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Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, Volume: 33, Publicado: 2020
  • Relation between perceived emotional intelligence and social factors in the educational context of Brazilian adolescents Research

    Vaquero-Diego, M.; Torrijos-Fincias, P.; Rodriguez-Conde, M. J.

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Background: The study of emotional intelligence (EI), demographics, and family factors of adolescent high school students allows us to appraise adolescents' skills for their academic and vocational training. The objectives of the study focus on whether there is any relationship between context variables such as gender, age of parents, or work activity, and self-perception of emotional intelligence. Methodology: This study sampled 11.370 participants, aged between 12 and 17 years, in the 7th and 9th years of fundamental education, and the 3rd year of upper secondary education. Data from this study comes from students enrolled in the SESI schools of the City of Sao Paulo. To examine the data, we applied the TMMS-24 test to statistical analysis where gender relates to the three dimensions of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI): attention, clarity, and emotional repair. Results: The results obtained allow us to show how teenagers are perceived with respect to three dimensions: attention, clarity and emotional repair, and thereby extrapolating the need to continue the promotion of emotional education in schools. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the application of the Brazilian version of the TMMS-24 in training programs in PEI must consider a whole series of sociocultural aspects. These aspects should start with a series of initial measures that allow for the perceptions of participants to be observed, and to extend onward to influence the willingness of the beneficiaries to participate in this type of intervention. Provided the intervention is anchored in a solid theoretical base, and executed under a rigorous study, its efficacy can be verified.
  • Development and validation of a scale for measuring cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients in southern Chile Research

    Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Baeza-Rivera, María José; Ortiz, Manuel; Betancourt, Héctor

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Purpose: Negative cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients represent one of the barriers in the psychological help-seeking and treatment adherence. In Chile today, there is little research about specific beliefs towards this group, and therefore measuring them represents a challenge. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate an instrument to measure cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients. Methods: A mixed method design conducted in four stages was implemented. First, 32 semi-structured interviews were carried out to identify beliefs about psychotherapy patients in southern Chile. Then, a scale of beliefs about psychotherapy patients (SBPP) was developed and piloted in an adult sample (n = 109). Subsequently, the factorial structure of the new scale was explored in patients of primary health centres in La Araucanía Region of Chile (n = 201). Finally, the validity of the construct was assessed in adults who were not undergoing psychotherapy (n = 361). Results: The results showed the existence of negative cultural beliefs about psychotherapy patients which were included in the construction of the SBPP. The scale had a bifactorial structure (αtransitory situations = 0.81 and αstable characteristics = 0.79), consisting of 15 items with a Likert-type response format, and showed good indicators of validity and reliability on the samples in which were applied. Conclusions: The present study shows the importance of using mixed methods for the examination of socially shared beliefs by the cultural group under study, in order to construct instruments that are psychometrically robust and culturally pertinent.
  • Applying intervention mapping approach to a program for early intervention in first-episode mental crisis of a psychotic type Research

    Machado, Daniela Martins; Murta, Sheila Giardini; Costa, Ileno Izídio da

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The holotropic mind perspective, an integral part of the framework of transpersonal psychology, has been considered a revolutionary approach to a certain spectrum of experiences in Non-ordinary states of consciousness (NOSC) which conventional approaches tend to treat indiscriminately as pathological processes, because PHM recognizes in these experiences their healing and evolutionary potential. This article describes the needs assessment, implementation, and evaluation of an experiential and educational program on the holotropic mind perspective and its praxis, Holotropic Breathwork® (HB), with students and professionals from the Group for Early Intervention in First-Episode Mental Crisis of a Psychotic Type of the University of Brasilia. The intervention aimed to establish change goals and objectives that would promote the adoption of the holotropic mind perspective's elements, such as a framework to broaden and strengthen mental health programs that assist people experiencing NOSC. The stages developed, inspired by the Intervention Mapping protocol, included a needs assessment; elaboration of change objective matrices; selection and description of methods based on theory and their applications; conception, planning, and implementation of the intervention; and results evaluation. Participants reported that the intervention allowed the expansion of their theoretical-conceptual and technical frameworks, giving them a less pathologizing understanding of and approach to NOSC and allowing them to perceive and manage such states, not as indiscriminately pathological expressions, but as phenomena inherent to the human condition that can be accepted and cared for without the exclusionary and exhaustive bias of mental disorders. Limitations and practical implications are discussed.
  • Early detection of learning difficulties using the BADyG-E2r Battery during primary education Research

