender, occupation and the responses to unscorable questions. Spearman’s correlation was employed to assess the association between KAP and PSS scores. Results: The older participants (mean KAP score = 16±2.2), the participants who answered that the Coronavirus outbreak changed their daily routine (mean KAP score = 15.8±2.2) and the participants who answered that they changed their plans due to the Coronavirus outbreak (mean KAP score = 16±2.14) had significantly higher KAP scores when compared to their respective counterparts. The Spearman's correlation value of -0.45 suggested a moderate negative association between the KAP and PSS scores, but this correlation was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The participants had a moderate to good level of knowledge related to COVID-19 and were positive in their approach and outlook on overcoming the pandemic.
  • Impact of Internet Addiction on Academic Performance of Undergraduate Dental Students of Bhubaneswar, India Original Article

    Nagarajappa, Ramesh; Dhar, Upasana; Satyarup, Dharmashree; Jena, Marlin

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the level of internet addiction and its impact on the academic performance of undergraduate dental students of Bhubaneswar. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was steered among 814 undergraduate dental students (representing first year through internship) in Bhubaneswar, India. Internet addiction was assessed with the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) developed by Young, which consisted of 20 items rated on a 5-point Likert scale. Google Forms were used to collect the data. Statistical tests like Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Spearman correlation coefficient were used to analyze the qualitative and quantitative variables, respectively, with the significance level set at p ≤ 0.05. Results: The prevalence of Internet Addiction was found to be 27.5%. Interns showed the highest mean Internet Addiction (57.91±10.71) score. The proportion of addicted students was higher in males, 74 (31.4%), than in females, 150 (26%). The mean scores for individual domains were overuse (16.31±3.64), non-restraints (7.77±2.66), inhibiting the flow of life (9.52±3.05), emotional state (11.25±2.86), and dependence (10.47±2.53). A correlation coefficient (Spearman’s rho value of -.167) indicates a negative correlation between internet addiction and academic scores, which was statistically significant (p=0.001). Conclusion: This study revealed that internet use for varying purposes eventually leads to addiction and affects students’ academic performance. The affected students need early intervention and control over internet usage.
  • Mineral Density Distribution Differences in Enamel and Dentin Tissues in the Teeth Array According to the HU Scale Original Article

    Yavuz, Yasemin; Akleyin, Ebru

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the mineral density of enamel and dentin tissues of healthy individuals using threedimensional cone-beam computed tomography. Material and Methods: CBCT images of 15 healthy individuals, previously obtained for various reasons, were used in this study. In HU measurements, mineral density measurements were made from three different regions of enamel and three different regions of dentin, and the values obtained were compared. Enamel and dentin mineralization density measurements were measured from six regions, namely the crown cutting edge, buccal middle and cervical region for enamel, and the crown cutting edge, cervical region and root apex for dentin. In the comparisons of groups, the parametric One-Way ANOVA variance analysis method was applied. In the paired comparisons between the groups, the Tukey HSD test was applied as the multiple comparison post hoc test. A value of p<0.05 was accepted as statistically significant. Results: Mineralization density of tooth enamel and dentin tissues was quantitatively different in the maxilla and mandible in anterior and posterior teeth. Conclusion: In all the teeth, there were statistically significant decreases in the mineral density values of enamel and dentin tissue from occlusal towards the cemento-enamel junction. Statistically significant decreases were observed in the mineral density values of enamel and dentin tissue from the anterior region towards the posterior region in the teeth in both the upper and lower jaws.
  • Pulpectomies with Iodoform Versus Calcium Hydroxide-Based Paste: A Preliminary Randomised Controlled Clinical Trial Original Article

    Duarte, Maysa Lannes; Siqueira, Marina; Cassol, Daniele Vieira; Scarparo, Angela; Primo, Laura Guimarães; Barcelos, Roberta

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare clinical and radiographical pulpectomy outcomes in primary teeth filled with different pastes. Material and Methods: The sample included thirty-eight teeth indicated for pulpectomy due to irreversible pulp inflammation or necrosis from thirty patients (2 to 9 years old). The first appointment comprised chemomechanical preparation (2.5% sodium hypochlorite), smear layer removal (6% citric acid), intracanal dressing and temporary restoration. Seven days later, teeth were randomly assigned to filling with iodoform (IP) or calcium hydroxide with zinc oxide (CHZO) based pastes and temporarily restored. Final restoration (composite resin) occurred at the 3rd appointment. Data from baseline, 6 and 12 months were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics (p≤0.05). Results: The overall frequency of success was 63.6% (n=21), with no significant difference between groups (IP=62.5% n=10; CHZO=64.7% n=11, p=0.59). Multiradicular teeth, overfilled canals and teeth whose coronal restoration have been lost were significantly associated with failure (p=0.01, p=0.04 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusion: After 12 months, both pastes showed similar outcomes and can be used as good options for pulpectomies in primary teeth. Moreover, tooth location, extent of the root canal filling, and integrity of final restoration during the follow-up influenced the outcome of pulpectomies.
  • Specialized Dental Care in the Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) Original Article

    Trezena, Samuel; Oliveira, Fabrício Emanuel Soares de; Dias, Verônica Oliveira; Martelli, Petrônio José de Lima; Martelli, Daniella Reis Barbosa; Martelli Júnior, Hercílio

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze specialized dental care through access, demand and the work processes provided by the CEO's, using secondary data from the cycles of the PMAQ-CEO. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study using public domain data. Variables of interest were selected from the external evaluation instrument data matrices and were grouped in categories. The categories were geographic distribution, structural, human resources, work processes and access and coordination. Results: The total of 932 CEO’s were evaluated in 2014 and 1,042 in 2016, most of them type II, present in the Northeast region. In both cycles, the highest average of dentists worked in the endodontic specialty (2.4 professionals per CEO) and the lowest in oral medicine (0.8 professionals per CEO). Of the two cycles, 91.5% of the CEO’s had a manager, 79.5% performed action planning activities and 74.5% realized internal self-assessment processes. There was an increase in the mean number of days to be seen at the CEO in all analyzed specialties (p<0.001) and 85.2% of the CEO's managers reported that there is a reference for oral cancer confirmed cases. Conclusion: Between the PMAQCEO cycles the number of CEO has increased, but there are still a big pent-up demand and the presence of care gaps. However, an expansion and improvement of the CEO’s actions was evidenced, mainly related to the work processes.
  • Antibacterial Effect of Hypochlorous Acid on Bacteria Associated with the Formation of Periodontal Biofilms: An in vitro Pilot Study Original Article

