Abstract in English:Abstract Most studies equate children's mental health to a state of flourishing, which is a positive feeling and functions in their lives. Identity exploration and the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs are universal and crucial indicators of children's flourishing. First, according to identity crisis theory, children in the pre-adolescence period begin to explore their own identities, a process which significantly affects their development and flourishing. Meanwhile, self-determination theory points out that the basic psychological needs, namely the needs for autonomy, competence, and relatedness, are essential for children's development and flourishing in the worldwide. Accordingly, this study examined how identity exploration affects the flourishing of rural children in China, one kind of collectivism cultural contexts, with the interaction effect of identity exploration and basic psychological needs satisfaction. To understand the interaction effect of identity exploration and basic psychological needs satisfaction on rural children's flourishing, we form a theoretical framework combining identity crisis theory and self-determination theory. Both these two theories emphasize the importance of self in facilitating mental health and the development of functioning. Specifically, identity crisis theory focuses on intrapsychic process, while self-determination theory stresses the influence of the surrounding environment on the individual, which provides a solid foundation for integrating these two theories to explore rural children's flourishing in China. Accordingly, this study collected 520 left-behind children and 475 other rural children in Liaoning Province in Mainland of China, and used regression analysis to measure the associations among variables. This study found that identity exploration and basic psychological needs satisfaction positively affect rural children's flourishing respectively, while their interaction effects negatively affect on their flourishing.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Considering the recent and current evolution of work and the work context, the meaning of work is becoming an increasingly relevant topic in research in the social sciences and humanities, particularly in psychology. In order to understand and measure what contributes to the meaning of work, Morin constructed a 30-item questionnaire that has become predominant and has repeatedly been used in research in occupational psychology and by practitioners in the field. Nevertheless, it has been validated only in part. Method: Meaning of work questionnaire was conducted in French with 366 people (51.3% of women; age: (M = 39.11, SD = 11.25); 99.2% of whom were employed with the remainder retired). Three sets of statistical analyses were run on the data. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were conducted on independent samples. Results: The questionnaire described a five-factor structure. These dimensions (Success and Recognition at work and of work, α = .90; Usefulness, α =.88; Respect for work, α = .88; Value from and through work, α = .83; Remuneration, α = .85) are all attached to a general second-order latent meaning of work factor (α =.96). Conclusions: Validation of the scale, and implications for health in the workplace and career counseling practices, are discussed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: Acculturation stress is associated with poorer physical and mental health and a lower level of psychological well-being. The causes of acculturation stress are diverse, but most are similar in the migrant population. Despite the importance of evaluating this variable, few studies have reported culturally adapted and validated instruments for specific populations. Based on this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of a short scale for the evaluation of acculturation stress (EBEA). Methods: Two studies were conducted, involving 1725 first-generation Colombian and Peruvian migrants living in Chile, between the ages of 18 and 60 years. In addition to the EBEA and as evidence of validity, the Beck Anxiety Scale and the WHOQOL-BREF psychological health domain were applied. A confirmatory factor analysis was carried out, and the reliability and nomological validity were evaluated. Results: The results in both studies indicated that the scale presents a factorial structure of three dimensions: (a) the stress derived from the preparation and departure from the country of origin, (b) the stress produced by socioeconomic concerns in the host country, and (c) the tensions typical of adaptation to sociocultural changes or Chilean society. The reliability coefficients and the analysis of their nomological validity were very good. Conclusions: The EBEA is a measure that offers quick, useful screening for researchers who need a short measure for research among migrants. This tool contributes to the work of education, prevention, and intervention in the field of general health and migrants' mental health.