    Soria, Ignasi Navarro; Fernández, José Manuel García; Saura, Cándido J. Inglés; Fernández, Marta Real

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive capacity of several of the most relevant cognitive skills in the academic field that were evaluated using Differential and General Skills Battery(BADyG-E2r). Particular attention was focused on the variables that need to be overcome regarding the curricular objectives related to pass/fail grading as evaluated by the teachers in the instrumental disciplines of Mathematics and Language. The psychometric battery was applied to the 3rd year students in primary education (a total of 512 students) at 4 public schools that were randomly selected in the province of Alicante (Spain). A follow-up of their academic evolution was under taken until the end of primary education. The obtained results show that high scores in Verbal Reasoning, Numerical Reasoning, and Verbal Syllogisms positively and significantly predict academic success at the end of primary education in the subjects of Language and Mathematics.
  • Gender, planning, and academic expectations in first-year higher education students: testing two alternative mediation models Research

    Alfonso, Sonia; Diniz, António M.; Deaño, Manuel; Tellado, Fernando; García-Señorán, Mar; Conde, Ángeles; Iglesias-Sarmiento, Valentín

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract We examined the relationships among gender, planning, and academic expectations through the testing of two alternative models with latent variables tested with LISREL 8.80: one model considered planning as a mediator of the relationship between gender and academic expectations, and the other model considered academic expectations as mediators of the relationship between gender and planning. Participants were 662 first-year higher-education students from two academic years, predominantly female (60%) and mainly with majors in the juridical-social field (66.2%). The Inventario sobre Estrategias Metacognitivas (IEM; Inventory of Metacognitive Strategies) and the Academic Perceptions Questionnaire (APQ) were applied at the beginning of the first semester to assess planning and academic expectations, respectively. Multigroup confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the IEM’s structure after examining its psychometric properties with the sample from the first academic year (N = 338). The test of the alternative mediation models with the full sample indicates that the best model was that with planning as a mediator. In this model, gender directly predicted only two APQ academic expectations, but with the mediation of planning, gender predicted all seven academic expectations. Women showed higher levels of academic expectations and planning than did men. The results are discussed at both the theoretical and practical levels.
  • Development of a computerized adaptive test to assess entrepreneurial personality Research

    Postigo, Álvaro; Cuesta, Marcelino; Pedrosa, Ignacio; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Background/objective Entrepreneurial behavior is of great importance nowadays owing to its significance in the generation of economic, social, personal, and cultural wellbeing. This behavior is influenced by cognitive and personality characteristics, as well as by socioeconomic and contextual factors. Entrepreneurial personality is made up of a set of psychological traits including self-efficacy, autonomy, innovation, internal locus of control, achievement motivation, optimism, stress tolerance, and risk-taking. The aim of this research is the development of a computerized adaptive test (CAT) to evaluate entrepreneurial personality.Method: A bank of 120 items was created evaluating various aspects of the entrepreneurial personality. The items were calibrated with the Samejima Graded Response Model using a sample of 1170 participants (Mage = 42.34; SDage = 12.96). Results The bank of items had an essentially unidimensional fit to the model. The CAT exhibited high accuracy for evaluating a wide range of θ scores, using a mean of 16 items with a very low standard error (M = 0.157). Relative validity evidence for the CAT was obtained with two additional tests of entrepreneurial personality (the Battery for the Assessment of the Enterprising Personality and the Measure of Enterpreneurial Tendencies and Abilities), with correlations of .908 and .657, respectively. Conclusions The CAT developed has appropriate psychometric properties for the evaluation of entrepreneurial people.
  • Multi-ethnic validation of 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale in Chile Research

    Gallardo-Peralta, Lorena P.; Rodríguez-Blázquez, Carmen; Ayala-García, Alba; Forjaz, María João