    Millones-Gómez, Pablo Alejandro; Novoa-Herrera, Marcos; Maurtua-Torres, Dora Jesús; Bacilio-Amaranto, Reyma Evelyn; Requena-Mendizábal, Margarita Fe; Calla-Poma, Roger; Rosales-Cifuentes, Tania Valentina; Malpartida-Quispe, Federico Martin; Minchón-Medina, Carlos Alberto; Romero-Gamboa, Julio César; Pinella-Vega, Melissa; Ojeda-Gómez, Roberto Carlos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial effect of electrolytically generated hypochlorous acid on Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Material and Methods: In this in vitro experiment, the effect of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) on the strains S. gordonii, F. nucleatum, and P. gingivalis was evaluated using 4% sodium hypochlorite, 0.12% chlorhexidine, and distilled water as controls. The four groups were placed on each plate, and each group was replicated five times. The agar diffusion method by zones measurement was used. The data were processed with SPSS using the Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple comparison tests. Results: Hypochlorous acid showed an average inhibition halo of 9.28 mm on S. gordonii. As expected with distilled water, no zone of inhibition was noted for any of the bacteria, nor were zones of inhibition observed with HOCl for F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis. Conclusion: Hypochlorous acid showed antimicrobial properties against only S. gordonii and was less effective than 4% sodium hypochlorite and 0.12% chlorhexidine, although no significant differences were found between the latter.
  • Factors that Influence the Use of Teledentistry in Indonesia During the COVID-19 Pandemic Original Article

    Samad, Rasmidar; Akbar, Fuad Husain; Pratiwi, Rini; Aini, Nur

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: Evaluate the factors that influence the use of teledentistry during the COVID-19 pandemic in Indonesia. Material and Methods: An analytical observational study with a cross-sectional design with 163 respondents was conducted. The factors of using teledentistry studied in this study were knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, technology, benefits, and needs. The original questionnaire was constructed in English, later translated into Bahasa Indonesia, and modified to conform with Indonesian. Data analysis used univariate and bivariate (Chi-square test). Results: Respondents who have used teledentistry were 23.3%, while respondents who have never used teledentistry were 76.7%. There is no relationship between knowledge about teledentistry and the use of teledentistry (p>0.05). There is no relationship between the use of teledentistry and knowledge (p>0.05), attitudes (p>0.05), and beliefs (p>0.05). Conclusion: There were no factors associated with the use of teledentistry. The most influencing factor is the benefit of using teledentistry, which can affect the increase in the use of teledentistry during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Single Nucleotides Polymorphisms in COX2 Gene and their Association with Signs and Symptoms of Teething – A Pilot Study Original Article

    Mauta, Alana Gonçalvez; Reis, Caio Luiz Bitencourt; Teodoro, Vinicius Broska; Madalena, Isabela Ribeiro; Kirschneck, Christian; Proff, Peter; Paza, Aleysson Olimpio; Baratto-Filho, Flares; Oliveira, Daniela Silva Barroso de; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Brancher, João Armando

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COX2 gene (rs689466 and rs5275) and local and systemic signs and symptoms of teething. Material and Methods: Forty-four pairs of mothers-babies/toddlers were included. Erupted primary teeth were evaluated during clinical examination. Local and systemic signs and symptoms of teething were obtained from mothers' reporting via anamnesis. Samples of buccal cells were retrieved for DNA genotyping using real-time PCR. The T-test, Chi-square test, logistic regression, and haplotype analyses were applied. Results: Almost all mothers (95.5%) reported at least one local or systemic sign and symptom of teething. The most common was increased salivation (79.5%), diarrhea (72.3 %), and fever (70.5 %). The mean number of signs and symptoms per child was higher in boys than girls (mean = 5.1; SD= 1.5; p=0.008). Sleep disturbance (p=0.03) and loss of appetite (p=0.05) were more reported in boys. The rs689466 and rs5275 were not associated with signs and symptoms of teething (p>0.05). Conclusion: The single nucleotide polymorphisms in the COX2 gene (rs689466 and rs5275) were not associated with local and systemic signs and symptoms of teething.
  • Variability in the Epithelial Expression of Ki67 and Polarization Characteristics of Collagen in Odontogenic Cysts and Tumours Original Article

    Bhadravathi, Shakthi Dorai; Natarajan, Srikant; Boaz, Karen; Lewis, Amitha Juanita; Pallam, Nandita Kottieth; Manaktala, Nidhi

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the proliferation of epithelium (using the Ki67 index) and the polarization pattern of collagen in selected odontogenic cysts and tumours. In addition, an exploratory analysis of the effect of inflammation on the proliferation rate was done. Material and Methods: Following immunohistochemical staining, the labelling/proliferation index of Ki67 was calculated. The thickness and corresponding polarization colour of 100 juxta-epithelial picrosirius red-stained collagen fibers were assessed using linear micrometry with an eyepiece reticule under × 1000 magnification. Inflammation was graded subjectively as mild, moderate, and severe. Results: Overall Ki-67 expression was higher in the radicular cyst, Odontogenic Keratocyst, Ameloblastoma, while suprabasal Ki-67 positivity was maximum in Odontogenic Keratocyst. The stromal collagen fibers in Ameloblastoma showed predominantly green birefringence, whereas Odontogenic Keratocyst had orange birefringence. There was no significant association of inflammation with Ki-67 expression or birefringence patterns. Conclusion: The highest Ki67 expression in the radicular cyst, followed by Odontogenic Keratocyst and Ameloblastoma. Differences in the collagen maturation pattern were noted innately in five lesions studied and were further influenced by inflammatory changes. Epithelial proliferation and concomitant expression of thickness and maturity of the stromal collagen are innate features of the lesion further influenced by inflammation in various odontogenic cysts and tumours and may, in turn, guide the clinical behavior.
  • Association of Oral Health-Related Quality of Life with the Longevity of ART-Restorations in Children Original Article

    Salas-Huamani, Juana Rosmeri; Sousa, Karina Guedes de; Gomes, Gabriellen Fernanda; Silva, Amanda Fernandes; Silva, Thalita Lucas Brum Moreira da; Carvalho, Fabíola Galbiatti de; Rocha, Renata Andrea Salvitti de Sá; Barbosa, Taís de Souza

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the association of oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) with the longevity of ART-restorations in children after 18 months. Material and Methods: A longitudinal clinical study with 62 six- to seven-year-old children, both genders, 31 of whom underwent four weeks of oral health education strategy (OHES) followed by ART (GOHES+ART) and the others only ART (GART). The Brazilian short-version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (16-CPQ8-10) was used to evaluate the OHRQoL and the perception of change in oral health was assessed by a single question. Data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Wilcoxon and Friedman's tests. Results: After 18 months, GOHES+ART reported a greater impairment on OHRQoL, mainly in oral symptoms domain (p<0.05). In this period, greater impairment of oral symptoms was reported in children with failed restorations and with treatment considered to have a minor failure (p<0.05). In inter-group analysis, the GOHES+ART, with 2 to 4 restorations, Class I, of small size, located in the upper arch and with a smaller failure, reported more oral symptoms than the GART. Conclusion: In the long-term, children submitted to OHES followed by ART reported more oral symptoms. Factors such as number, class, size and location of the restorations need to be considered for the implementation of an efficient and effective oral health program, as well as for greater longevity of ART-restorations.
  • Self-Medication for Toothache in Children: A Cross-Sectional Study Original Article

    Baldacci, Lucas Gomes; Silva, Raquel Cardoso; Toledo, Lara de Oliveira Amaral; Tavares, Marconi Gonzaga; Lia, Erica Negrini