Abstract in English:Abstract Creativity is a multidimensional construct. Several different approaches have been developed to measure creativity, including psychometric scales. The Runco Ideational Behavior Scale (RIBS) is one such measure of creative ideation. The primary purpose of this paper was to assess the 23 items of the RIBS in the context of the Thai language and examine scale reliability and validity. Participants, consisting of 508 undergraduate students selected from five Thai public universities, were selected through a convenience sampling approach involving both exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggested that the Thai version of the RIBS presented a valid measure to a certain extent. Factor analysis of the empirical data indicated a two-dimensional structure. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) results confirmed that the two-factor construct demonstrated a better fit with improved psychometric characteristics. Six items were eliminated from the Thai RIBS version inventory: five items during explanatory factor analysis (EFA) and one during the CFA process. Results will contribute to ascertaining that the Thai version of the RIBS instrument can be used as a self-assessment tool for measuring students’ creative ideation. Implications and limitations of this research are discussed with suggestions for future studies.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study evaluated the effects in the pain and sleep, and the clinic significance after an analytic-behavioral intervention to manage the condition of the physical and interpersonal environment related to pain. Four women with fibromyalgia and insomnia participated in a study with intervention withdrawal multiple baseline design and initial, intermediate, final, and follow-up assessments. Self-report instruments were used to assess pain intensity and disability, sleep quality, and insomnia severity, besides the actigraphy. Data showed that the intervention (20 sessions) was effective in reducing the sleep and pain problems in all participants by shifting two participants from clinical to non-clinical status in sleep indicators. The gains were maintained or increased in follow-up measures. However, the results should take into consideration the clinical condition and other variables that may have individually impacted the results.
Abstract in English:Abstract The past two decades have witnessed a proliferation of positive psychological interventions for clinical and nonclinical populations, and recent research, including meta-analyses, is providing evidence of its effectiveness. Most interventions have focused on increasing life satisfaction, positive affect, and psychological well-being. Manualized, multi-component interventions based on a comprehensive theory are scarce. Keyes’ concept of mental health and flourishing (subjective, psychological, and social well-being) is an overarching theoretical framework to guide the design of a multi-component psychological intervention to cultivate well-being and personal development. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to design a theory-driven positive intervention and to pilot test the intervention. The manual presents an 8-week group program that includes homework activities. A sample of 56 young adults completed the intervention. Participants were assessed at base line, after termination, and at a 6-month follow-up session. Standardized instruments were used to assess the dimensions of mental health proposed by Keyes. Pre- and post-test measures of subjective, psychological, and social well-being showed significant differences, as did the total mental health scores. At 6-month follow-up, differences remained in subjective and psychological well-being and in positive mental health, with smaller effect sizes. Limitations of these preliminary findings as well as future lines of research and improvements in this manualized intervention are proposed in the light of current research on positive interventions.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: To identify readers who are struggling or at risk of reading difficulties, reference standards in oral reading fluency (ORF) are used to conduct an assessment that is based on a widely reported method known as curriculum-based measurement (CBM), which itself is based on 1-min fluency measures. The purpose of this study was to evaluate students’ ORF (with a 1-min fluency measure) to characterize their fluency and to determine references of appropriate development in reading at the 50th percentile. Method: For this study, a database of readings made available by the Learning Studies Research Laboratory was used. This database consisted of 365 readings by elementary-school students from the third to fifth grades in two cities in the interior of the state of São Paulo from two different public school systems that use the same teaching methodology. The data consisted of digital audio recordings of the passage “The Umbrella” (text suitable for schooling levels) of the Protocol for Assessment of Reading Comprehension procedure. For this procedure, three steps were performed: step 1—listening to the 365 readings and assessing the scores for the number of words read correctly per minute; step 2—the calculation of the mean and percentiles for each grade; and step 3—the adaptation of the reference table to indicate students eligible to receive reading fluency intervention. Results: Third-year students who correctly read 86 or more words per minute, fourth-year students who correctly read 104 or more words per minute, and fifth-year students who correctly read 117 or more words per minute were considered students who had made adequate progress in reading. Conclusion: It was possible to classify students based on the 1-min fluency measures, with reference intervals of words read correctly per minute per school year (for the third, fourth, and fifth years) for those who were making adequate progress in reading and reference intervals for those who were considered readers who were struggling or at risk of reading difficulties.