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Background There has been scant research published regarding the assessment of depression in ethnic groups, and few studies have addressed the validation of scales for standardized assessment of depressive symptoms among indigenous minorities. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) for a multi-ethnic sample of older Chilean adults.Methods: Cross-sectional study with a sample of 800 older people, 71% of whom were self-declared indigenous (Aymara/Mapuche). Results The non-indigenous group had a higher total GDS-15 score and lower quality of life and wellbeing scores than the indigenous groups (p < 0.001). The GDS-15 had a KR-20 coefficient of 0.90 for the non-indigenous group, 0.80 for Aymara, and 0.85 for Mapuche. The homogeneity index was 0.38 for non-indigenous, 0.24 for Aymara, and 0.29 for Mapuche.Discussion: The GDS-15 showed satisfactory psychometric characteristics for the samples studied. However, the better results observed for the non-indigenous group suggest that some characteristics and content of the rating scale are not fully appropriate for the indigenous older population. Conclusions There is a need to develop the transcultural validation of scales such as GDS-15, which are applied in a standardized manner in geriatric evaluations as part of primary healthcare.
  • Predictors of problematic smartphone use among university students Research

    Laurence, Paulo Guirro; Busin, Yuri; Lima, Helena Scoz da Cunha; Macedo, Elizeu Coutinho

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Predictors of problematic smartphone use have been found mainly in studies on elementary and high school students. Few studies have focused on predictors related to social network and messaging apps or smartphone model. Thus, the objective of our study was to identify predictors of problematic smartphone use related to demographic characteristics, loneliness, social app use, and smartphone model among university students. This cross-sectional study involved 257 Brazilian university students who answered a smartphone addiction scale, a questionnaire about smartphone usage patterns, and the Brazilian version of the UCLA-R loneliness scale. Women, iPhone owners, and users of Instagram and Snapchat had significantly higher smartphone addiction scores. We found correlations between scores for the Brazilian version of smartphone addiction scale and the importance attributed to WhatsApp, Facebook, Instagram, and Snapchat, and the Brazilian version of the UCLA-R loneliness scale. Our hierarchical regression model predicted 32.2% of the scores of the Brazilian version of the smartphone addiction scale, with the greatest increase in predictive capability by the step that added smartphone social app importance, followed by the step that added loneliness. Adding the smartphone model produced the smallest increase in predictive capability. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.
  • Measuring adult romantic attachment: psychometric properties of the brief Spanish version of the experiences in close relationships Research

    Guzmán-González, Mónica; Rivera-Ottenberger, Diana; Brassard, Audrey; Spencer, Rosario; Lafontaine, Marie-France

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The Experiences in Close Relationships (Brennan et al, Attachment theory and close relationships, 1998) questionnaire is one of the most widely used measures of adult romantic attachment. Despite the advantages of the ECR, the length of this measure may discourage its use in clinical and research contexts. Consequently, the goal of this study was to develop a brief Spanish version of the ECR questionnaire and to examine its psychometric properties when administered to six different Spanish-speaking samples from Chile. Confirmatory factor analyses replicated the twodimensional structure of the ECR and its invariance across gender. Results also supported the reliability and concurrent validity of our brief Spanish version of the ECR (i.e., Spanish ECR-12), by its association with measures of emotion regulation, dyadic empathy, psychological distress and well-being, and relationship satisfaction. The Spanish ECR-12 can be used by researchers and clinical professionals as an abridged measure of adult attachment.
  • Influence of age and schooling in written discourse of healthy adults Research

    Zanichelli, Larissa; Fonseca, Róchele Paz; Ortiz, Karin Zazo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Background: Discourse production is a very complex cognitive task that requires the integration of several linguistic cognitive skills. Socio-demographic factors such as schooling can impact on cognitive tasks. This study investigated the impact of age and schooling in some macrolinguistic and microlinguistic aspects in the written discourse of healthy adults. Methods: Individuals with no previous history of language, hearing, neurological, or psychiatric disorders were asked to write a story based on a figure that showed a “bank robbery.” A total of 463 graphic narrative were analyzed. The schooling was stratified into the following three bands: 5 to 8 years, 9 to 11 years and 12 or more, and the age ranged from 19 to 75 years. Results: Individuals with high schooling (12 years or more) produced discourses with more information units, more coherent, and cohesive. The oldest group (60 to 75 years) needed more time to finish the written production. Conclusion: The schooling influences some micro and macrolinguistic aspects in the written discourse production. A higher educational level provided a greater number of words as well as a higher number of information units, and the discourses produced are more coherent and cohesive. The age influenced only the time of discourse production.
  • Burnout syndrome in university professors and academic staff members: psychometric properties of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory-Brazilian version Research