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To construct, validate, and apply a questionnaire to assess and characterize the practice of self-medication performed by parents or children's guardians undergoing dental care. Material and Methods: A questionnaire was constructed, validated, and applied through personal interviews in the teaching clinics of two higher education institutions in the Federal District. Absolute and relative frequencies of categorical variables were calculated using descriptive statistics. Quantitative data were presented as mean and standard deviation. The chi-square test measured the association between the studied variables and self-medication. Results: One hundred and five participants were interviewed between August 2019 and November 2020. The average age of the participants was 37 (± 9) years, and most were mothers of the children who attended (78%) and users of the public health system (94.2%). The average family income was 1.88 minimum wage, and the most prevalent educational level was complete high school (40%). Conclusion: Despite the high level of knowledge about medication safety in children, self-medication was practiced in 50% of them. Difficulty in accessing dental treatment was mentioned by most as a justification. Self-medication was associated with dental pain, continuous medication use, and family self-medication habits.
  • Curcumin Mediated Gold Nanoparticles and Analysis of its Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, Antimicrobial Activity Against Oral Pathogens Original Article

    Dharman, Sreedevi; Maragathavalli, Gopal; Shanmugam, Rajeshkumar; Shanmugasundaram, Karpagavalli

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To green synthesise gold nanoparticles using curcumin and to analyse its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activity among oral pathogens. Material and Methods: Biosynthesised Curcumin Gold nanoparticles (CuAuNP) were evaluated by UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and evaluation of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity against oral pathogens. Results: Synthesized CuAuNP were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry and showed peak absorption at 530nm. CuAuNp showed a 90.3% maximum scavenging ability of DPPH at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. CuAuNP exhibited 79.6 % of the highest anti-inflammatory activity at 50μg/mL than the standard drug diclofenac. TEM image clearly showed uniformly dispersed spherical-shaped gold nanoparticles with a size of about 20 nm. The biosynthesized nanoparticle was tested for its antimicrobial effect, and it showed a potent effect against S. aureus, E. faecalis, and C. albicans at 100µg/ mL. Enterococcus faecalis has a maximum zone of inhibition of 14 mm at 100µg/ mL of CuAuNp. Among gram-positive bacteria, a maximum zone of inhibition of 12 mm at 100µg/ mL was seen in S. aureus compared to S mutans. Candida albicans showed a maximum zone of inhibition of 18 mm at 25 μg/mL of CuAuNp. Conclusion: Curcumin-mediated gold nanoparticles with 20 nm size were effective and had strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity at 50µg/ mL, antimicrobial action inhibiting microbes at 100µg/mL concentration that can be used in treating various Oral mucosal lesions.
  • Prevalence of Dental Caries in 5-Year-Old Children in a Northeast Brazilian Capital Original Article

    Saldanha, Katia de Gois Holanda; Almeida, Janaina Rocha de Sousa; Almeida, Maria Eneide Leitão de; Magalhães, Iana Aragão; Silva, Paulo Goberlânio de Barros

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of dental caries in children aged five years in a Northeast Brazilian Capital (Fortaleza, CE) and its association with sociodemographic conditions, presence of malocclusion, and gingival bleeding. Material and Methods: This is a quantitative, descriptive, observational, and cross-sectional study carried out in a representative sample of 3,582 children aged five years in the city of Fortaleza-CE. Data was collected in public and private schools distributed in the city's Regional Health Coordination (CORES). Each of the six CORES worked with five field teams, participating in inter-examiner training and calibration with a final KAPPA coefficient of 0.87. Data were collected using a clinical form adapted from the SB Brasil 2010 questionnaire on sociodemographic conditions. The indices of dmft, need for treatment, malocclusion, and gingival bleeding were used for oral health conditions. The data were submitted to Pearson's Chi-square or Fisher's Exact tests, and the variables that show values of p<0.05 were submitted to a multinomial logistic regression model (forward stepwise model). Results: 57.1% of children were caries-free, and the mean dmft-d was 1.65 (1.65±2.65). CORES I and VI were the ones that presented the most significant association with caries attacks in all primary molars. The highest percentage of caries in the 2nd upper molar (60.6%), 1st lower molar (59%), and 2nd lower molar (58.8%) were found in children with normal occlusion. There was a significant association between gingival bleeding and caries in all molars and the need for treatment. Conclusion: These results allow us to observe that the prevalence of dental caries in 5-year-old children in Fortaleza is low, although with a tendency to increase.
  • Oral Health-Related Quality of Life among Children Aged 11-14 Years Old with and without Parental Care in South-East of Iran Original Article

    Kamyabi, Homa; Darijani, Mohammad Amin; Amanpour, Sara; Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Vahid; Fereidooni, Rahim; Fardisi, Sorena

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and compare children with and without parental care. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 schoolchildren with parental care and 100 orphans in Kerman, Iran. After fulfilling the questionnaire voluntarily, a clinical examination was performed, and indices such as decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), molar-incisor hypoplasia (MIH), modified gingival index (MGI), traumatic dental injury (TDI), and malocclusion were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25 via the ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient test, Chi-Square test, and descriptive statistics. Results: Children without parents scored poorly for OHQRoL items compared to those with parents (p<0.001). DMFT was not significantly related to OHRQoL; however, missing teeth were correlated with the CPQ11-14 overall. Also, the TDI index had a significant relationship with CPQ mean score (p=0.02). Moreover, the difference in the mean CPQ11-14 score in children with TDI in the two groups was significant regarding the quality of life (0.031). Conclusion: OHRQoL differed significantly between children in the two groups, which can be influenced by gender and habits. Due to the vulnerability of welfare-supported children without parental care, these findings emphasize the value of preventive and health-promoting measures for this group of children.
  • The 100 Most-Cited Papers in Dentin Hypersensitivity: A Bibliometric Analysis Original Article

    Guiomarino Neto, Armando Baia; Limeira, Francisco Ivison Rodrigues; Ferreira, Kétsia Rayssa Henriques; Arantes, Diandra Costa

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the 100 most-cited articles in DH and analyze their characteristics. Material and Methods: A search was performed on the Web of Science (WoS) and the 100 most-cited articles were selected. The following data were extracted: citations, year of publication, authorship, institution, country, journal, language, study design, topic of interest, conflict of interest (COI), and sponsorship. The VOSviewer software was used to visualize bibliometric networks. Poisson regression analysis was performed to measure associations between several citations and the characteristics of the studies. Results: The number of citations ranged from 346 to 48. The most-cited article was published in 1997 by Holland in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology. This journal published the most papers, followed by the Journal of Oral Rehabilitation and Journal of Dentistry. Laboratory research, review, and clinical trial were the study designs most prevalent. Reviews (p<0.05; PR= 1.853) and method development studies (p<0.05; PR= 1.853) had a more chance to present more citations. The main topics of interest were the clinical effectiveness of desensitizers and in vitro analysis of dentin morphology. Sponsorship and COI were underreported. England and USA presented the greatest number of citations and connections in the coauthorship network map. Conclusion: Most of the articles were original research, and their topics of interest were mainly the clinical effectiveness of desensitizing agents and dentin morphology.
  • Oral Mucositis in Children with Leukemia Undergoing Chemotherapy: A Case Series Original Article

