Interference of the Association Oxyfluorfen + Flumioxazin and the Addition of Mineral Oil on a Phytosociological Survey

Interferência da Associação de Oxyfluorfen + Flumioxazin e Adição de Óleo Mineral No Levantamento Fitossociológico

K.F. MENDES M.O. GOULART M.H. INOUE T.B. MERTENS I.P. SILVA About the authors

ABSTRACT:

Phytosociological studies are extremely important for the management of weeds in cultivated areas. Thus, the goal of this work was to evaluate the interference of mineral oil associated with oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin, through the phytosociological survey of weeds. Therefore, this experiment was conducted in a 2 x 5 + 1 factorial design and with four replications; the following oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin associations were evaluated: 240 + 50, 192 + 40, 144 + 30, 96 + 20 and 48 + 10 g a.i. ha-1, with and without the addition of mineral oil, including a control sample without application. Thirty days after the application, plant density, frequency and abundance of species were determined, and so were frequency, density and relative abundance, as well as the importance value index. Results indicate that the application of the mixture oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin, regardless of the addition of the mineral oil, provided a great population of Poaceae. The species Digitaria horizontalis and Brachiaria decumbens showed a higher importance value index in all treatments. Families with greater representation as for number of species were Poaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae. The addition of oil and different doses of the mixture oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin did not affect the population of weeds, compared to the mixture without mineral oil.

Keywords:
phytosociology; similarity index; herbicide association; adjuvants

RESUMO:

Estudos fitossociológicos são de fundamental importância para o manejo de plantas daninhas em áreas cultivadas. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a interferência de óleo mineral associado ao oxyfluorfen e flumioxazin no levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas. Para isso, realizou-se este experimento em esquema fatorial 2 x 5 + 1 e quatro repetições, sendo avaliadas as associações de oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin: 240 + 50, 192 + 40, 144 + 30, 96 + 20 e 48 + 10 g i.a. ha-1,k com e sem a adição de óleo mineral, adicionando-se um controle sem aplicação. Aos 30 dias após a aplicação, determinou-se a densidade de plantas, frequência e abundância das espécies, frequência, densidade e abundância relativa, além do índice de valor de importância. Os resultados indicam que a aplicação da mistura oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin, independentemente da adição do óleo mineral, proporcionou elevada população de espécies de Poaceae. As espécies de Digitaria horizontalis e Brachiaria decumbens apresentaram maior índice de valor de importância em todos os tratamentos avaliados. As famílias com maior representatividade em relação ao número de espécies foram Poaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae e Rubiaceae. A adição de óleo e as diferentes doses da mistura oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin não interferiram na população de plantas daninhas, em comparação com a mistura sem o óleo mineral.

Palavras-chave:
fitossociologia; índice de similaridade; associação de herbicidas; adjuvantes

INTRODUCTION

Oxyfluorfen [2-chloro-α,α,α-trifluoro-p-tolyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether] is an herbicide registered in Brazil for cotton, irrigated rice, coffee, sugarcane, citrus, eucalyptus and pine cultures, commonly used in the pre- or post-emergence of dicot and monocot weeds, inhibiting the protoporphyrinogen oxidase. Moreover, oxyfluorfen is poorly leached because it is slightly soluble in water (0.116 mg L-1) and may be strongly retained in soil colloids (Kfoc = 7,566 L kg-1), with the possibility of a six-month residual effect (Rodrigues and Almeida, 2011Rodrigues B.N., Almeida F.S. Guia de herbicidas. 6ª.ed. Londrina: IAPAR, 2011. 591p., Mantzos et al., 2014Mantzos N. et al. Persistence of oxyfluorfen in soil, runoff water, sediment and plants of a sunflower cultivation. Sci Total Environ. 2014;472:767-77.).

The herbicide flumioxazin [N-(7-fluoro-3,4-dihydro-3-oxo-4-prop-2-ynyl-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl)cyclohex-1-ene-1,2 -dicarboxamide], belonging to the phthalimide group, also acts to inhibit the protoporphyrinogen oxidase and is registered for potato, sugarcane, maize, onion, garlic, citrus, cotton, coffee, soybean and bean cultivations; it must be applied in the post-emergence of dicot weeds and some monocots. Flumioxazin presents low water solubility (0.786 mg L-1), absence of volatility and usage throughout the year, regardless of the pluviometric regime, as it has low leaching and persistence (DT50 = 17.9 days) in the soil (Ferrell and Vencill, 2003Ferrell J.A., Vencill W.K. Flumioxazin soil persistence and mineralization in laboratory experiments. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:4719-21.; Rodrigues and Almeida, 2011Rodrigues B.N., Almeida F.S. Guia de herbicidas. 6ª.ed. Londrina: IAPAR, 2011. 591p.).