    Rocha, Fernanda Ludmilla Rossi; Jesus, Lilian Carla de; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Henriques, Silvia Helena; Marôco, João; Campos, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The aims of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory-Brazilian version (CBI-Br) in a sample of university professors and academic staff members of Brazilian public universities, to estimate the level of burnout syndrome (BS) among these workers, and to assess the associations of BS with demographic and occupational determinants of the syndrome. A total of 676 workers participated in the study. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported a three-factor model with 18 items and an acceptable overall fit. Adequate convergent and discriminant validity of the CBI-Br's factors were observed, as well as adequate reliability of the instrument for the sample. In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence of the validity and reliability of the CBI-Br for the measurement of BS in Brazilian university professors and academic staff members. In addition, the CBI-Br may be an important tool for the diagnosis of psychosocial risks related to BS in the academic environment.
  • Translation, Adaptation and Psychometric Properties of SATAQ-4R for Brazilian Children RESEARCH

    Neves, Clara Mockdece; Meireles, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras; Morgado, Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Amaral, Ana Carolina Soares; Ferreira, Maria Elisa Caputo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Background The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire (SATAQ) is one of the most investigated instruments for the evaluation of sociocultural pressure and internalization of the beauty standard, and it is considered to be one of the most robust instruments for this purpose. The most recent version of this questionnaire is the SATAQ-4R, originally designed for adults and teenagers, which has been used in different countries, contexts, and populations. The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the SATAQ-4R for Brazilian children are appropriate and necessary. Objective The general objective of this study was to translate, adapt, and verify the psychometric qualities of the SATAQ-4R for Brazilian girls and boys aged between 7 and 11 years old.Methods: Study 1 describes the cross-cultural adaptation, from the translation stage to the pretest in children of both sexes (n = 36, M = 8.76, SD = 1.59 years). SATAQ-4R has been demonstrated to be easily understood by Brazilian children. Studies 2 and 3 analyze the psychometric qualities of such an instrument in 566 girls (M = 9.18, SD = 1.23 years) and in 592 boys (M = 9.18, SD = 1.23), respectively. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have been performed with independent samples. Results Both instruments presented factor structures composed of five factors, good reliability, and convergent validity. Conclusion We concluded that SATAQ-4R-Female and SATAQ-4R-Male are useful tools for evaluating the internalization of beauty standards and of sociocultural pressure on Brazilian children.
  • Visual processing of color and shape in people with leprosy Research

    Soares, Perla Figueredo Carreiro; Andrade, Michael Jackson Oliveira; Andrade, Sefora Luana Evangelista; Santos, Natanael Antonio

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the contrast sensitivity of spatial luminance and the color discrimination thresholds of the protan, deutan, and tritan axes of people with leprosy. This study included 8 subjects with leprosy (M = 4, W = 4, M = 33.38 ± 8.7) and 8 healthy subjects (M = 4, W = 4, M = 30.89 ± 5.8). The contrast sensitivity was evaluated by the Metropsis software version 11.0 with vertical sinusoidal grids of frequencies of 0.2, 0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 16 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd) and color vision by the desaturated Lanthony D15 tests and the trivector and ellipse protocols of the Cambridge Color Test. The results showed significant differences between the groups in the processing of spatial frequencies of 0.2 (U = 14; p = .018); 5.0 (U = 45.0; p = .001); 10.0 (U = 45.0; p = .001), and 16.0 (U = 45.0; p = .001) cpd. The difference in color recognition through D15d (U = 4.0; p = .002). Ellipse 2 (U = 10.0; p = .012) and ellipse 3 (U = 9.0; p = .009) were discriminated against. Overall, the results indicate that leprosy changes the visual processing of low, medium, and high spatial frequencies, as well as the sensitivity of the short wavelength (tritan line of confusion) and long (protan line of confusion) cones.
  • Validation of a German version of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) in a sample of significant others of breast and gynaecologic cancer patients RESEARCH