Abstract in English:Abstract Work experiences during undergraduate studies can be remarkable in the journey of undergraduate students. The objective of this study was to assess, by analyzing semantic networks, the role of work experiences in the meanings those individuals attribute to professional identity. The sample consisted of 2291 students (60% women) divided into three groups: do not work, work in a field related to their course, work in a field not related to their course. The semantic networks of these groups were composed of words uttered from the professional identity prime. We chose to work with the critical network, obtained from the analysis of the incidence-fidelity indexes of the word pairs. The results evidence that work experiences are related to how undergraduate students attribute meaning to professional identity, in such a way that three different networks were formed for these groups. The network of those who work outside their field was the only one that integrated words with negative content, while the semantic networks of those who do not work and those who work in their field, despite containing words that do not always coincide, present a similar macrostructure. We conclude that work experiences play an important role in the meanings that undergraduate students attribute to professional identity. The study innovates by revealing elements of professional-identity construction, besides allowing for reflections on the effects of work experiences during the college period.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: This study's main purpose was to examine the psychometric properties of FoMOs' adaptation among the Indonesian adolescents' population. The second aim was to investigate the concurrent validity of the Indonesian version to provide evidence for the validity. Also, FoMOs' difference level between demographic variance analyses was performed. Method: The study involved a cross-sectional online survey design with 638 Indonesian adolescents aged 16-24 (M = 19.08, SD = 14.70). FoMO was measured by a 16-item that has been modified from the original 10-item. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were carried out to study its scores' evidence of structural validity. Besides, to study its scores' evidence of convergent, discriminant, and predictive validity concerning other variables such as stress, anxiety, and depression (Depression and Anxiety Stress Scale-21), and general health condition (General Health Questionnaire Scale-12), correlation analyses were conducted. To study the sensitivity, we assessed the effect of sociodemographic and social media use on the scale's ability to identify the population's risk to the FoMO by conducting analyses of variance. The Cronbach alpha values (α = .93) indicated that internal consistency of the scale was at an adequate level. Results: Exploratory factorial analyses revealed adequate adjustment for the new version of the scale showing the three factorial structures. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the 12-item of Indonesian FoMO had a good fit (X2/df = 289.324/51; goodness-of-fit index (GFI) = 0.928; RMSEA = 0.086; comparative fit index (CFI) = 0.915; normed fit index (NFI) = 0.899; parsimony normed fit index (PNFI) = .695; Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = 0.890). Conclusion: This study has shown that the modified 12-item Fear of Missing Out Scale is a valid and reliable instrument for Indonesian adolescents. It showed that the Indonesian version of Fear of Missing Out Scale has adequate psychometric properties to measure Indonesian adolescents' online behavior.