Both mentioned herbicides need to be applied under specific environmental conditions; when used in associations, they potentiate the weed control spectrum. The use of adjuvants, such as mineral oil, is necessary. According to Vieira et al. (2015Vieira E. et al. Efeito da adição de adjuvantes a mistura em tanque de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl no controle de buva. Campo Digit@l. 2015;10:71-8.), the use of adjuvants added to the mixture has helped applying herbicides, since these substances increase the efficiency, protection and absorption of molecules. On the other hand, little is known about the use of mineral oil in the application of pre-emergence herbicides aiming at a better management of weed communities.

Phytosociological surveys are essential for the management of weeds in cultivated areas. These studies allow determining the importance degree of these plants in specific areas through phytosociological indices such as frequency, density, and abundance (Concenço et al., 2013Concenço G. et al. Phytosociological surveys: Tools for weed science? Planta Daninha. 2013;31:649-82.). In order to understand the applicability of these surveys to weed science, as well as their validity, it is necessary to choose appropriate and ecologically based methods, since cultivated areas present a relatively distinct group of selection factors, when compared to natural environments (Gomes et al., 2010Gomes G.L.G.C. et al. Cadastramento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na bananicultura. Planta Daninha. 2010;28:61-8.; Mendes et al., 2014Mendes K.F. et al. Dinâmica de plantas daninhas após aplicação de oxadiazon com simulação de lâminas d’água e incorporação de material orgânico. Rev Bras Cien Agr. 2014;9:65-1.). Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the interference of mineral oil associated with oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin in the phytosociological survey of weeds.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

The survey was conducted in Tangará da Serra - Mato Grosso state, between March and April 2014; the site had been fallow for two years, after the cultivation of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and maize (Zea mays). The soil was classified as Red Latosol according to Embrapa (2013Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa. Sistema brasileiro de classificação de solos. 3ª.ed. Brasília, DF: Embrapa Solos, 2013. 353p.), and the physical-chemical characteristics are described in Table 1.

Table 1
Physical-chemical characteristics of the soil used in the test. Tangará da Serra - Mato Grosso state, 2014

The randomized block design was used, arranged in a 2 x 5 + 1 factorial design and four replications. Oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin mixtures were evaluated: 240 + 50, 192 + 40, 144 + 30, 96 + 20 and 48 + 10 g a.i. ha-1, with and without the addition of mineral oil (214 g ha-1), including a control sample without the application of herbicides and mineral oil. Before the application, the area had weeds at the vegetative and reproductive stages; harrows were created to facilitate the application of treatments during pre-emergence. Treatments were applied with the help of a CO2-based backpack sprayer equipped with four XR 110.02 tips and a flow rate of 200 L ha-1. During the application, plots were isolated at a 60 cm height with plastic canvas, in order to avoid the influence of wind.

In order to collect weeds, a sample square measuring 1 m2 placed in the center of each plot was used, measuring 3 x 4 m and with a height of 0.3 m. Evaluations were conducted 30 days after application (DAA); in each sample, the weeds contained in the squares were counted and identified. The collected plants were classified in situ at family and species level, with the help of specialized literature (Lorenzi, 2014Lorenzi H. Manual de identificação e de controle de plantas daninhas. Nova Odessa: Instituto Plantarum, 2014. 379p. ). Due to the great size of the vegetative and reproductive structures of some plants, exsiccates of these botanical samples were not performed.

Data were analyzed according to Martins (1978Martins F.R. Critérios para a avaliação de recursos naturais. In: Anais do Simpósio sobre a Comunidade Vegetal como Unidade Biológica, Turística e Econômica. São Paulo: Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo, 1978. p.136-49.), calculating plant density (Den), frequency (Fre) and abundance of the species (Abu). Starting from these calculations, the analyses of relative frequency (Frr), relative density (Der) and relative abundance (Abr) were determined, representing the importance of a given species in relation to the sum of importance values within the study area.

