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Perspectiva Teológica, Volume: 52, Issue: 2, Published: 2020
  • I Believe in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life Editorial

    Adão, Francys Silvestrini; Mori, Geraldo Luiz De
  • The Spirit Presented in the Ambiguities of Life: Traces of Paul Tillich’ Symbolic Pneumatology Artigos

    Oliveira, Pedro Rubens Ferreira

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO O presente artigo indica alguns traços da pneumatologia de Paul Tillich, a partir de um estudo da quarta parte de sua Teologia Sistemática, A Vida e o Espírito, na qual o autor aborda a correlação entre a questão da ambiguidade da vida e a resposta simbólica de uma teologia do Espírito. Num primeiro momento, traçam-se as bases antropológicas de uma pneumatologia. Em seguida, aborda-se a Presença do Espírito de Deus no espaço e no tempo, nas mediações históricas, dentro da dinâmica escatológica do já e do ainda não. Enfim, antes de concluir com os indicativos de um discernimento teológico necessário, reflete-se sobre a Presença Espiritual face ao paradoxo das Igrejas e ao apelo de uma abertura ao diálogo com outras religiões e outras formas de crer e de viver, onde o Espírito de Deus trabalha.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The following article indicates traces of the pneumatology of Paul Tillich according to the study of the fourth part of his Systematic Theology, Life and the Spirit, where the author approaches the correlation between the ambiguity of life and the symbolic response of a theology of the Spirit. Firstly, the anthropological foundations are set for a theology of the Spirit. Then, the Presence of the Spirit of God is approached regarding space and time, historical mediations, and within the eschatological dynamic of already and not yet. Finally, before concluding with the indications of a necessary theological discernment, the Spiritual Presence is reflected upon the paradox of Churches and the appeal to open to dialogue with other religions and other ways of believing and living, where the Spirit of God works.
  • The Manifesting Spirit in the Pneumatology of Pavel N. Evdokimov Articles

    Putti, Alberta Maria

    Abstract in Italian:

    SOMMARIO THEMATICO L’uomo nuovo, l’uomo pneumatico, è al centro della riflessione teologica di Pavel N. Evdokimov (1901-1970). Argomenta che l’azione dello Spirito Santo non tanto è comprensibile con una analisi esclusivamente oggettiva dell’agire di Dio in relazione all’uomo. Egli ritiene si tratti di riconoscere l’importanza dell’accoglienza dei doni dello Spirito dentro un duplice movimento: l’uomo vive prima una fase di conversione, e di lotta, a cui segue un movimento di ascesi che scaturisce dall’aver accolto i doni dello Spirito Santo. Santificandoci, lo Spirito Santo trasmette “qualcosa” della sua propria natura perché noi si possa compiere la volontà del Padre. Lo Spirito Santo imprime nell’uomo il suo Soffio vitale e, senza confusione, si fa co-soggetto della nostra vita in Cristo. L’uomo che è stato risoffiato dal Figlio del suo stesso Spirito, diventa immagine di Cristo nel mondo; respira del suo stesso soffio, della sua stessa vita.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The new, pneumatic, person is central to Pavel N. Evdokimov’s (1901-1970) theological work. He argues that the Holy Spirit’s action is not understandable with an exclusively objective analysis of God’s action in relationship to humanity. Rather, the human person welcomes the gifts of the Holy Spirit within a double movement: the first phase is that of conversion and struggle, after which there is a phase of generous asceticism that springs forth from having welcomed the Holy Spirit’s gifts. In sanctifying us, the Holy Spirit communicates something that is proper to the Spirit’s nature, enabling us to complete the Father’s will. The Holy Spirit imparts to us His life-giving breath so that, without confusion, the Holy Spirit becomes co-subject of our life in Christ. The human person who has received this new life becomes an image of Christ in the world, breathing with his very breath, living his very life.
  • Pneumatology as a Characteristic of Being a Christian: the Contribution of Pentecostalism to Christianity as a Whole Artigos

