An efficient protocol for in vitro flowering was successfully established for Impatiens balsamina cv Dwarf Bush, an important medicinal plant, through tissue culture techniques. Shoot, stem and petiole explants obtained from 4 week-old aseptic seedlings cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of plant growth regulator (PGR) were used for in vitro flower induction. Gibberellic acid (GA3), benzylaminopurine (BAP) and kinetin (Kin) treatment singly applied in MS media (pH 5.8), could all stimulate flowering at 23-26 oC with photoperiod of 16 hours light and 8 hours dark. It was observed that shoot explants were more responsive than stem explants in floral formation. Regeneration was achieved via direct organogenesis. For shoot explants, the treatment that induced the highest rate of in vitro flowering (7.30 ± 0.16 flowers per plantlet) was 1.0 mg L-1 GA3. Ultrastructural and histological analysis of in vivo and in vitro flowers were done to discover any somaclonal variation. This research described a simple protocol for rapid in vitro flowering that will be very beneficial for further breeding, cytological and molecular biology research.
in vitro regeneration; ultrastructural; histology; gibberellic acid; flowering response