The sum of the relative values corresponds to the Importance Value Index (IVI), which establishes an integration parameter of the partial variables, in order to combine them into a single and simple expression, determining the relative importance of each species (Lamprecht, 1964Lamprecht H. Ensayo sobre la estrutura florística de la parte sur-oriental del bosque universitário: El Caimital. Rev Flor Venezuelana. 1964;7:77-119.). While calculating phytosociological parameters, the following equations were used:

F r e = n . o f p l o t s c o n t a i n i n g t h e s p e c i e s / t o t a l n . o f u s e d p l o t s × 100

F r r = s p e c i e s f r e q u e n c y / s p e c i e s t o t a l f r e q u e n c y × 100

D e n = t o t a l n . o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e r s p e c i e s / t o t a l c o l l e c t i o n a r e a × 100

D e r = s p e c i e s d e n s i t y / t o t a l s p e c i e s d e n s i t y × 100

A b u = t o t a l n . o f i n d i v i d u a l s p e r s p e c i e s / t o t a l n . o f p l o t s c o n t a i n i n g t h e s p e c i e s

A b r = s p e c i e s a b u n d a n c e / s p e c i e s t o t a l a b u n d a n c e × 100

I V I = F r r + D e r + A b r

In order to calculate the similarity of weed populations, the Similarity Index (SI) (Sorensen, 1972Sorensen T. A method of stablishing groups of equal amplitude in plant society based on similarity of species content. In: Odum E.P. Ecologia. 3rd. ed. Cidade do México: Interamericana, 1972. 640p.) was used, based on the equation:

S . I = 2 a / b × 100

where “a” is the number of common species in the area, and “b” represents the total number of species in the area. SI values were expressed as a percentage, where the maximum (100%) represents when all species are common in the area, and the minimum (0%) represents when there are no common weed species.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In the phytosociological survey, 24 weed species were identified, belonging to nine botanical families, composed by Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Commelinaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Poaceae and Rubiaceae (Table 2). Species from the Poaceae and Asteraceae families are commonly found in different production areas, such as sugarcane cultures (Oliveira and Freitas, 2008Oliveira A.R., Freitas S.P. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas em áreas de produção de cana-de-açúcar. Planta Daninha. 2008;26:33-6.), pastures (Inoue et al., 2012Inoue M.H. et al. Levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens no município de Denise, MT. Sci Plena. 2012;8:1-7.), rice (Silva et al., 2013Silva M.R.M. et al. Cadastramento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz de terras altas. Rev Cienc Agro-Amb. 2013;11:51-60.), coffee (Maciel et al., 2010Maciel C.G.D. et al. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas em cafezal orgânico. Bragantia. 2010;6:631-36) and cassava cultures (Pinoti et al., 2010Pinoti E.B. et al. Levantamento florístico de plantas daninhas na cultura da mandioca no munícipio de Pompéia - SP. Rev Raízes Amidos Trop. 2010;6:120-25. ).

Table 2
Weed species identified in the phytosociological survey on day 30 DAA of the combination oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin, with and without the addition of oil. Tangará da Serra - Mato Grosso state, 2014

Table 3 shows the number of weed species after day 30 DAA from the association of oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin, with and without the addition of mineral oil. In the treatments with oil addition, after the application of oxyfluorfen (240 g ha-1) + flumioxazin (50 g ha-1), the main species found were from the family Poaceae (5), and the least amount of species was from the families Amaranthaceae (1), Commelinaceae (1) and Cyperaceae (1). There are reports in literature that these herbicides do not present satisfactory control on weeds from the genus Poaceae (Cesarin et al., 2013Cesarin A.E. et al. Eficácia de herbicidas no controle pós-emergente de Sisyrinchium micrantuhum Cav. e Agrostis sp. Rev Bras Herb. 2013;12:296-306. , Carvalho et al., 2014Carvalho D.R. et al. Eficiência do oxyfluorfen no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cebola transplantada irrigada por gotejamento. Rev Agro@mbiente. 2014;8:127-33.), whereas for the other previously mentioned genera there is high efficiency (Rozanski et al., 2004Rozanski A. et al. Efeito do herbicida flumioxazin nas plantas daninhas e na cultura de cebola. Hortic Bras. 2004;21:316-20. ; Carvalho et al., 2014).

Table 3
Number of weed species per family on day 30 DAA of the association oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin, with and without the addition of mineral oil. Tangará da Serra - Mato Grosso state, 2014

Doses of oxyfluorfen (192 g ha-1) + flumioxazin (40 g ha-1) for the Poaceae family presented the highest number of weed species (4); however, in the families Amaranthaceae (1), Commelinaceae (1), Cyperaceae (1), Euphorbiaceae (1) and Malvaceae (1) the number of species was lower.