    Santos, Fabio Gomes dos; Bezerra, Paula Maria Maracajá; Limão, Nayara Pereira; Santana, Ynnaiana Navarro de Lima; Ribeiro, Isabella Lima Arrais; Bonan, Paulo Rogério Ferreti; Serpa, Eliane Batista de Medeiros; Sousa, Simone Alves; Valença, Ana Maria Gondim

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To report nine cases of pediatric patients with Acute Lymphoid Leukemia (ALL) or Acute Myeloid Leukemia who developed severe oral mucositis (SOM) at the first week of chemotherapy. Material and Methods: The cases were selected from a sample of 105 children followed for 10 consecutive weeks. Hematological and personal data were obtained from the patient's medical records. The oral cavity was examined weekly using the modified Oral Assessment Guide. Results: More of the patients were male (55.6%), had black/brown skin (55.6%), with ALL (66.7%), and the mean age was 5.55. Two patients had values below normal for leukocytes, platelets, and creatinine over the follow-up. However, all patients showed changes in the normality of hematological data in most weeks. The most used chemotherapeutic agents were aracytin, etoposide, and methotrexate, known for their high stomatotoxic potential. Patients had 2 to 6 (mean of 4) episodes of SOM and 4 to 7 (mean of 5.5) episodes of OM. One patient at week 7, one patient at week 5, and one patient at weeks 2 and 10 did not have OM. Saliva (84 times) and lips (44 times) were the most affected items. Conclusion: The patients showed oscillations in the severity of oral mucositis and hematological parameters over the follow-up. All patients were exposed to stomatotoxic drugs during the initial phase of cancer treatment.
  • Comparative Evaluation of Clinical Efficacy of Diode LASER and Cryosurgery for Gingival Pigmentation: A Split-Mouth Randomized Clinical Study Original Article

    Gupta, Disha; Chowdhary, Zoya; Singh, Vikas; Bajaj, Aashima

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare and evaluate the clinical efficacy of diode laser and cryosurgery for treating melanin pigmentation of gingiva. Material and Methods: A total of twenty-five subjects with physiological gingival pigmentation on the facial aspect of both maxillary and mandibular anterior arches (50 sites), both male and female, with an average age ranging from 18-35 years, participated in the study. The sites were randomly divided into Group I: depigmentation by Laser and Group II: depigmentation by Cryosurgery. The following parameters were assessed for the evaluation of treatment results: Melanin Oral Pigmentation Index (PI), Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain evaluation and Healing index (HI). The data collected was statistically evaluated. Results: On intergroup comparison, there was no statistical difference in the score from baseline (p>0.05); however, a statistically significant difference was seen at the end of 1 year (p<0.05). Moreover, 57-60% of arches showed recurrence of pigmentation in the laser group whereas; only 12.7-17% recurrence was seen in the cryosurgery group at the end of the first year. Conclusion: Treatment of gingival hyperpigmentation with laser and cryosurgery shows a marked improvement of gingival pigmentation in both groups, but the cryosurgery depigmentation sites showed more sustainability.
  • Antibacterial Efficacy of Silver Diamine Fluoride Compared to Casein Phosphopeptide-Amorphous Calcium Phosphate Against Streptococcus mutans in a Biofilm Caries Model Original Article

    Ali, Sanaa N. Al-Haj; Al-Ogayyel, Shahed; Farah, Ra’fat I.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the antibacterial efficacy of silver diamine fluoride (SDF) with a product containing casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) against Streptococcus mutans using a biofilm caries model. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven saliva-coated dentine blocks obtained from extracted human teeth were inoculated with Streptococcus mutans monospecies biofilm in this in vitro study. The biofilms were then exposed to 10% sucrose in brain heart infusion broth eight times daily for seven days. After the biofilm growth period, the dentine blocks (n=9 per group) were treated with one of the following substances: 1) sterile saline (control), 2) 38% SDF, and 3) a product containing CPP-ACP. Then, the samples were incubated at 37ºC for 48 hours, and the numbers of viable microorganisms in the biofilms were counted and compared. ANOVA and Tukey's HSD tests were used to analyze the data (p<0.05). Results: The number of viable bacteria, as determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU mL-1) of Streptococcus mutans, was significantly reduced following treatment with SDF and the CPP-ACP product (p<0.05). However, SDF showed superior antibacterial activity compared to the CPP-ACP product (mean CFU mL-1 =zero compared to 96 x106) (p<0.05). Conclusion: SDF has higher antibacterial activity against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans biofilm than the CPP-ACP product. The CPP-ACP product showed antibacterial activity, but it was limited.
  • Prevalence of Dental Fear and its Association with Painful Oral Conditions in Adolescents Original Article

    Laureano, Isla Camilla Carvalho; Farias, Lunna; Fernandes, Liege Helena Freitas; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the prevalence of dental fear and evaluate its association with dental caries and with Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH) in schoolchildren aged 11-14 years. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 375 adolescents in Campina Grande, Brazil. Socioeconomic and oral health information was collected, while dental fear was measured using the Children’s Fear Survey Schedule-Dental Subscale (CFSS-DS). The diagnosis of dental caries and MIH was performed by three trained examiners (κ ≥ 0.61) using the International Caries Detection & Assessment System – ICDAS II and a previously validated index, respectively. Data were descriptively analyzed using the Chi-Square, Fisher's Exact, and Poisson regression tests with robust variance (p<0.05). Results: The prevalence of dental fear was 18.4%, and the mean CFSS-DS total score was 28.96 ± 8.92. After adjusting for covariates family structure, schooling of parents/guardians, type of dental health service and dental pain in the last six months, the prevalence of dental fear was associated with dental pain in the last six months (PR=2.03; 95%CI=1.31-3.16; p=0.002). Conclusion: Although no association was found between dental fear, dental caries and MIH in adolescents, those who experienced dental pain in the last six months had a higher prevalence of dental fear.
  • Cigarette Smoking Effect on Microhardness and Flexural Properties of Denture Base Resins Original Article

    Ghariani, Atf; Jaâfoura, Sabra; Bekri, Sana; Labidi, Amel; Trabelsi, Mounir

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the tobacco effect on flexural properties and the microhardness of three acrylic resins. Material and Methods: Three resins were tested: two thermo-polymerizable acrylic resins (RMB 20 and BMS 014) and one autopolymerized acrylic resin. The 3-point bending and microhardness tests were carried out with a universal tensile-compression machine and a micro-Vickers hardness tester. The acrylic resin specimens have been exposed for 21 days to cigarette smoke in a smoking room. Their mechanical strength was compared to unexposed samples. Statistical analysis was performed using the data processing software SPSS Statistics 21.0. Results: The flexural properties of the resins were affected by cigarette smoke only in the case of Major Base 20® (drop in strength with p= 0.02; 0.6; 0.7 and in elastic modulus with p= 0.86; 0.74 and 0.85 for Major Base 20®, BMS 014® and Major Repair®). The cigarette smoke affected significantly microhardness for all groups (p<0.001). Conclusion: Cigarette smoking does not affect the flexural properties of the acrylic resin (BMS 014® and Major Repair® unlike Major Base 20®), but it does reduce the microhardness.
  • Relationship between Quality of Life and Oral Health Status of Patients with Chronic Liver Disease Original Article