Abstract in English:Abstract Introduction: One of the most serious socio-educational measures for children and adolescents in conflict with the law in Brazil is their internment. This measure may represent an additional source of stress to this population and present significant impacts in the mental health context. This study aims to describe anxiety levels, depression, and addictive consumption, as well as to estimate the causalities and interactions of these variables. Methods: Herein, we report a study in which 175 male juveniles from youth detention institutions of the Federal District voluntarily completed the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and a short self-rating questionnaire asking whether and how often they had experienced cannabis, alcohol, and other “hard” psychotropic drugs (e.g., crack, cocaine, amphetamine) 1 year prior to institutionalization. Results: Of the total participants, 28.00% showed moderate to severe depression scores and 34.28% showed moderate to severe anxiety scores. In addition, the vast majority of participants also reported some antecedent drug abuse, including cannabis, alcohol, and other “hard drugs.” The BDI scores moderately correlated with BAI, but none of these parameters considerably correlated with the antecedent drug abuse. Conclusions: The data indicate potentially concerning levels of emotional distress in these institutionalized juveniles which seem to be independent of addictive behaviors. These data deserve attention and further investigation. Thus, a need for preventative mental health for the general population and socio-educational intervention aimed at interned youth which can decrease levels of emotional stress is emphasized.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: For youth in geopolitically at-risk environments, such as Palestine, the issues related to Internet overuse and addictions are complex. Youth residing in the occupied territories of Palestine as in other highly militarized zones have high levels of environmental stressors (e.g., militarization, poverty, lack of employment opportunities, cultural pressures, etc.) and few chemical or social outlets such as alcohol, intoxicants, and leisure activities. As such, the easily accessible and unrestricted opportunities for stress-reducing social contact of social media can lead easily to excessive and maladaptive Internet use. Therefore, interventions directly aimed at awareness and education on how to manage Internet use are critical for addressing these issues in high risk populations. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to test the efficacy of a time-limited group training program aimed at improving social skills and reducing addictive Internet behaviors among university students. Methods and results: The sample consisted of 30 university students who self-reported high scores on an Internet addiction scale. Participants were randomly assigned to either wait list or treatment group (15 in each condition). Results demonstrated that using a social skills training program over an 8-week period improved the level of social skills and reduced addictive Internet behaviors significantly in those who experienced the intervention when compared with a wait list control group. Conclusions: These findings support the implementation of time limited training programs targeting social skills and addictive patterns of Internet use with university students identified with high levels of Internet addictive behaviors.
Abstract in English:Abstract: Background: The Kessler Distress Scale (K10) is a self-report scale for the assessment of non-specific psychological distress in the general and clinical population. Because of its ease of application and good psychometric properties, the K10 has been adapted to several cultures. The present study seeks to adapt the K10 to Brazilian Portuguese and estimate its validity evidence and reliability. Methods: A total of 1914 individuals from the general population participated in the study (age = 34.88, SD = 13.61, 77.7% female). The adjustment indices were compared among three different measurement models proposed for the K10 through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The items’ properties were analyzed by Andrich’s Rating Scale Model (RSM). Furthermore, evidence based on relations to other variables (depression, stress, anxiety, positive and negative affects, and satisfaction with life) was estimated. Results: CFA indicated the adequacy of the bifactor model (CFI= 0.985; TLI= 0.973; SMR= 0.019; RMSEA= 0.050), composed of two specific factors (depression and anxiety) and one general factor (psychological distress), corresponding to the theoretical hypothesis. Additionally, it was observed multiple-group invariance by gender and age range. The RSM provided an understanding of the organization of the continuum represented by the psychological distress construct (items difficulty), which varied from –0.89 to 1.00; good adjustment indexes; infit between 0.67 and 1.32; outfit between 0.68 and 1.34; and desirable reliability, α= 0.87. Lastly, theoretically coherent associations with the external variables were observed. Conclusions: It is concluded that the Brazilian version of the K10 is a suitable measure of psychological distress for the Brazilian population.
Abstract in English:Abstract The effects of family of origin violence and intimate partner violence have been extensively documented; however, very few studies have examined the interaction with emotion regulation strategies. Thus, the objective of this research was to analyze whether different types of emotion regulation strategies, both adaptive and maladaptive, mediate the relationship between family of origin violence and intimate partner violence in the Mexican population. A total of 838 participants (45.9% men and 54.1% women) responded to instruments addressing family of origin violence, emotion regulation strategies, and intimate partner violence. The results revealed that both structural models were significant. For women, the model showed an adequate fit X 2 (11, N = 838) = 22.75, p = .288, GFI = .95, AGFI = .91, NFI = .98, CFI = .97, RMSEA = .05. Likewise, we found similar indexes for men X2 (11, N = 838) = 28.20, p = .348, GFI = .97, AGFI = .93, NFI = .97, CFI = .95, RMSEA = .04. Specifically, the direct effects of adaptive strategies on intimate partner violence were statistically significant. Meanwhile, the direct effects of family of origin violence on maladaptive emotion regulation strategies were significant, as were the direct effects of maladaptive strategies on intimate partner violence. In turn, the indirect effects of family of-origin violence were significantly related to intimate partner violence via maladaptive emotion regulation strategies. In addition, the results clearly showed that men reported higher levels of aggression against women. Finally, regarding the selection of emotion regulation strategies, while women employed more adaptive emotion regulation, men showed a more definite tendency to use maladaptive emotion regulation.