After application of oxyfluorfen (144 g ha-1) + flumioxazin (30 g ha-1), it was verified that the greatest number of weed species was from the Poaceae family (4), while the smallest number was from Amaranthaceae (1) and Malvaceae (1). The highest number of weed species after the use of a oxyfluorfen (96 g ha-1) + flumioxazin (20 g ha-1) dose was from Poaceae (4); on the other hand, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae and Malvaceae had the lowest number of species (1) (Table 3).

It was verified that under both conditions, with and without the addition of 214 g ha-1 of mineral oil, the total number of weed species increased, even at the lowest doses of the oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin association. With the addition of oil, the greatest number of weed species (12) was found at the oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin dose (48 + 10 g ha-1). Without the addition of oil, the number of weeds at the same dose (48 + 10 g ha-1) increased to 16 species (Table 3). This fact highlights that the lowest doses of oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin mixture (96 + 20 and 48 + 10 g ha-1) were not enough to provide greater control over the weeds in the area. This can be justified by the behavior of these herbicides in the soil, mainly in the retention and transformation process.

According to Hall et al. (2015Hall K.E. et al. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils. J Environ Manage. 2015;159:227-34.), oxyfluorfen has high sorption capacity in the soil; this may have reduced the amount of herbicide available to reach the weeds in the area and provide effective control, in addition to the fact that, in smaller amounts, the degradation of the herbicide becomes more accelerated in the soil. On the other hand, Papiernik et al. (2012Papiernik S.K. et al. Low sorption and fast dissipation of the herbicide saflufenacil in surface soils and subsoils of an eroded prairie landscape. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:10936-41.) stated that saflufenacil presents low sorption and relatively quick dissipation, which makes this herbicide readily available for degradation or absorption by weed roots. However, the low dose used in this work may have contributed to the quick dissipation of this herbicide and to the non-bioavailability for weeds.

As for the control sample without application (F), the Poaceae family also recorded the greatest number of species (3). In the same treatment, the amount of families increased in relation to the number of species; Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, Commelinaceae, Cyperaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae and Rubiaceae were identified, when compared to the other treatments.

Generally speaking, the number of weed species was lower (58) in the treatment with the addition of mineral oil, in relation to the treatment without this addition (62) (Table 3). Therefore, the addition of mineral oil in the association of these herbicides may have presented a small positive interference compared to the control of the species. According to Vargas and Roman (2006Vargas L., Roman E.S. Conceitos e aplicações dos adjuvantes. Passo Fundo: Embrapa Trigo, 2006. 7p. ), mineral oils increase the absorption of herbicides due to their direct action on the cuticle of plants, eliminating the barriers that reduce absorption. This may have contributed to increase herbicide efficiency, even at the lowest doses of the mixture oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin.

The mixture of oxyfluorfen and flumioxazin with the addition of mineral oil provided low efficiency in controlling Digitaria horizontalis (Jamaican crabgrass); this is confirmed by the high importance value index (IVI) of this species, reaching 100% or more at all the mixture doses (Figure 1). The low efficiency in controlling D. horizontalis by the herbicide oxyfluorfen was confirmed by Maciel et al. (2007Maciel C.G.D. et al. Quantificação do controle químico de plantas daninhas através de diferentes formas de absorção. Rev Bras Herb. 2007;6:50-61.), where control reached a maximum of 23% in different soil types and modes of absorption. Carvalho et al. (2014Carvalho D.R. et al. Eficiência do oxyfluorfen no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cebola transplantada irrigada por gotejamento. Rev Agro@mbiente. 2014;8:127-33.) also did not reach an effective control for the genus Digitaria with the application of oxyfluorfen on the irrigated onion culture. D. bicornis presented intense vegetative growth, providing great dry matter accumulation. However, Jaremtchuk et al. (2009Jaremtchuk C.C. et al. Efeito residual de flumioxazin sobre a emergência de plantas daninhas em solos de texturas distintas. Planta Daninha. 2009;27:191-96.) highlighted that D. horizontalis was susceptible to the application of flumioxazin (25 and 40 g ha-1). These facts demonstrate the need for further studies on the biology and management of this weed, as well as for the search for other forms of control.