    Ehmann, Anna Tamara; Mahler, Cornelia; Klafke, Nadja

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract There is no disease-specific instrument to measure the quality of life of significant others of cancer patients in Germany. In this study, we evaluated the reliability and construct validity of a German version of the Caregiver Quality of Life Index-Cancer (CQOLC) in a sample of 212 caregivers of breast and gynaecologic cancer patients. The CQOLC was administered along with the World Health Organization Quality of Life short version (WHOQOL-BREF) to caregivers of patients taking part in a randomized-controlled intervention study. Data of 212 caregivers were gained at the baseline of the study. Internal consistency was determined by Cronbach’s α. Construct validity was examined by conducting a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and hypothesis testing. Correlations between change scores with patients’ global health-related quality of life (HRQoL) were calculated for three time points to evaluate the responsiveness. The three subscales “burden”, “disruptiveness”, and “financial concerns” indicate to a good reliability of the instrument (Cronbach’s α ranged between 0.754 and 0.832), while the subscale “positive adaptation” demonstrated low reliability ( α = 0.579). A CFA based on data from the whole set of CQOLC items resulted in CFI levels < .90, and a CFA without problematic items resulted in CFI levels also < .90. The construct validity of the CQOLC could be approved by a moderate to high convergence with close variables as the global HRQoL. Mean differences between caregivers of curatively or palliatively treated patients were nonsignificant ( p = 0.959) at T1. Correlations for responsiveness were low with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.030 to 0.326. These data indicate that additional research is needed to further verify the validity of the instrument. The German scale of the CQOLC might be appropriate for clinical and research use, if the wording of some items is refined and if content validity is also assessed by caregivers themselves. The assessment of cancer patients’ caregiver’s quality of life can contribute to a better understanding of the effects of patient-oriented interventions including also closely involved next of kin’s around the cancer patients.
  • The hierarchical structure of fear of personal death: from the general factor to specific forms RESEARCH

    Jastrzębski, Jarosław; Rogoza, Radosław; Ślaski, Sławomir

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Purpose In the present study, we aimed to integrate unidimensional and multidimensional perspectives of the construct of the fear of personal death (FOPD). It has been assumed that (a) there is one general factor of FOPD, reflecting the unidimensional perspective and that (b) FOPD assumes a hierarchical structure reflecting the multidimensional perspective. Methods We administered the Death and Dying Anxiety Inventory (FVTS, Ochsmann, 1993) to 1217 Polish participants (602 women and 615 men) aged between 18 and 89 ( M Age = 31.13; SD Age = 12.65). Results The results of the bi-factor model of the confirmatory factor analysis proved the existence of a FOPD general factor. Using the bass-ackwards approach, we provided evidence on the hierarchical structure of FOPD, which stresses that specific types of FOPD distinguished in the FVTS, which, on a higher level, make up the factors of threats to self-fulfilling existence, threats to well-being and threats of physical destruction, which in turn depend on the subject’s perspective: the physical self and/or the symbolic self. Conclusion The current study demonstrates that unidimensional and multidimensional approaches to FOPD do not necessarily exclude one another. The unidimensional approach to FOPD seems to be most appropriate for studying the intensity of FOPD, while the multidimensional approach seems to be more suitable for studying the individual differences in how people give meaning to FOPD.
  • Brief Montreal-Toulouse Language Assessment Battery: adaptation and content validity RESEARCH

    Altmann, Raira Fernanda; Ortiz, Karin Zazo; Benfica, Tainá Rossato; Oliveira, Eduarda Pinheiro de; Pagliarin, Karina Carlesso