Abstract in English:Abstract Background: The emergent categorization involving paintings by renowned painters and their corresponding names was demonstrated by previous studies. However, the results of these studies suggest that the colors of the pictures may have played a preponderant role, obscuring other aspects of the stimuli that could be more directly related to the style of each painter. To verify this possibility, the present study used the same methodology of Ferreira et al. to investigate the establishment of emergent conditional relations between categories composed of black and white paintings and the names of their authors. Method: The procedure consisted of the training of relations between each of the ten paintings and an abstract picture, for each of the three painters Botticelli, Monet, and Picasso. Relations between each of the three abstract figures and the printed name of one of the painters were verified in sequence. Finally, tests of relations between five trained and five untrained paintings of each artist and the printed names were conducted. Results: The participants’ performance suggests that the outcome was properly controlled by aspects pertinent to the paintings that belonged to each painter's category. Conclusions: The results reinforced the data obtained previously with colored pictures, suggesting that the process of emergent categorization involving artificial categories of paintings is robust. It also indicates possibilities for future investigations, for example, using stimuli of other artistic productions, such as sculpture and music.
Abstract in English:Abstract This study presents the development of the Psychosocial Uncertainty Scale (PS-US), which articulates the perception of uncertainty in the social context and its psychological experience. It was validated with a sample of 1596 students and active professionals (employed and unemployed). By randomly dividing this sample in three subsamples, the following analyses were performed: exploratory factor analysis (sample one: N = 827); preliminary confirmatory factor analysis identifying the final version of the scale (sample two: N = 382); confirmatory factor analysis (sample three: N = 387). Multi-group analysis was used to assess measurement invariance, gender, sociocultural level, and group of origin invariance, by using samples two and three. Group differences were explored with the complete sample through Multiple Indicators and Multiple Causes (MIMIC) Models. Associations between this scale and the Uncertainty response Scale were explored through Structural Equation Modelling. Exploratory and confirmatory analyses’ results showed good internal consistency and overall good psychometric qualities. The scale reached full metric invariance across groups, gender, SCL level and group of origin. Results highlight the sensitivity of the scale towards social vulnerability, proving the existence of sociocultural levels’ effects on experiences of psychosocial uncertainty within working contexts, relationships and community living and self-defeating beliefs; and gender and students versus professionals’ effects on psychosocial uncertainty. Furthermore, the scale associated significantly with Uncertainty Response Scale's dimensions, specifically with emotional uncertainty, which can be considered a self-defeating strategy. Results suggest that emotional coping strategies, are explained by psychosocial uncertainty by 57%, and so, may have social origins.
Abstract in English:Abstract Phonological awareness is one of the most important predictors of reading. However, there is still controversy concerning its dimensionality. This study evaluated the dimensionality of phonological awareness among Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children. A total of 212 children performed six phonological awareness tasks in the last year of kindergarten. Of those children, 177 performed the same tasks when they were in the first grade. The phonological awareness measures differed in both their cognitive demand (detection, blending, segmentation, and elision) and the phonological unit involved (rhyme, syllable, and phoneme). Confirmatory factor analyzes were employed to test several models of phonological awareness dimensionality. The results indicated that the best model was an oblique model of phonological units with two correlated latent factors: phonemic awareness and supraphonemic awareness. This model presented the best fit to the data both in kindergarten and in the first grade. In addition, supraphonemic awareness in the kindergarten predicted phoneme awareness in the first grade; however, phonemic awareness in the kindergarten did not predict supraphonemic awareness in the first grade. These results are compatible with phonological awareness developing from larger phonological units (e.g., syllables) to small phonological units (e.g., phonemes) and the reciprocal relationship between phonological awareness and reading. From a theoretical point of view, these results also suggest that phonological awareness is a one-dimensional construct that can be evaluated by tests employing different phonological units (e.g., syllables, rhymes, phonemes).