Figure 1
Importance value index (IVI) of the main weed species on day 30 DAA of the association oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin, with the addition of mineral oil. Tangará da Serra - Mato Grosso state, 2014.

Despite the predominance of D. horizontalis, different IVI values †occurred as doses were altered, with Brachiaria decumbens being the second most significant at the doses oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin (192 + 40 g ha-1), oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin (144 + 30 g ha-1) and oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin (48 + 10 g ha-1) (Figure 1). Other species having an IVI above 50% were Eragrostis pilosa, Cyperus odoratus and Richardia brasiliensis, with oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin (240 + 50 g ha-1), oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin (144 + 30 g ha-1) and oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin (48 + 10 g ha-1), respectively (Figure 1). Thus, it is possible to observe that there are different responses to the studied herbicides among the species that were found.

Negrisoli et al. (2009Negrisoli E. et al. Eficácia do herbicida oxyfluorfen com a cobertura de palha no controle de plantas daninhas. Planta Daninha. 2009;27:197-203.) obtained control of up to 100% for B. decumbens using oxyfluorfen (720 g ha-1) applied on a sugarcane straw covering; this does not match the results obtained in this experiment, due to the fact that doses were lower. Results from Carbonari et al. (2009Carbonari C.A. et al. Efeitos de períodos de permanência do flumioxazin no solo e na palha de milho e aveia na eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas. Rev Bras Herb. 2009;8:85-95.) showed that flumioxazin at the dose of 60 g ha-1 obtained up to 100% control for B. decumbens and D. horizontalis in application on maize and oat straw. Therefore, the higher IVI for B. decumbens is explained as a consequence of the low doses used in this experiment, which influenced the permanence of the herbicide in the soil and, consequently, the low control efficiency.

At doses of oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin without the addition of oil, the IVI did not change significantly; D. horizontalis had an IVI above 100% again (Figure 2). B. decumbens, C. odoratus, R. brasiliensis and E. pilosa also stood out for the low control efficacy of oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin on monocots in the study. Moreover, weeds with C4 carbon fixation metabolism can be more competitive due to their high photosynthetic rates, standing out in relation to other weeds with C3 metabolism (Larcher, 2000Larcher W. Ecofisiologia vegetal. São Carlos: Rima, 2000. 531p.).

Figure 2
Importance value index (IVI) of the main weed species on day 30 DAA of the association oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin, without the addition of mineral oil. Tangará da Serra - Mato Grosso state, 2014.

Through the Similarity Index (SI), it was possible to report that there are similar weed species among the evaluated treatments (Table 4). In both treatments with and without the addition of mineral oil, similarity coefficients were above 50%, indicating the high similarity of the weed community in the area. This may be explained by the fact that the experiment was located in beds close to one another that previously had the same type of soil management.

Table 4
Phytosociological similarity index (SI) among treatments, on day 30 DAA of the association oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin, with and without the addition of mineral oil. Tangará da Serra - Mato Grosso state, 2014

It is possible to conclude that the addition of mineral oil and the different doses of oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin did not influence the dynamics of the weed population, when compared to the same mixture without mineral oil. The most representative families as for number of species were Poaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae and Rubiaceae. The species D. horizontalis presented a higher IVI, regardless of the evaluated treatment, followed by B. decumbens, C. odoratus, R. brasiliensis and E. pilosa. The similarity index was higher than 50% for the mixture oxyfluorfen + flumioxazin with and without the addition of mineral oil. The fallow study area certainly contributed to the high richness and diversity of weed species found. However, there is the need for other studies in agricultural areas, with an emphasis on the management and control of these species.