    Oliveira, David Mesquiati de

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO O propósito desse artigo é mostrar que a pneumatologia pentecostal pode ser uma importante contribuição para as Igrejas, não tanto por seus enunciados e práticas específicas, senão pelo lugar central que atribui à experiência do Espírito Santo como experiência de Deus. A pergunta que norteou o estudo foi: que possíveis contribuições a pneumatologia pentecostal oferece ao conjunto de igrejas na atualidade? Para responder a este problema, optou-se por destacar os consensos que se construíram no Ocidente sobre o Espírito, desde os traumas com os grupos espiritualistas, passando pelo “esquecimento” e pela apologética racionalista. Na segunda parte focou-se no específico do pentecostalismo como sujeito teológico para, na terceira parte, efetivamente apontar as possíveis contribuições. Sempre que possível, buscou-se dar voz aos teólogos pentecostais para um diálogo teológico.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to show that Pentecostal pneumatology can make an important contribution to the Churches not so much on account of its statements and practices, but on account of the central place attributed to the experience of the Holy Spirit as an experience of God. The question that governed the study was this: what possible contributions does Pentecostal pneumatology offer to all the Churches today? In order to answer this question, the author highlights: the consensus of Western theology about the Spirit; the conflicts with spiritualistic groups; the oblivion of the Holy Spirit; the rationalist apologetics. The second part focuses on Pentecostalism as a theological subject. The third part points out the possible contributions of Pentecostalism. Whenever possible, a voice is given to Pentecostal theologians in order to establish a theological dialogue.
  • The Holy Spirit According to the Fathers of the Church: from Pre-Nicene to the First Filioque Controversies (2nd — 8th Century) Articles

    Fédou, Michel

    Abstract in French:

    RÉSUMÉ L’article montre les développements de la pneumatologie à l’époque patristique. Ces développements ont été déjà importants aux 2e et 3e siècles. Mais la réflexion s’est surtout intensifiée au 4e siècle, dans le cadre des controverses avec ceux qui niaient la divinité du Saint Esprit. Athanase et les Pères cappadociens ont ici apporté une contribution majeure, et les formulations du concile de Constantinople en sont le fruit. Plus tard encore, la doctrine sur l’Esprit a donné lieu à de nouvelles précisions, tant du côté latin (surtout avec Augustin) que du côté grec. Les divergences sur le « Filioque » depuis le Moyen Age devraient inciter à recueillir les témoignages des Pères qui, malgré des expressions parfois différentes, partageaient fondamentalement la même foi en l’Esprit.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The article shows the developments of pneumatology in the patristic era. These developments were already important in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. But reflection intensified especially during the 4th century, in the context of controversies with those who denied the divinity of the Holy Spirit. Athanasius and the Cappadocian Fathers made a major contribution at that time, and the formulations of the Council of Constantinople are the fruit of their work. Later still, the doctrine on the Spirit gave rise to new clarifications, both on the Latin side (especially with Augustine) and on the Greek side. The divergences on the « Filioque » since the Middle Ages should invite us to gather the testimonies of the Fathers who, despite sometimes different expressions, shared basically the same faith in the Spirit.
  • “Do not quench the Spirit” (1Thess 5,19): The Church, The Charisms, and the Primacy of Love from Document VI of the Catholic-Pentecostal Dialogue Artículos

    Maçaneiro, Marcial

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN El artículo aborda el tema de los carismas y el primado de la caridad en la Iglesia, a partir del Documento VI del Diálogo Internacional Católico-Pentecostal. Es un análisis inicial del documento, publicado al final de la Sexta Etapa de este Diálogo, bajo el título Los carismas en la vida y en la misión de la Iglesia (2016). El tema elegido corresponde a la Parte II del documento, que reflexiona sobre la diversidad de los carismas, el primado de la caridad, la relación entre carismas y servicio. El análisis articula Pneumatología y Eclesiología, con tres tópicos: 1) la Iglesia, los carismas y la caridad; 2) manifestación de los carismas; 3) la Iglesia en permanente Pentecostés. Al final, son señalados dos aspectos: la relación entre los sacramentos y el Espírito, y las condiciones de recepción del mismo Documento VI por parte de las iglesias.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This article addresses the issue of charisms and the primacy of charity in the Church, based on Document VI of the International Catholic-Pentecostal Dialogue. It is an initial approach to the document, published at the end of the Sixth Phase of this Dialogue, under the title Charisms in the life and mission of the Church (2016). In this article, the chosen theme is concentrated in Part II: a reflection on diversity of charisms, primacy of love, and the relationship between charisms and service. The analysis articulates Pneumatology and Ecclesiology, with three topics: 1) the Church, the charisms and love; 2) charisms manifestation; 3) the Church in permanent Pentecost. At the conclusions, two aspects are pointed out: the relationship between the sacraments and the Spirit, and the conditions for a reception of the Document VI by the Churches.
  • The Pneumatology of the Second Vatican Council Articles

    Routhier, Gilles

    Abstract in French:

    RÉSUMÉ La pneumatologie du Concile Vatican II figurait parmi les Questiones disputatae entre théologiens orthodoxes, protestants et catholiques après le Concile. Cette génération ayant disparu, il est important de dresser un nouveau bilan. Pour ce faire, il ne suffit pas de compter le nombre d’occurrences du terme Saint-Esprit dans le texte conciliaire, mais il importe de voir si le recours au Saint-Esprit détermine la perspective théologique adoptée par le Concile et intervient à des points stratégiques de l’argumentation. Un nouvel examen de la question conduit à l’identification de trois domaines où la pneumatologie conciliaire joue un rôle important en ecclésiologie : l’Esprit Saint est co-instituant de l’Église. Il est en même temps source de la diversité et de l’unité, si bien qu’on ne peut la concevoir que comme unité catholique; enfin, le fait qu’il dispense ses dons à tous les fidèles fonde la participation de tous à la vie de l’Église. De plus, non seulement l’Esprit habite dans l’Église comme en un temple, mais il remplit aussi l’univers, précédant l’action de l’Église et en dépassant les frontières. En conclusion, l’essai souligne le fait que les développements postconciliaires sur des questions cruciales, telles que la théologie des ministères, la réflexion sur le sensus fidei et la synodalité, dépendent des fondements posés par Vatican II. De plus, la théologie de la mission et la théologie des religions n’auraient pas connu de tels développements sans la réflexion conciliaire sur le rôle du Saint-Esprit dans le monde et au-delà des frontières de l’Église.

    Abstract in English:

    SUMMARY The pneumatology of the Second Vatican Council was among the Questiones disputatae between Orthodox, Protestants and Catholics theologians after the Council. Now that this generation has faded, it is important to draw up a new balance sheet. To do this, it is not enough to count the number of occurrences of the term Holy Spirit in the conciliar text, but to see if the recourse to the Holy Spirit determines the theological perspective adopted by the Council and intervenes at strategic points in the argumentation. A new examination of the question leads to the identification of three areas where conciliar pneumatology plays an important role in ecclesiology: the Holy Spirit is The Holy Spirit co-established the Church; He promotes at the same time unity and diversity, so that unity can only be conceived as “Catholic unity”. Finally, His gifts, given to all the baptized, founds the participation of all the faithful in the life of the Church. Not only the Holy Spirit dwells in the Church as in His Temple, but He fills the universe and precedes and surpasses the action of the Church. In conclusion, this essay underlines the fact that post conciliar developments on crucial questions, such as the theology of ministries, reflection on the sensus fidei and synodality are dependent on the foundations laid by Vatican II. Furthermore, the theology of mission and the theology of religions would not have known such developments without the conciliar reflection on the role of the Holy Spirit in the world and beyond the borders of the Church.
  • The Kenosis of the Holy Spirit and the Creation in Sergei Bulgakov Artigos

    Xavier, Donizete José; Silva, Maria Freire da

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Este artigo tem por objetivo analisar a kénosis do Espírito Santo como chave de leitura da fé cristã na criação à luz do pensamento de Sergei Bulgakov. Evidencia-se a relevância soteriológica do Espírito Santo que, em sua igualdade ao Filho, diviniza o homem e o mundo. A kénosis do Espírito, que vai desde o pairar sobre as águas, na criação, até a Transfiguração, a consumação escatológica do novo céu e da nova terra, repousa sobre a criatura, atuando em sua condição humana marcada pela sua história e fragilidade. Ressalta-se que somente em analogia à kénosis do Filho é possível falar da kénosis do Espírito, isso porque esta se une à natureza humana, tomando-o debaixo da sombra do seu poder, da sua potência. Por fim, conclui-se que no influxo do Espírito que cria e recria, o ser humano é chamado a buscar em si mesmo a inspiração originária do Paraíso terrestre que o interpela à ética ecológica da responsabilidade de salvaguardar a criação.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This article aims to analyze the kenosis of the Holy Spirit as a Christian faith’s key to understanding the creation of the world according to Sergei Bulgakov’s thought. The article highlights the soteriological relevance of the Holy Spirit who, in joint action with the Son, divinizes man and the world. The kenosis of the Spirit extends from the creation of the world as it hovered over the waters, through the Transfiguration up to the eschatological consummation of creations as a new heaven and a new earth. In this kenosis the Spirit dwells on the creature and acts on the human condition that is marked by history and fragility. The article emphasizes that it is possible to speak of the kenosis of the Holy Spirit only through an analogy with the kenosis of the Son. In the latter, divine nature has united itself with human nature and has taken it under the shadow of its strength and power. Finally, the article concludes that under the influence of the Holy Spirit who creates and recreates, human beings are challenged to revive an intuition of the original Paradise, one that orients creatures towards an ecological ethic of responsibility aimed at safeguarding creation.
  • SPACE ANGELS: ANGELOLOGY IN C. S. LEWIS’S COSMIC TRILOGY Articles