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Background Evaluating patients in the acute phase of brain damage allows for the early detection of cognitive and linguistic impairments and the implementation of more effective interventions. However, few cross-cultural instruments are available for the bedside assessment of language abilities. The aim of this study was to develop a brief assessment instrument and evaluate its content validity. Methods Stimuli for the new assessment instrument were selected from the M1-Alpha and MTL-BR batteries (Stage 1). Sixty-five images were redesigned and analyzed by non-expert judges (Stage 2). This was followed by the analysis of expert judges (Stage 3), where nine speech pathologists with doctoral training and experience in aphasiology and/or linguistics evaluated the images, words, nonwords, and phrases for inclusion in the instrument. Two pilot studies (Stage 4) were then conducted in order to identify any remaining errors in the instrument and scoring instructions. Results Sixty of the 65 figures examined by the judges achieved inter-rater agreement rates of at least 80%. Modifications were suggested to 22 images, which were therefore reanalyzed by the judges, who reached high levels of inter-rater agreement (AC1 = 0.98 [CI = 0.96–1]). New types of stimuli such as nonwords and irregular words were also inserted in the Brief Battery and favorably evaluated by the expert judges. Optional tasks were also developed for specific diagnostic situations. After the correction of errors detected in Stage 4, the final version of the instrument was obtained. Conclusion This study confirmed the content validity of the Brief MTL-BR Battery. The method used in this investigation was effective and can be used in future studies to develop brief instruments based on preexisting assessment batteries.
  • Can mirror reading reverse the flow of time? Evidence from Japanese speakers Research

    Yang, Wenxing; Feng, Xueqin; Jin, Jing'ai; Liu, Yuting; Sun, Ying

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Accumulating evidence over the last two decades has established the causal role of a unidirectional orthography in shaping speakers, mental representations of time. Casasanto and Bottini (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143, 473-479, 2014) extended previous findings by showing that exposure to mirror-reversed orthography of speakers' native language could completely redirect their mental timelines within minutes. However, the question of whether such a causal effect of writing direction on temporal cognition can be identified in speakers whose native languages adopt bidirectional orthographies remains underexplored in the literature. To address this issue, the present study focused on Japanese which uses bidirectional writing systems, one proceeding horizontally from left to right (HLR) and one vertically from top to bottom (VTB). Two experiments were performed, and the tasks asked participants to process standard/mirror orthography prime questions about time arranged horizontally or vertically, followed by horizontal or vertical arrays of pictorial target stimuli about temporal relations. Results demonstrated that Japanese speakers encoded passage of time into a top-to-bottom linear path commensurate with the VTB writing direction, but they did not align their mental representations of time with the HLR writing orientation. Accordingly, exposure to mirror-reversed bidirectional orthographies redirected Japanese speakers' vertical but not horizontal space-time mappings. Theoretical implications concerning the causal effects of bidirectional orthographies and the generalizability of the representational flexibility of time maintained by Casasanto and Bottini (Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 143,473-479) are discussed.
  • A study on the embarrassment of senders who missend emojis with opposite meanings on social apps: taking WeChat as an example Research

    Liu, Liyuan; Hsu, Yen; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Qianling

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract With the increasing popularity of social apps, sending emojis has become a very common way of expressing one's emotions. However, situations often arise when people send the wrong emoji by mistake, or sometimes even an emoji with an opposite meaning, which can cause embarrassment to the sender. Taking WeChat as an example, which is widely used in Chinese communities, this study summarizes 10 types of dialogue situations in which the meaning of an emoji is wrongly sent and 12 types of emotional components that are related to embarrassment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the extent to which the 12 emotional components that are associated with embarrassment actually explain what embarrassment is, as well as the different degrees of embarrassment among the different genders and age groups. The results showed that (1) among the emotional components of embarrassment, shame has the highest explanation degree for embarrassment; (2) males are more likely to be affected by embarrassment than females; and (3) users aged 18-25 and 26-30 years are more likely to be affected by embarrassment than those aged between 31 and 40 when they mistakenly send WeChat emojis. This study provides a reference value for their sustainable psychological impact on social app users.
  • Perceived Opportunities to Craft Scale: adaptation and evidence of the construct validity of the Brazilian version Research

    Devotto, Rita Pimenta de; Freitas, Clarissa Pinto Pizarro de; Wechsler, Solange Muglia

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Employees’ perceived opportunities to craft (POCs) influence actual job crafting behavior, which may have consequences for their well-being and work performance. This study aimed to validate the perceived opportunities to craft scale (POCS) in the Brazilian context. We collected data from Brazilian employees (N = 1451) in two separate samples. The factor structure, reliability, and convergent validity of the POCS were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), multigroup confirmatory factor analysis (MGCFA), and external variables. The results indicated that the POCS-Brazilian version (with seven-point and five-point Likert scale) replicated the unidimensional structure of the original instrument. POCs showed significant positive and moderate correlations with occupational self-efficacy, work engagement and job crafting, and negative associations with workaholism. Both POCS-Brazilian versions were reliable according to three types of reliability indexes and also showed discriminant and convergent validity evidence.
  • Behavioral problems and their relationship to maternal depression, marital relationships, social skills and parenting Research