    Moslemi, Fatemeh; Jahanshahi, Sanaz; Hashemipour, Maryam Alsadat

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the relationship between the quality of life and work ability related to the oral health status of patients with chronic liver diseases. Material and Methods: The sample size contains all patients referred to the internal ward of Afzalipour and Bahonar hospitals due to chronic liver disease from 2019 to 2020. Patient selection was based on a simple census and a questionnaire that contained characteristics information of the patient, Work Ability Index questionnaire and SF-36 questionnaire were completed by the patients and some information was extracted from medical file. The SF-36 questionnaire assesses the quality of life in two general dimensions (physical health and mental health) with the physical function subscale. DMFT, Gingival index, and Periodontal disease index are used to evaluate the severity and extent of gingivitis and periodontitis. For data analysis, ANOVA, Spearman correlation coefficients were used and the significant level was p<0.05. Results: a total of 108 patients were examined. The mean age of participants was 41.2 ± 4.3 years. The DMFT index in patients was also reported as 22.6 ± 7.35. Also, 32.4% of people described their ability to do work as poor, 21.3% as good, and 7.4% as excellent. Patients with poor or moderate workability reported a higher index of DMFT. Among the participants, 61 and 21 patients had gingivitis and periodontitis, respectively. Mean results of total SF-36 indices were reported at a low level in patients with increased DMFT and gum diseases. Patients with poor or moderate workability had a higher index of DMFT. There was a significant relationship between these two variables (p=0.001). However, they were not significantly associated with periodontitis. Conclusion: There was a significant relationship between the SF-36 index, the ability to work and the type of liver disease.
  • Clinical Evaluation of Composite Restorations with and without Polyethylene Fiber in First Permanent Molars: A 24-Month Randomized Clinical Trial Original Article

    Özüdoğru, Semanur; Tosun, Gül

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the 24-month clinical performance of composite resin restorations with and without polyethylene fiber in the first permanent molars of pediatric patients with extensive caries. Material and Methods: In total, 75 Class II restorations were placed in the permanent molar teeth of 75 children (mean age 11.3 years) with (FC; n=38) or without (C; n=37) fiber. One operator placed all the restorations. The restorations were evaluated using the modified USPHS criteria in terms of retention, color match, marginal discoloration, anatomic form, marginal adaptation, secondary caries, and postoperative sensitivity. Statistical data were analyzed using chi-square and Cochran tests (p<0.05). Results: At the end of two years, 65 restorations (FC:31; C:34) were followed up. No changes were observed during the first six months. After 24 months of follow-up, there were minor changes in marginal adaptation and marginal color in both groups; however, no statistically significant difference was observed between the clinical performances for all criteria (p>0.05). Conclusion: Extensive composite restorations with or without fibers displayed good clinical performance in high load-bearing areas after 24 months.
  • Randomized Clinical Study of the Use of MTA and Biodentine™ for Pulpotomy in Primary Teeth Original Article

    Hidalgo, Lídia Regina da Costa; Almeida-Junior, Luciano Aparecido de; Politi, Marília Pacífico Lucisano; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Segato, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Paula-Silva, Francisco Wanderley Garcia; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To verify, through clinical and radiographic evaluations, the in vivo response of the dentin-pulpal complex of human primary teeth after pulpotomy with MTA and Biodentine™ in a follow-up period of 3, 6, and 12 months. Material and Methods: Thirty teeth were divided into MTA pulpotomy (n = 15) and Biodentine™ pulpotomy (n = 15) from children between 5 and 9 years of age, a randomized clinical trial with simple random sampling. The materials were inserted into the cavity after opening and removing the coronary pulp tissue. The cavity base consisted of glass ionomer cement and light-cured composite resin restoration. Clinical and radiographic analyses were performed after 3, 6, and 12 months. Statistical analysis by Fisher's exact test for dichotomous data at a 5% significance level was utilized. Results: Both materials caused color change after 12 months. However, MTA showed a higher percentage than Biodentine™ (p<0.0001). Pain was detected only with Biodentine™ at six months and mobility at 12 months (p=0.0013). Radiographically, after 12 months, periapical lesions, interradicular lesions, and internal resorption were evidenced in 13% of the cases for Biodentine™-treated teeth (p<0.0013). MTA induced pulp calcification in 13% of cases, unlike Biodentine™ (p<0.0013). Conclusion: BiodentineTM and MTA are suitable for clinical use in pulpotomy treatment, yet both materials lead to tooth discoloration.
  • Comparative Assessment of E-cadherin’s Expression between the Metastatic and Non-metastatic Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: An Immunohistochemical Study Original Article

    Khan, Sufia; Hegde, Veda; Shrivastava, Deepti; Azamulla, Mohammed; Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Srivastava, Kumar Chandan

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the clinicopathological correlation of E-cadherin expression in metastatic and non-metastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Material and Methods: A total of 90 paraffin-embedded tissue sections of OSCC were retrieved from the registry. The total selected samples were 45 cases each from the primary lesions of metastatic and non-metastatic OSCC. One section was subjected to routine Hematoxylin and eosin stain and another to immunohistochemical analysis for E-cadherin expression. Results: A non-significant (p˃0.05) increased expression is seen in the non-metastatic group compared to the metastatic group, with predominantly membrane as the staining site in either group. However, the expression of E-cadherin did not reveal any statistically significant association with independent variables such as age, gender, and adverse habits of the patients (p>0.05). On the other hand, with respect to the histological differentiation of OSCC, a significant association (p<0.001) was observed with the well-differentiated type of metastatic OSCC. Conclusion: E-cadherin was useful to some extent in predicting regional metastasis. However, further studies using a panel of biomarkers with increased sample size may help us understand the process involved in metastasis.
  • Association between Dentin Hypersensitivity and Health/Oral Health-related Quality of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Original Article

    Soares, Anna Rachel dos Santos; Barbosa, Rayssa Soares; Campos, Julya Ribeiro; Chalub, Loliza Luiz Figueiredo Houri; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Ferreira, Raquel Conceição