REFERENCES

  • Carbonari C.A. et al. Efeitos de períodos de permanência do flumioxazin no solo e na palha de milho e aveia na eficácia de controle de plantas daninhas. Rev Bras Herb. 2009;8:85-95.
  • Carvalho D.R. et al. Eficiência do oxyfluorfen no controle de plantas daninhas na cultura da cebola transplantada irrigada por gotejamento. Rev Agro@mbiente. 2014;8:127-33.
  • Cesarin A.E. et al. Eficácia de herbicidas no controle pós-emergente de Sisyrinchium micrantuhum Cav. e Agrostis sp. Rev Bras Herb. 2013;12:296-306.
  • Concenço G. et al. Phytosociological surveys: Tools for weed science? Planta Daninha. 2013;31:649-82.
  • Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária - Embrapa. Sistema brasileiro de classificação de solos. 3ª.ed. Brasília, DF: Embrapa Solos, 2013. 353p.
  • Ferrell J.A., Vencill W.K. Flumioxazin soil persistence and mineralization in laboratory experiments. J Agric Food Chem. 2003;51:4719-21.
  • Gomes G.L.G.C. et al. Cadastramento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na bananicultura. Planta Daninha. 2010;28:61-8.
  • Hall K.E. et al. Pesticide sorption and leaching potential on three Hawaiian soils. J Environ Manage. 2015;159:227-34.
  • Lamprecht H. Ensayo sobre la estrutura florística de la parte sur-oriental del bosque universitário: El Caimital. Rev Flor Venezuelana. 1964;7:77-119.
  • Lorenzi H. Manual de identificação e de controle de plantas daninhas. Nova Odessa: Instituto Plantarum, 2014. 379p.
  • Inoue M.H. et al. Levantamento fitossociológico em pastagens no município de Denise, MT. Sci Plena. 2012;8:1-7.
  • Jaremtchuk C.C. et al. Efeito residual de flumioxazin sobre a emergência de plantas daninhas em solos de texturas distintas. Planta Daninha. 2009;27:191-96.
  • Larcher W. Ecofisiologia vegetal. São Carlos: Rima, 2000. 531p.
  • Maciel C.G.D. et al. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas em cafezal orgânico. Bragantia. 2010;6:631-36
  • Maciel C.G.D. et al. Quantificação do controle químico de plantas daninhas através de diferentes formas de absorção. Rev Bras Herb. 2007;6:50-61.
  • Mantzos N. et al. Persistence of oxyfluorfen in soil, runoff water, sediment and plants of a sunflower cultivation. Sci Total Environ. 2014;472:767-77.
  • Martins F.R. Critérios para a avaliação de recursos naturais. In: Anais do Simpósio sobre a Comunidade Vegetal como Unidade Biológica, Turística e Econômica. São Paulo: Academia de Ciências do Estado de São Paulo, 1978. p.136-49.
  • Mendes K.F. et al. Dinâmica de plantas daninhas após aplicação de oxadiazon com simulação de lâminas d’água e incorporação de material orgânico. Rev Bras Cien Agr. 2014;9:65-1.
  • Negrisoli E. et al. Eficácia do herbicida oxyfluorfen com a cobertura de palha no controle de plantas daninhas. Planta Daninha. 2009;27:197-203.
  • Oliveira A.R., Freitas S.P. Levantamento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas em áreas de produção de cana-de-açúcar. Planta Daninha. 2008;26:33-6.
  • Papiernik S.K. et al. Low sorption and fast dissipation of the herbicide saflufenacil in surface soils and subsoils of an eroded prairie landscape. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:10936-41.
  • Pinoti E.B. et al. Levantamento florístico de plantas daninhas na cultura da mandioca no munícipio de Pompéia - SP. Rev Raízes Amidos Trop. 2010;6:120-25.
  • Rodrigues B.N., Almeida F.S. Guia de herbicidas. 6ª.ed. Londrina: IAPAR, 2011. 591p.
  • Rozanski A. et al. Efeito do herbicida flumioxazin nas plantas daninhas e na cultura de cebola. Hortic Bras. 2004;21:316-20.
  • Silva M.R.M. et al. Cadastramento fitossociológico de plantas daninhas na cultura do arroz de terras altas. Rev Cienc Agro-Amb. 2013;11:51-60.
  • Sorensen T. A method of stablishing groups of equal amplitude in plant society based on similarity of species content. In: Odum E.P. Ecologia. 3rd. ed. Cidade do México: Interamericana, 1972. 640p.
  • Vargas L., Roman E.S. Conceitos e aplicações dos adjuvantes. Passo Fundo: Embrapa Trigo, 2006. 7p.
  • Vieira E. et al. Efeito da adição de adjuvantes a mistura em tanque de glyphosate + chlorimuron-ethyl no controle de buva. Campo Digit@l. 2015;10:71-8.

Publication Dates

  • Publication in this collection
    2018

History

  • Received
    19 Oct 2016
  • Accepted
    01 Mar 2017
Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas Departamento de Fitotecnia - DFT, Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV, 36570-000 - Viçosa-MG - Brasil, Tel./Fax::(+55 31) 3899-2611 - Viçosa - MG - Brazil
E-mail: rpdaninha@gmail.com