    Caldas Filho, Carlos Ribeiro

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO O escritor norte-irlandês C. S. Lewis (1898-1963) foi um dos mais destacados pensadores cristãos do século passado. Autor de vasta obra, transitou por áreas como crítica literária, literatura infanto-juvenil, ficção científica e textos de exposição teológica e apologética propriamente. Na categoria ficção científica destaca-se a assim chamada “Trilogia Cósmica”: Além do planeta silencioso, Perelandra e Aquela fortaleza medonha. Nestes três livros Lewis apresenta grande gama de temas. Dentre tantos, a angelologia - o estudo sistematizado dos seres celestiais conhecidos como anjos. O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar as principais influências que Lewis utilizou para construir sua angeologia, literatura judaica antiga, representada por textos como o Enoque Etíope (ou Livro de Enoque ou 1Enoque) e a tradição bíblica. Procurar-se-á também defender a hipótese que, com o recurso da literatura de ficção, Lewis constrói uma teologia imaginativa e sugestiva que é uma crítica ao racionalismo da teologia continental de seu tempo.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The Northern Irish author C. S. Lewis (1898-1963) was one of the outstanding Christian thinkers of the last century. A prolific author, he moved through different areas, such as literary criticism, youth literature, science fiction, and texts of theological exposition and of apologetics. In science fiction there is his remarkable “Cosmic Trilogy”: Beyond the Silent Planet, Perelandra, and That Hideous Strength. In these three books, Lewis presents a vast array of themes. Among these is angelology,the systematic study of heavenly beings known as angels. The aim of this article is to present the major influences that Lewis used to build his angelology: old Jewish literature, exemplified in texts such as the Ethiopian Enoch (or the Book of Enoch or First Enoch), and the biblical tradition itself. The article will seek also to defend the hypothesis that, using fiction, Lewis builds an imaginative and suggestive theology that is a critique of the rationalism of continental theology of his day.
  • The enigmatic saying “en toîs toû patrós mou” (Lk 2:49c): a proposal for translation Artigos

    Rodrigues, Márcia Eloi

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Este estudo visa contribuir com a discussão acerca da interpretação do dito enigmático “en toîs toû patrós mou”1 (Lc 2,49c) no episódio de Jesus aos doze anos (Lc 2,41-52), mostrando a importância de se ater ao sentido original do texto grego para se obter uma melhor compreensão da intenção comunicativa desse relato. A exposição contempla os principais estudiosos modernos do Evangelho lucano, com indicações de importantes traduções das Bíblias em diversas línguas, e uma breve análise das palavras oîkos e oikía, que correspondem aos vocábulos “casa”, “habitação”, “família” etc. em português, e seu emprego como metáfora da “casa do Pai” (Templo), a fim de descartar essa tradução em favor de outra, mais aberta, a saber: “nas coisas do meu Pai”. Com isso, se pretende fundamentar a hipótese de que Lucas pretendeu escrever um texto ambivalente como estratégia narrativa e comunicativa, em virtude da cooperação do leitor na atualização do texto evangélico. Dessa forma, a narrativa permaneceria com um final “aberto” a ser preenchido pelo leitor ao longo de sua leitura do Evangelho lucano.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study aims to contribute to the discussion about the interpretation of the enigmatic saying “en toîs toû patrós mou” (Lk 2:49c) in the episode of Jesus at twelve years old (Lk 2:41-52), showing the importance of observing the original meaning of the Greek text, to gain a better understanding of the communicative intent of the gospel text. The exposition includes leading modern scholars of the Lucan Gospel, with indications of important Bible translations in various languages, and a brief analysis of the words oîkos and oikía, which correspond to the words “house”, “habitation”, “family” etc. in English, and its use as a metaphor for the “Father’s house” (Temple), in order to discard this translation in favor of another, more open one, namely: “in my Father’s things”. So, we support the hypothesis that Luke intended to write an ambivalent text as a narrative and communicative strategy, due to the reader’s cooperation in updating the gospel text. In this way, the narrative would remain with an “open” ending to be filled by the reader throughout his reading of the Lucan Gospel.
  • A HERMENEUTICS OF IGNATIAN MYSTIQUE: CREATION IN CHRIST Articles

    Salles, Walter F.