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the association between DH and Health (HRQoL) or Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL). Material and Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, EMBASE, Cochrane, Scielo, LILACS/BBO, Biblioteca Digital de Teses e Dissertações (BDTD), Open Grey, and Google Scholar databases were screened in September 2019 (updated in October 2022). Observational studies were selected to compare HRQoL/OHRQoL(outcome) according to DH(exposure) or evaluate the association among these variables. Standardized Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tool for analytical cross-sectional studies was used to analyze the risk of bias. A random-effects meta-analysis was conducted to synthesize evidence for the association between DH and OHRQoL. Results: 10 papers met inclusion criteria and were evaluated. In most studies, presenting or having a greater intensity of DH was associated with a negative impact on one's quality of life. However, most of these studies showed a moderate to high risk of methodological bias. The consistent finding from studies with a low risk of bias suggests a significant association between DH and OHRQoL. Meta-analysis was feasible for three studies with substantial heterogeneity. The pooled Odds Ratio was 2.14 (95%CI 1.15-3.99; I2 = 57,44%). Conclusion: Many studies presented a high risk of bias; therefore, the actual effect of DH on one's quality of life remains uncertain.
  • Association between Pacifier Use, Bottle-Feeding, and Pre-Postnatal Variables: A Cohort Study Original Article

    Melo, Letícia Santos Alves de; Silva, Lorena Fonseca; Silva, Silvio Rocha Corrêa da; Rosell, Fernanda Lopez; Valsecki Júnior, Aylton; Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense; Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence and analyze the variables associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottles by infants up to 6 months of age. Material and Methods: Data on sociodemographic characteristics, intention to offer pacifier and bottle-feeding, pregnancy and breastfeeding (BF) variables were collected at baseline by interviews and a self-administered questionnaire among pregnant women in the 3rd trimester. After delivery, mother-baby binomials were followed by phone calls at the 1st, 3rd, and 6th months of the baby's life (n=467) to gather information on the type of delivery, baby’s gender, BF in the first hour of the newborn’s life, baby’s weight, mother’s return to work, and oral habits. Association analyses were performed using logistic regression models with a 5% significance level with the pacifier/bottle-feeding use as the outcome. Results: Most mothers (52.5%) reported their babies used bottle-feeding, 48.2% used pacifiers and 33.4% used both of them throughout the 6 months. Intention to offer pacifier and bottle-feeding was reported by 45.0% and 54.8% of the mothers at the 3rd trimester of the pregnancy, respectively. Not living in one’s own residence (OR=1.53; 95%CI: 1.05-2.24) and having the prenatal intention of offering a pacifier (OR=2.50; 95%CI: 1.63-3.83) to the baby were significantly associated with pacifier use. Variables significantly associated with bottle-feeding were mother’s return to work (OR=2.48; 95%CI: 1.54-3.97), baby’s lower birth weight (OR=1.58; IC95%: 1.07-2.33), and prenatal intention to offer bottle-feeding (OR=2.51; 95%CI 1.56-4.04). Conclusion: About half of the babies used pacifiers or were bottle-fed, which were associated with the mother’s prenatal intention to offer them to their babies and socioeconomic factors.
  • Economic Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic among Dentists in One of the Poorest Brazilian States: A Cross-Sectional Study Original Article

    Lima, Hassan Lavalier de Oliveira; Sousa, Francenilde Silva de; Goes, Paulo Savio Angeiras de; Lucena, Edson Hilan Gomes de; Figueiredo, Nilcema; Gaspar, Gabriela da Silveira; Thomaz, Erika Barbara Abreu Fonseca

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on dentists’ income and to identify associated factors in one of the poorest Brazilian states. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study including dentists who volunteered to answer an electronic questionnaire in Maranhão. Hierarchical multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed, estimating crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) and respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) (alpha=5%). Results: The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the professionals´ income negatively [55.44% (50.26-60.52%)] and also positively [6.9% (4.55-9.94%)]. The negative impact on income was greater among male dentists (OR=2.54; 95%CI: 1.16-5.53), over 30 years of age (OR=3.03; 95%CI: 1.34-6.87), with family income below two minimum wages (OR=4.63; 95%CI: 1.50-14.30), who worked in the continent instead of in the capital island (OR=2.21; 95%CI: 1.14-4.29) and in the private sector (OR=31.43; 95%CI: 11.59-85.22). Moreover, those who had been tested for COVID-19, with a negative result, had a 21.3-fold greater chance of having an increased household income when compared to those who had not been tested. Conclusion: The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted the dentists’ income in Maranhão, especially the older, males, with lower incomes, and who worked in the private sector, living far from the capital. The SUS played an important role in the social protection of dentists during the COVID-19 pandemic, mitigating the economic impacts on the public sector working class.
  • Effect of Photobiomodulation on Pain Following Single Visit Non-surgical Root Canal Treatment of Molar Teeth with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis Original Article

    Farhad-Mollashahi, Narges; Saberi, Eshagh Ali; Aramesh, Bita; Faramarzian, Farnaz

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the effect of Photobiomodulation (PBM) on post-endodontic pain of mandibular molar teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Material and Methods: In this clinical trial, mandibular molars with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis underwent primary endodontic treatment in 90 systemically healthy patients. After root canal treatment, the patients were randomly divided into two groups of PBM with diode laser at 940 nm wavelength and 200 mW output power and placebo (mock PBM therapy). Level of pain was recorded at 6, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours postoperatively using a visual analog scale (VAS). The data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The results showed that post-endodontic pain at all time points was significantly lower in the PBM group compared with the placebo group. The pain score in the PBM group was significantly lower than the placebo group (p<0.05). However, this difference was not significant at 48 h (p=0.18) and 72 h (p=0.12) postoperatively. Also, the results showed that the mean pain score in males and females in the PBM group was significantly lower than in males and females in the placebo group. Conclusion: Photobiomodulation can effectively decrease post-endodontic pain in mandibular molar teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis.
  • Publication Trends Studies Involving Disabled Persons with Dental Care Needs: A 20-Year Bibliometric Analysis Original Article

    Ferreira, Simone Helena; Amorim, Lívia Mund de; Costa, José Ricardo Sousa; Krueger, Gabriel Francisco; Santos, Catielma Nascimento; Kramer, Paulo Floriani

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate scientific production on disabled persons with dental care needs over a 20-year period. Material and Methods: The search was conducted in the PubMed database using the MeSH terms “Disabled Persons” AND “Dentistry”. Three researchers selected articles based on readings of the title, abstract and full text. The articles were categorized according to periodical, country, study design, subject and classification of comorbidities and associated disorders. Three hundred ninety-seven articles published in 140 periodicals were included. Results: The periodicals Special Care in Dentistry (54), Dental Clinics of North America (14) and British Dental Journal (14) accounted for 21% of the publications. The studies were conducted in 50 countries, with the United States accounting for 33%. More than half (52%) of the studies had a cross-sectional design. The main subject addressed was oral diagnosis and most of the comorbidities were generalized disabilities. Conclusion: Although a large number of the periodicals have contributed to knowledge building on disabled persons with dental care needs, the number of articles is small compared to other fields of dentistry. Moreover, important gaps in knowledge persist and projects with better methodological designs are needed to offer a more substantial contribution to clinical practice.
  • Analysis of the Degree of Information of Dental Surgeons about Antiresorptive Drugs According to the Time Since Graduation in Dentistry Original Article