    Bolsoni-Silva, Alessandra Turini; Loureiro, Sonia Regina

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Behavioral problems have been associated with multiple variables; however, studies simultaneously investigating parenting practices, marital relationships in bi-parental families, maternal depression, and child behavior remain a gap in the literature. The objective was to verify associations between positive and negative parenting practices, marital relationships, social skills, and behavioral problems among children from bi-parental families with and those without maternal depression; to identify the predictive effect of positive and negative parenting practices, marital relationships, children's social skills, and maternal depression, for internalizing, externalizing behavior problems and internalizing and externalizing comorbidities. A case-control study with a cross-sectional design was adopted to ensure the groups were homogeneous in regard to the children's, mothers’, and families’ sociodemographic characteristics. A total of 35 mothers currently with depression and 35 without depression indicators participated in the study, while the children were 25 preschoolers and 23 school-aged children. The mothers responded to instruments addressing depression, child behavior, parenting practices, and marital relationships. The results reveal maternal depression associated with marital relationships, positive parenting, and context variables. Maternal depression and marital relationship were found to influence externalizing problems; maternal depression, childrearing practices, marital relationships, and the children's behavioral repertoires influence internalizing and externalizing comorbidities; and none of the independent variables influenced the occurrence of internalizing problems.
  • Psychometric properties of empathy questionnaire for Spanish adolescents Research

    Salavera, Carlos; Usán, Pablo

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The aim of this study was to adapt and test the empathy questionnaire in Spanish adolescents (N = 701, age = 13.47 years). The study involved two different strands: (1) the questionnaire was translated into Spanish, and its internal consistency, factorial structure and convergent validity were assessed; (2) the questionnaire was subject to confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis show that the questionnaire's factors present an aggregate variance of 58.588%, which suggests that the questionnaire is a valid tool to represent affective empathy, cognitive empathy and empathic concern. On the other hand, the confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the sustainability of the model, which comprises three identified factors and twelve items. The empathy questionnaire is easy to understand and can be completed in a short time, so it is considered a useful tool to assess empathy in Spanish adolescents. The results are discussed in the context of theoretical accounts of empathy.
  • Evidence of validity and reliability of the adaptive functioning scale for intellectual disability (EFA-DI) Research

    Selau, Thais; Silva, Mônia Aparecida da; Mendonça, Euclides José de; Bandeira, Denise Ruschel

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Intellectual disability (ID) is a developmental disorder characterized by deficits in intellectual functioning and adaptive behavior. The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5) defines adaptive functioning as a severity measure of ID. The availability of tests in the international context to assess this construct has increased in recent years. In Brazil, however, non-systematic assessment of adaptive functioning, such as through observation and interviews, still predominates. The Escala de Funcionamento Adaptativo para Deficiencia Intelectual EFA-DI [Adaptive Functioning Scale for Intellectual Disabilities] is a new instrument developed in Brazil to assess the adaptive functioning of 7- to 15-year-old children and support the diagnosis of ID. This study's objectives were to investigate evidence of validity related to the EFA-DI's internal structure, criterion validity, and reliability. The psychometric analyses involved two statistical modeling types, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and item response theory analysis (IRT). These results highlight the EFA-DI scale's strong psychometric properties and support its use as a parental report measure of young children's adaptive functioning. Future studies will be conducted to develop norms of interpretation for the EFA-DI. This study is expected to contribute to the fields of psychological assessment and child development in Brazil.
  • Social networks as tools for the prevention and promotion of health among youth Review

    del Castillo, José Antonio García; del Castillo-López, Álvaro García; Dias, Paulo César; García-Castillo, Fernando

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract The emergence of information and communication technologies (ICT) has generated a number of research questions, related to their use and potential risk, but also potentials for prevention or health promotion. Online social networks have become an important source of information for users as well as a tool for social relations. As traditional social networks, they can act as vehicles to improve the health of adolescents and youth, as well as play a key role in an educational context. The aim of this work is then to explore the theoretical relevance of ICT, particularly on online social networks, on disease prevention and health promotion of communicable diseases. Literature review points out the role of online social networks, particularly in the field of sexual health, body image, especially eating habits and overweight, as well as smoking and alcohol dependence. Data allow us to understand how online social network behavior and interaction is related to their burden and interventions developed in sexual health and addiction show positive results. More efforts in body image are needed in order to use these tools for prevention and promotion of health from early age.
  • The development of categorisation and conceptual thinking in early childhood: methods and limitations REVIEW