Abstract in English:Abstract The improvement or acquisition of socioemotional skills contributes to the academic and personal adaptation of university students. The way students think about themselves and others influence their social skills and well-being. Considering the importance of social competence for professional practice in the face of new social realities, the university must invest in programs that promote the socio-emotional development of students. This study compared the effects of interventions based on Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Psychoeducation on assertive skills and subjective well-being. This study involved 25 undergraduate students of a public university. The students were randomly allocated to three groups, including the Control group, and they were evaluated by means of questionnaires, inventories, scales, and written evaluation of the group process. The program consisted of 10 meetings and a 6-week follow-up. Irrational beliefs were reduced and their assertive skills’ scores increased in the post-intervention and follow-up evaluations, regardless of the group. Only verbal reports from participants indicated an increase in well-being. The students’ written reports after the end of the meetings indicate that the two forms of intervention were evaluated as promoting change by the students. One of the limitations of the study is the size of the groups. Despite the very small sample size, the study highlights that developing a set of flexible beliefs is fundamental to the exercise of assertiveness.
Abstract in English:Abstract The purpose of this study was to examine whether fear of missing out (FoMO) mediate relations between social self-efficacy and life satisfaction among undergraduates. The participants involved 323 undergraduates (female, 66.3%; male, 33.7%). The age of participants ranged between 18 and 32 years ( M = 21.52, SD = 2.69). The study data was gathered using the Fear of Missing out Scale, the Social Efficacy and Social Outcome Expectation Scale and the Satisfaction with Life Scale. The research data were analyzed using the structural equation model and bootstrapping method. As a result of the structural equation model, FoMO mediates the relationship between social self-efficacy and life satisfaction. As a result of the bootstrapping analysis, it was seen that all direct and indirect effects are significant. The results, recommendations, and limitations of the study were discussed.
Abstract in English:Abstract Executive dysfunctions are central symptoms in different neurological, developmental, and context-related conditions. The assessment of these functions is then essential in neuropsychological pediatric clinical practice. Given the need for reliable and valid evaluation batteries for clinical practice in Brazil, this study aimed to present the pieces of evidences of reliability of the Child Executive Functions Battery (CEF-B). A total of 230 Brazilian children with typical development aged between 7 and 12 years participated in the study. Internal consistency was determined by the split-half method, Cronbach's α, and Ω. In addition, measurements of test-retest reliability and intraclass coefficient were also performed. Retest indicators were mostly weak and moderate (between .43 and .75). Overvall, coefficients show a satisfactory internal consistency reliability for planning and inhibition measures (between .72 and .92). Considering the measures of WM, results were also satisfactory for both α and Ω indexes. This study revealed that the CEF-B has satisfactory internal consistency reliability coefficients. However, several tests have shown low reliability assessed through the test-retest method. In general, findings reveal interesting pieces of initial evidence of reliability of the Brazilian version. The methodological approach could be improved in future studies by including children with executive disorders.
Abstract in English:Abstract Short-term memory is a dynamic psychological process that operates within a network in which non-verbal intelligence and attentional domains are connected. However, no consensus has been reached about which process has the greatest effect on this memory ability, which was the main objective of the present study. A sample of 1448 Brazilian participants (mean age = 26.62 years, standard deviation = 9.97 years; 53.9% females) were collectively tested on pen-and-paper standardized and validated measures of selective (ROTAS-C), alternating (ROTAS-A), and divided (ROTAS-D) attention. They also performed the R1 Non-verbal Intelligence Test and a visual short-term memory test (Memória Visual de Curto Prazo [MEMORE] test). The statistical analyses consisted of a data mining procedure, in which exhaustive automatic selection screening was performed. The results were compared with Corrected Akaike Information Criteria. The linear model met the classic assumptions of ordinary least squares and only included main effects of selective attention (standardized β = 0.39) and non-verbal intelligence (standardized β = 0.37) as main predictors (F2,39 = 7.01, p < 0.01, adjusted R2 = 24%). The results are discussed within a cognitive psychology framework.