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Tornou-se lugar comum entre os estudiosos da mística inaciana estabelecer um diálogo entre o tema da criação e a moderna ou pós-moderna sensibilidade ecológica a fim de atualizar a prática dos Exercícios Espirituais de Santo Inácio de Loyola. O duplo objetivo dessa reflexão é mostrar que o tema da criação na mística inaciana é indissociável da ideia da criação em Cristo, e que o esquecer-se da cristologia que dá modo e ordem à mística inaciana dos Exercícios Espirituais conduz frequentemente a práticas que não merecem mais a adjetivação de cristã e tampouco de inaciana. Esse artigo é uma investigação descritiva e interpretativa com base em um estudo de cunho bibliográfico que está dividida em quatro partes: a especificação dos termos hermenêutica e mística, o contexto do texto dos Exercícios Espirituais, a sua elaboração, e finalmente a contemplação da vida de Cristo como Criador.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT It has become commonplace among scholars of Ignatian mysticism to establish a dialogue between the theme of creation and modern or postmodern ecological sensitivity in order to update the practice of the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius of Loyola. The trajectory of this essay leads the reader through some aspects of the debate that this attempt to update has raised. The dual objective of this reflection is to show that the theme of creation in Ignatian mystique is inseparable from the idea of creation in Christ, and that the neglect of Christology structuring Ignatian mystic of Spiritual Exercises often leads to practices that no longer deserve the adjective of Christian neither Ignatian. This article is a descriptive and interpretative investigation based on a bibliographic study that is divided into four parts: the specification of the terms hermeneutic and mystical, the context of the Spiritual Exercises’ text, its elaboration, and finally the contemplation of the life of Christ as Creator.
  • Jesus and the Rehabilitation of the Victims of Abuse Artículos

    Costadoat, Jorge

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN Este artículo asume la tarea de hacer teología sobre la realidad de las víctimas, especialmente de las personas abusadas sexualmente. Su intento es delicado porque cualquier discurso sobre las víctimas y el mal en general corre el riesgo de justificar lo injustificable. Esto sucede exactamente las veces que se exalta la importancia que tiene la cruz para la salvación de los pecadores, pero se olvida la historia del Jesús que murió asesinado por ofrecer una liberación, en primer lugar, a las víctimas de los pecados. El texto ofrece una comprensión de Cristo como víctima que ayuda a rehabilitar a las víctimas y a impedir que nuevas personas padezcan lo que estas padecieron. Asimismo, resalta la importancia teológica de ellas pues a través de las personas abusadas es posible llegar a saber que Dios es liberador y que el cristianismo, hasta donde podemos entenderlo, es solidaridad con los inocentes.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This paper is a theological study about the reality of victims, especially those who have suffered sexual abuse. This is a sensitive issue because any talk about victims and evil in general risks justifying what is unjustifiable. When such a justification is carried out by exalting the importance of the cross for the salvation of sinners, one forgets the story of Jesus who was assassinated due to his offering of liberation to those who were victims of sins. This paper provides an understanding of Christ as a victim and contributes to rehabilitating victims in general, so as to prevent more people from suffering that which the victims have already suffered. Besides, this article highlights the theological relevance of victims as, through the people who have suffered abuse, it is possible to become aware that God is liberator and that Christianity demands solidarity with those who are innocent.
  • “CHRIST CONSUMES THE MARROW OUT OF OUR BONES” – CORPOREALITY IN THE MYSTICAL DOCTRINE OF JOHN OF RUUSBROEC (*1293 – †1381) Articles

    Kors, Michel Mario

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO Neste artigo pretendemos explorar o tema da corporeidade na doutrina mística do escritor medieval João de Ruusbroec. Após explicar a compreensão radicalmente diferente de um corpo no pensamento medieval, apresentamos um quadro teórico baseado na análise de Patricia Dailey sobre o corpo interior e o corpo exterior. Depois disso, fazemos uma primeira análise da abordagem de Ruusbroec sobre o corpo na experiência mística. No trabalho de Ruusbroec, a integração do corpo interno e externo é mais evidente do que na tradição anterior, ou seja, especialmente na espiritualidade feminina do século XIII. A corporeidade é um tema com ocorrência limitada na doutrina mística de Ruusbroec e está principalmente ligada à devoção eucarística, mas não exclusivamente.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In this article we pretend to explore the theme of corporeality in the mystical doctrine of the medieval author John of Ruusbroec. After explaining the radically different understanding of a body in medieval thinking we present a theoretical framework based on Patricia Dailey’s analysis of the inner and the outer body. After this, we make a first analysis of Ruusbroec’s approach to the body in het mystical experience. In Ruusbroec’s work the integration of the inner and outer body is more evident than in the previous tradition, that is, especially in the female spirituality of the 13th century. Corporeality is a theme with limited occurrence in Ruusbroec’s mystical doctrine, and it is mainly linked to Eucharistic devotion, but not exclusively.
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