    Alessandroni, Nicolás; Rodríguez, Cintia

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract We present a systematic and qualitative review of academic literature on early conceptual development (0–24 months of age), with an emphasis on methodological aspects. The final sample of our review included 281 studies reported in 115 articles. The main aims of the article were four: first, to organise studies into sets according to methodological similarities and differences; second, to elaborate on the methodological procedures that characterise each set; third, to circumscribe the empirical indicators that different sets of studies consider as proof of the existence of concepts in early childhood; last, to identify methodological limitations and to propose possible ways to overcome them. We grouped the studies into five sets: preference and habituation experiments , category extension tasks , object sorting tasks , sequential touching tasks and object examination tasks . In the “Results” section, we review the core features of each set of studies. In the “Discussion” and “Conclusions” sections, we describe, for one thing, the most relevant methodological shortcomings. We end by arguing that a situated, semiotic and pragmatic perspective that emphasises the importance of ecological validity could open up new avenues of research to better understand the development of concepts in early childhood.
  • Benefits and damages of the use of touchscreen devices for the development and behavior of children under 5 years old—a systematic review Review

    Rocha, Bruno; Nunes, Cristina

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Aim: Several health organizations have been expressing concern about the amount of time children spend using electronic devices and about the benefits and damages of the use of touchscreen devices, such as smartphones or tablets, for the development and behavior of children under the age of 5. A systematic review was carried out in order to understand the impact of touchscreen device usage toward children's development and behavior under the age of 5. Methods: Using the PRISMA method, from a total of 6314 studies found in online databases, searched in English, between 01/01/2000 and 01/10/2018, 11 studies were selected for analysis. Results: The results revealed that, in children under the age of 5, the damages of the use of touchscreen devices are superior to the benefits that may result, especially when there are more hours of screen time. More importance is given to the quality of the child-adult relationship and not to the use of touchscreen devices. Nevertheless, some studies emphasize some aspects that may reduce the negative effects, such as moderate use, less screen time, parental monitoring, and viewing educational programs in an academic environment. Conclusions: Guidelines that should be given to parents about the use of touchscreen devices by children are discussed. The limitation of this study was the difficulty in finding studies directed to the desired age and type of electronic device. This may be taken as a potential cause of bias.
  • The Gender Violence - Implicit Association Test to measure attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women Review

    Ferrer-Perez, Victoria A.; Sánchez-Prada, Andrés; Delgado-Álvarez, Carmen; Bosch-Fiol, Esperanza

    Resumo em Inglês:

    Abstract Attitudes play a central role in intimate partner violence against women and are related to its origin, to the responses of women who suffer violence, and to the settings where it occurs. In fact, these attitudes are recognized as one of the risk factors linked to violent perpetration and to public, professional, and victim responses to this type of violence. However, even though available research generally shows a broad rejection of this violence, it remains a serious social and health problem that has reached epidemic proportions. This suggests that the information available about these attitudes (obtained through explicit and direct measures, i.e., self-reports) may be distorted or influenced by factors such as social desirability. In this context, the overall objective of our research project is to provide multi-method measures (explicit and implicit) of attitudes toward intimate partner violence against women, and the main goal of this paper is to propose an instrument for the implicit measurement of these attitudes. In this regard, the Implicit Association Test (IAT) is the most common procedure used, providing a superior predictive validity compared to explicit measures for socially sensitive topics. We will present an exploratory study that describes its adaptation for our purposes, and the development of the Gender Violence - Implicit Association Test (GV-IAT) to use among Spanish-speaking populations, and discuss the strengths and limitations of this proposal.
Curso de Pós-Graduação em Psicologia da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Rua Ramiro Barcelos, 2600 - sala 110, 90035-003 Porto Alegre RS - Brazil, Tel.: +55 51 3308-5691 - Porto Alegre - RS - Brazil
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