    Rocha, Flávia Godinho Costa Wanderley; Araújo, Roberto Paulo Correia de

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of scientific information of dental surgeons who carry out their professional activities in Brazil about antiresorptive drugs and indicated pharmacological procedures aiming at the prevention of osteonecrosis of the jaws and the therapy of drug sequelae that may occur, considering the time since graduation in Dentistry. Material and Methods: This is a quantitative cross-sectional study in which 339 dentists were consulted using the virtual questionnaire containing topics of personal nature, elements contained in the anamnesis carried out and knowledge about antiresorptive drugs, including indications, adverse effects and treatments applied. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were performed to analyze associations of data described by absolute and relative frequencies with professionals' time since graduation. All analyses were performed using the R software, with a 5% significance level. Results: Those who revealed to have graduated for more than five years with the highest academic degree were those who demonstrated maximum knowledge of antiresorptive drugs or revealed that, somehow, they had information about them (p<0.05). Conclusion: Dental surgeons in Brazil who have more than five years since graduation have more scientific information about antiresorptive drugs and pharmacological procedures, which can positively contribute to the prevention of osteonecrosis of the jaws and treatment of drug sequelae that may occur.
  • Efficacy and Safety of Oral Midazolam Sedation Compared with its Combination with Hydroxyzine Use in Pediatric Dentistry: A Systematic Review Systematic Review

    Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique Porto; Brandão, Diogo Gomes; Lima, Fernando José Camello de; Nascimento, Patricia Batista Lopes do; Marcelos, Priscylla Gonçalves Correia Leite de; Pugliesi, Daniela Maria Carvalho; Cosme-Silva, Leopoldo; Santos Júnior, Valdeci Elias dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of the use of midazolam as monotherapy, compared to the associated use of midazolam and hydroxyzine for minimum and moderate sedation of children in dental offices, using data obtained from clinical trials. Material and Methods: A systematic review protocol was developed and registered on PROSPERO (CR42020208633). An electronic search was carried out in Pubmed, Lilacs, Science Direct, Open Gray, Web of Science, and central Cochrane Library. No language restrictions were included. Clinical trials were carried out with children aged 0-12 years, using midazolam as monotherapy compared to the use of midazolam associated with hydroxyzine to verify the effectiveness and safety of oral sedation. The quality of the studies was individually assessed and grouped using the RoB 2 (Revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for randomized trials) and GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) systems, respectively. Results: A total of 749 studies were found. After analyzing the inclusion and removal of duplicates, two studies were analyzed for the quality of evidence. Through this analysis, it was possible to verify the very low level of scientific evidence on the superiority of the efficacy and safety of the combined use of midazolam and hydroxyzine for oral sedation in children in dental offices. Conclusion: The conflicting results and limitations of the studies enabled to establish that there is insufficient evidence to support the use of these drugs combined. There is only evidence for the use of midazolam as monotherapy.
  • The Effects of Orthodontic Tooth Movement on Clinical Attachment Level Changes in Treated Periodontitis Adult Patients with Malocclusion: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Systematic Review

    Moravej, Asal; Pornamazeh, Tahereh; Hatamzade, Zahra; Soltanian, Mahshad; Amiri, Ali

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effects of orthodontic tooth movement on clinical attachment level (CAL) changes in treated periodontitis in adult patients with malocclusion. Material and Methods: Present study is based on PRISMA guidelines; all articles published in international databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Embase between 2012 to May 2022 are included. 95% confidence interval (CI) for mean difference with fixed effect modal and inverse-variance were calculated. Data analysis was performed using STATA.V16 software. Results: In the initial review, duplicate studies were eliminated, abstracts of 175 studies were reviewed, two authors reviewed the full text of 21 studies, and finally, eleven studies were selected. The mean of CAL gain was 2.29 mm (MD, 95% CI -2.47 mm, -2.12 mm; p=0.00) (I2=91.81%; p=0.00; high heterogeneity). The mean difference of PPD changes was -1.93 mm (MD, 95% CI -2.07 mm, -1.80 mm; p=0.00) (I2=98.52%; p=0.00; high heterogeneity). Conclusion: Due to the limitations of the study and based on the meta-analysis, it is observed that orthodontic treatment is performed with higher success after reconstructive surgery with periodontal improvement.
  • Donor Site Morbidity of Nonvascularized Bone Graft: A Systematic Review Systematic Review

    Sulistyani, Lilies Dwi; Julia, Vera; Rizki, Teuku Zulfahmi; Dharmawan, Dwi Kasta

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the donor site morbidity of iliac and fibular nonvascularized bone graft after mandibular resection. Material and Methods: This study was guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) in PubMed, Proquest, Science Direct, and Ebsco. A total of 12 studies met the criteria of studies in humans using iliac and fibular nonvascularized bone grafts in mandibular reconstruction after mandibular resection. Results: A greater proportion of patients received iliac nonvascularized bone graft (88.9%) than fibular nonvascularized bone graft (11.1%). Of the 385 cases of iliac bone graft, 153 cases (40%) experienced complications at the iliac donor site, whereas in 48 cases of fibular bone graft, two (4%) experienced complications at the donor site. Hemorrhage, bone fracture, infection requiring debridement, and hematoma were the major complications. Conclusion: The morbidity rate of the nonvascularized bone graft donor site of the fibula (4%) tended to be lower than that of the ilium (40%). Patient age and defect size were not significantly correlated with the occurrence of morbidity donor sites in either the ilium or fibula.
  • Acid-Base Resistant Zone in Teeth with the Direct Restoration Using Different Adhesive System Generations: A Systematic Review Systematic Review

    Khabadze, Zurab; Shilyaeva, Ekaterina; Kotelnikova, Alexandra; Todua, David; Bakaev, Yusup; Abdulkerimova, Saida; Mordanov, Oleg

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To find out what the acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) is and the mechanism of its formation. Material and Methods: This systematic review was based on the search of laboratory studies in which selfetching adhesive systems were used. The electronic database PubMed was used for the search. The search began on August 2021 and ended on June 2022. We have analyzed the materials and methods of each research and entered them in the appropriate tables to give a clearer assessment of the obtained results. Results: This systematic review included 15 full-text articles published from 2011 to 2019. The ABRZ is formed on both dentine and enamel. On dentine, the ABRZ is formed only when using self-etching adhesive systems; on the enamel, on the contrary, the step of preliminary etch and rinse contributes to the formation of a thicker ABRZ. The functional monomer MDP and fluorine increase the thickness of the ABRZ and provide a hybrid layer /ABRZ boundary without defects and erosions. Conclusion: Self-etching adhesive systems ensure the creation of an ABRZ resistant to acid-base tests. This phenomenon can provide the resistance of tooth tissues to demineralization, and therefore increase their resistance to caries.
  • Non-Invasive Methods and the Use of Infiltrating Resins for the Control of Caries Progression in Deciduous Teeth: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Systematic Review

    Almeida, Híttalo Carlos Rodrigues de; Oliveira, Gustavo Henrique Porto; Calado, Rafael Vrijdags; Heimer, Monica Vilela; Romão, Dayse Andrade; Pugliesi, Daniela Maria Carvalho; Santos Junior, Valdeci Elias dos