Abstract in English:Abstract In this study, we compared visual pictorial size perception between healthy volunteers (CG) and an experimental group (EG) of people diagnosed with schizophrenia. We have been using paintings by Salvador Dalí and Rorschach plates to estimate visual pictorial size perception. In this transversal, ex post facto, and quasi-experimental study, we observed differences between EG and CG. Schizophrenic in-patients perceived sizes about 1.3-fold greater than healthy volunteers (p=0.006), implying that pictorial size perception is altered in some way in schizophrenia. Considering the present and previous results, this measurement of diameter size of first pictorial perception may be a useful estimate of some aspects of perceptual alterations that may be associated with psychotic symptoms in prodromal and acute schizophrenic episodes and other related mental states. Eventually, this may help in preventing people from evolving to acute episodes.
Abstract in English:Abstract Systematic case studies are often placed at the low end of evidence-based practice (EBP) due to lack of critical appraisal. This paper seeks to attend to this research gap by introducing a novel Case Study Evaluation-tool (CaSE). First, issues around knowledge generation and validity are assessed in both EBP and practice-based evidence (PBE) paradigms. Although systematic case studies are more aligned with PBE paradigm, the paper argues for a complimentary, third way approach between the two paradigms and their ‘exemplary’ methodologies: case studies and randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Second, the paper argues that all forms of research can produce ‘valid evidence’ but the validity itself needs to be assessed against each specific research method and purpose. Existing appraisal tools for qualitative research (JBI, CASP, ETQS) are shown to have limited relevance for the appraisal of systematic case studies through a comparative tool assessment. Third, the paper develops purpose-oriented evaluation criteria for systematic case studies through CaSE Checklist for Essential Components in Systematic Case Studies and CaSE Purpose-based Evaluative Framework for Systematic Case Studies. The checklist approach aids reviewers in assessing the presence or absence of essential case study components (internal validity). The framework approach aims to assess the effectiveness of each case against its set out research objectives and aims (external validity), based on different systematic case study purposes in psychotherapy. Finally, the paper demonstrates the application of the tool with a case example and notes further research trajectories for the development of CaSE tool.
Abstract in English:Abstract Collective efficacy, defined as a group’s shared belief about its conjoint capability to organize and execute courses of action, plays a pivotal role in understanding the dynamics of sports teams, since it influences what individuals choose to do as team members, how much they invest in motivational terms to perform actions, how much they work collectively, and for how long they persist despite failure. Through a systematic review, it was investigated how collective efficacy has been assessed in the context of soccer and which indicators, attributes, and psychometric properties have been contemplated in the instruments used. Following the PRISMA guidelines, 22 articles were retrieved through electronic databases (APA PsycINFO; SPORTDiscus; Science Direct; BVS; Web of Science; Scopus; PubMed; and Scielo), using as descriptors, in English, Spanish, and Portuguese, collective efficacy and soccer, combined by the Boolean operators AND and OR. The study did not delimit the initial year of publication for the searches carried out, including all articles found until January 14, 2021 (date of the last update). The following eligibility criteria were adopted: scientific articles published in journals; original studies, which specified the instrument used to assess collective efficacy and carried out with soccer athletes. Five instruments (FCEQ, CEQS, CEI, CEC, and CEQsoccer) that evaluated technical-tactical and psychological attributes associated with collective efficacy in soccer players were identified. In most studies, psychometric properties were restricted to content validity and reliability (internal consistency), and there were no suitable validation processes for the instruments used to measure collective efficacy, which can be considered a limiting factor for understanding this psychological construct in soccer modality.