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the influence of non-invasive treatment associated with the use of infiltrating resin for managing caries lesions in primary teeth. Material and Methods: A systematic review was performed by selecting articles from 6 online databases, using a search algorithm and eligibility criteria for data extraction and data synthesis for the papers included. Clinical trials involving primary teeth with incipient caries lesions (1/2 of the enamel or 1/3 of the outer dentin) were included, presenting full text and answering the study's guiding question. This study used the RoB 2 tool for the risk of bias assessment and GRADE for certainty of evidence. Random effects meta-analyses were implemented, and lesion progression treatment effects were estimated through relative risk (RR) and associated 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 440 studies were found. After analyzing the inclusion criteria and removal of duplicates, eight studies were analyzed for quality evidence. Five of the eight studies included in this review contributed to the meta-analysis, all with some reflections regarding the risk of bias. Overall, the results of the meta-analysis showed that non-invasive treatment, when associated with the use of infiltrating resins, significantly reduced the risk of caries progression in relation to the treatment without this addition for follow-up periods ranging from 12 months to 2 years (RR 0.51 [0.40-0.65]). Conclusion: There is moderate certainty of evidence that the use of infiltrating resins associated with non-invasive treatments decreases the risk of caries progression in primary teeth with incipient caries lesions (1/2 of the enamel or 1/3 of the dentin outer) when combined with non-invasive control methods alone.
  • Are Premature Birth and Low Birth Weight Associated with Delay on the Eruption of Deciduous Teeth? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Systematic Review

    Portella, Paula Dresch; Marchetti, Gisele; Wambier, Leticia; Souza, Juliana Feltrin de; Fraiz, Fabian Calixto; Menezes, José Vitor Nogara Borges de; Assunção, Luciana Reichert da Silva

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate whether children with premature birth (PB) and/or with low birth weight (LBW) have different tooth eruption patterns than those born at term or with normal weight. Material and Methods: Searches were performed in the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Sc1opus, Web of Science, LILACS, and BBO databases as well as the grey literature. Three independent reviewers were involved in study selection, data extraction, and bias assessment. The risk of bias was assessed using the Modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was conducted to compute the mean difference (MD) in mean chronological or adjusted age at the eruption of the first deciduous tooth between preterm children and those born at full term. The GRADE approach was used. Results: Among a total of 316 articles identified, 21 were eligible for inclusion and three were included in the meta-analysis. PB was associated with the delay in the first tooth deciduous eruption when chronological age was considered (MD: 1.36; 95%CI: 1.02–1.69) but not when considering adjusted age (MD: -0.30; 95%CI: -0.67–0.07). The evidence was graded as having very low quality. Conclusion: Based on a low certainty of evidence the PB is associated with the delayed eruption of the first deciduous tooth when considering chronological age but not when adjusted age is considered.
  • Technologies on Behalf of the Dentistry Dissemination in Pandemic Times: An Interinstitutional Experience Letter To The Editor

    Santana, Lucas Alves da Mota; Santos, Marcos Antônio Lima dos; Pinho, John Nadson Andrade; Sousa-e-Silva, Nelmara; Ayres, Lucas Celestino Guerzet; Sabey, Mark Jon Santana; Barbosa, Breno Ferreira; Lima, Gustavo Danilo Nascimento; Couto, Graziane Ribeiro; Menezes, Liciane dos Santos; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Souza, Liane Maciel de Almeida; Trento, Cleverson Luciano
  • 3D Bitemark Analysis in Forensic Odontology Utilizing a Smartphone Camera and Open-Source Monoscopic Photogrammetry Surface Scanning Critical Review

    Kurniawan, Arofi; Chusida, An’nisaa; Utomo, Haryono; Marini, Maria Istiqomah; Rizky, Beta Novia; Prakoeswa, Beshlina Fitri Widayati; Hamdani, Janice; Salazar-Gamarra, Rodrigo; Dib, Luciano Lauria; Alias, Aspalilah; Yusof, Mohd. Yusmiaidil Putera Mohd; Marya, Anand

    Abstract in English:

    Abstract Bitemark analysis is a challenging procedure in the field of criminal case investigation. The unique characteristics of dentition are used to find the best match between the existing patterned injury and the suspected perpetrator in bitemark identification. Bitemark analysis accuracy can be influenced by various factors, including biting pressure, tooth morphology, skin elasticity, dental cast duplication, timing, and image quality. This review article discusses the potential of a smartphone camera as an alternative method for 3D bitemark analysis. Bitemark evidence on human skin and food should be immediately recorded or duplicated to retrieve long-lasting proof, allowing for a sufficient examination period. Various studies utilizing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) technologies have been developed to obtain an adequate bitemark analysis. 3D imaging technology provides accurate and precise analysis. However, the currently available method using an intraoral scanner (IOS) requires high-cost specialized equipment and a well-trained operator. The numerous advantages of monoscopic photogrammetry may lead to a novel method of 3D bitemark analysis in forensic odontology. Smartphone cameras and monoscopic photogrammetry methodology could lead to a novel method of 3D bitemark analysis with an efficient cost and readily available equipment.
  • Oral Health: Work Process and Interdisciplinarity Critical Review

    Cruz, Danilson Ferreira; Vianna, Rodrigo Pinheiro de Toledo; Lima-Filho, Luiz Medeiros Araujo; Silva, Daniele Gomes da

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To contribute to the debate about tools that favor the organization of the health work process and its interface with interdisciplinary practices. Material and Methods: We opted for a textual construction based on more specific publications on the field of oral health care. Results: The matrix support is configured as a method of inter-professional activity in co-management that aims to favor the qualification of the health care network. From this perspective, it is an interdisciplinary practice capable of integrating two or more areas of knowledge for a better performance of the actors involved in a given organizational and decision-making process, whether in the clinical or health management scope. Conclusion: Matrix support is an essential tool for the practice of managing health services and amplifying interdisciplinary actions.
  • Rehabilitation Treatment in Pediatric Patients with Molar Incisor Hypomineralization: A Scoping Review Scope Review

    Tituana-Yupangui, Diana María; Cuaspud, Odalis Jazmín; Montesinos-Guevara, Camila

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Objective: To identify the available evidence on the different treatment types for the rehabilitation of MIH-affected teeth in children. Material and Methods: A search was carried out in Pubmed, Cochrane Library, Epistemonikos, Lilacs and Google Scholar. Observational studies published until June 2022 were included. Two reviewers independently screened studies and extracted data. Results: 1593 studies were screened and a total of 38 articles were included, which were mainly case reports published in Brazil. Most included studies concluded that the evaluated treatment was "beneficial" or "probably beneficial". Reported treatments included: glass ionomer cements (GIC), composite resin restorations, preformed metal crowns, laboratory fabricated crowns, microabrasion management of incisors and resin infiltration. Conclusion: Successful treatment options have been identified, such as GIC as a provisional restoration for severe cases and for uncooperative children; restorations with composite, indirect restorations, or preformed metal crowns also seem suitable treatment options for young patients diagnosed with MIH. There is still little evidence to support an approach for anterior teeth affected by MIH.
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