Abstract in English:Abstract Cancer is a leading cause of death worldwide and is expected to remain a public health concern for years to come. Within Latin America, Uruguay has the highest colorectal cancer rates. Heeding past calls to action, in this article we provide a critical assessment of colorectal cancer needs and opportunities in Uruguay with a focus on developing a roadmap for future action. First, we provide an overview of risk factors, screening procedures and guidelines, and screening rates. Next, we provide an overview of psychosocial factors that influence colorectal cancer screening, with the goal of providing guidance for future behavioral health promotion initiatives in Uruguay. In this effort, we present four conceptual models that may be used for interventions: the ecological systems theory, informed decision-making, the health beliefs model, and the health literacy model. Subsequently, we propose using an integrated model based on the ecological systems theory and health literacy model to develop national, local, and community-based interventions to increase screening rates and lower the colorectal cancer burden in Uruguay. We close the paper with a summary and implications section, including recommendations for future research programs focused on the assessment of factors that influence screening.
Abstract in English:Abstract The theoretical-methodological process of cross-cultural adaptation of scales is fundamental for the expansion of research possibilities related to a given area and population, as instrument adequacy allows for the consistent assessment of the construct being studied. This article aims to highlight the different theoretical-methodological processes of cross-cultural adaptations of scales for assessing body image among young university students. The articles were selected in February 2020, with the following search descriptors: (“body image”) and (young or “college students” or graduating or graduat *) and (“cross-cultural validation” or “cross-cultural adaptation”), in three databases—Scopus, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, without any time restrictions. Altogether, 304 studies were surveyed on the different bases mentioned above, and 14 studies published between 2010 and 2019 were evaluated. This study highlighted the methodological procedures used in the process of cross-cultural adaptation, as well as the population, the types of validity and reliability, and also the main limitations, strengths, and results reported in each study included in this review. The information presented in this review will allow new researchers to make more appropriate choices about instruments for assessing body image in young university students, in addition to presenting the methodological evolution on this theme.
Abstract in English:Abstract A scoping review, based on the RE-AIM framework, was conducted to analyze evidence of reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation, and maintenance of the Strengthening Families Program (10-14), a preventive family-based substance abuse program for adolescents. Sixty-five articles were included. The results disclosed that effectiveness, implementation, and maintenance at the individual-level were the most evaluated aspects, while reach, maintenance at the setting-level, and adoption were the least investigated aspects. Positive effects on drug abuse prevention and protective parenting factors were found in the U.S. studies. Likewise, Latin American studies have shown the improvement of parenting practices. However, European studies have produced mixed results, with predominantly null effects on substance abuse. The implementation quality was high. There is no available evidence of adoption and maintenance at the setting-level by the organizations that implemented it. New studies must examine the reach, adoption, and sustainability of the program to lay foundations for its future use as an instrument of public policies.
Abstract in English:Abstract The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of publications that reported the association between dispositional optimism and depression during youth, analyzing if the strength of this relationship varied according to potential factors. Systematic searches were carried out in APA PsycNet, Virtual Health Library, Embase, Web of Science, PubMed Central, and Scopus to collect English, Portuguese, or Spanish studies from 2009 onwards. Two reviewers selected the eligible articles, assessed the quality of each study, and extracted the data. For the synthesis of the results, a meta-analytic approach was used. We identified 4077 publications in the initial searches and 22 in the supplementary searches, from which 31 studies remained for analysis once the eligibility criteria were applied. The results showed a statistically significant negative association between dispositional optimism and depression in the young population, age being a factor that modifies the effect measure between these variables. This meta-analysis provides a consistent and robust synthesis on the interaction effect between dispositional optimism and depression in the young population. Based on these findings, early clinical admissions may effectively improve optimistic tendencies in young people, which could help them prevent depressive symptoms or episodes.