Perspectiva Teológica, Volume: 53, Issue: 3, Published: 2021
  • “The Word of Women in the Church” Editorial

    FitzGerald, Eileen
  • The Living Being who Generates Life: Analogy Between the Female Body and the Mysteries of Creation Artigos

    Bingemer, Maria Clara Lucchetti

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO No presente artigo, se levanta a hipótese de que é possível pensar teologicamente a corporeidade da terra em analogia com a corporeidade da mulher. Em um primeiro momento, se critica alguns elementos dualistas que marcaram a linguagem teológica. Em seguida, se apresenta a teologia cristã da criação como processo que inclui a perspectiva de gênero; depois, se reflete sobre a terra como corpo da criação. Passa-se, em seguida, a examinar a corporeidade da mulher em dois sentidos: sua abertura e receptividade e sua capacidade de repartir-se e distribuir-se para alimentar a outros. O texto evolui na direção de afirmar que essa analogia pode gerar uma mística e uma ética: permite contemplar o mistério da terra e do feminino ao mesmo tempo em que reverencia e protege sua vulnerabilidade; privilegia o cuidado da vida e a volta à casa materna e comum que é a terra. Nessa última parte do texto, se trabalha com alguns extratos de textos da filósofa e mística francesa Simone Weil. A conclusão levanta algumas pistas teológicas para a superação do antropocentrismo que tem agredido a terra e a mulher neste momento histórico.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This article rises the hypothesis that it is possible to think theologically about the corporeality of the Earth in an analogy with the corporeality of women. First, we criticize some dualistic elements that have shaped theological language. Next, we present the Christian theology of the Creation as a process which includes a gender perspective; then we reflect on the Earth as the body of creation. We subsequently move on to examining women’s corporeality in two senses: its openness and receptivity, and its capacity to share and distribute itself in order to feed others. The text evolves towards affirming that this analogy can generate a mystic and an ethic; it allows contemplation of the mystery of both the earth and the feminine, simultaneously revering and protecting their vulnerability. It privileges the care for life and the return to the maternal and common home; i.e., the Earth. In the last part of the text, we present some extracts from texts by the French philosopher and mystic Simone Weil. The conclusion raises some theological challenges to overcome the anthropocentrism which has been harming the Earth and women in this historical moment.
  • Ecofeminist Hermeneutics and Ecotheology. Interfaces Artigos

    Murad, Afonso

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO O ecofeminismo assume importância crescente como significativa corrente de pensamento e ativismo de gênero e socioambiental. Ele articula prática e teoria, critica o patriarcalismo, o androcentrismo e o neoliberalismo, e propõe um modelo de compreensão do ser humano baseado na reciprocidade, na cooperação e no amor à Terra. Tais características não foram ainda acolhidas suficientemente na teologia. A pesquisa visa mostrar como o ecofeminismo contribui para o avanço da ecoteologia latino-americana, devido à hermenêutica própria, à antropologia inclusiva, à linguagem que integra razão e emoção, conceitos e narrativas, e à valorização do cuidado das pessoas fragilizadas e da Casa Comum. O artigo inicia-se com um nivelamento conceitual. Apresenta os pontos chaves do ecofeminismo e sua forma de elaborar o conhecimento. Demonstra como a teologia ecofeminista desenvolve uma síntese criativa de elaboração conceitual, protagonismo feminino, luta em defesa das mulheres e da biosfera e espiritualidade libertadora. Conclui apresentando as diversas interfaces entre ecofeminismo e ecoteologia. Uma teologia ecológica e feminista fecunda a prática e a teorias cristãs, pois relê com categorias atuais a bíblia e a Tradição, acolhe as intuições básicas da teologia da libertação, associa a conversão ecológica à conversão de gênero para homens e mulheres, ajuda a superar a herança patriarcal das Igrejas, e amplia a categoria “cuidado”, com a contribuição singular das mulheres.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT Ecofeminism is growing in importance as a significant current of thought, also of gender and socio-environmental activism. It articulates practice and theory, criticizes patriarchalism, androcentrism and neoliberalism, and proposes a model of understanding the human being based on reciprocity, cooperation and love for the Earth. Such characteristics have not yet been widely embraced in theology. This study aims to show how ecofeminism contributes to the advancement of Latin American ecotheology, due: to its own hermeneutics, to inclusive anthropology, to language that integrates reason and emotion, to concepts and narratives, and to values of care for fragile people and the Common House. The article begins with a conceptual leveling. It presents the key points of ecofeminism and how it develops knowledge. It shows how ecofeminist theology develops a creative synthesis of conceptual elaboration, female protagonism, struggle in defense of women and the biosphere, and liberating spirituality. It concludes by presenting the various interfaces between ecofeminism and ecotheology. An ecological and feminist theology is fruitful for Christian practices and theory because it re-reads the Bible and Tradition under current categories, takes up the basic intuitions of liberation theology, associates ecological conversion with gender conversion for men and women, helps overcome the patriarchal heritage of the Churches, and expands the category of “care” with the unique contribution of women.
  • The Prophetess Huldah and the Word of Yhwh Artículos

    Bustillos, Bernardeth Carmen Caero

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN El artículo tiene como base el personaje de la profetisa Juldá (2 R 22,11–20). De ella se tienen pocos datos biográficos, aquellos de los que se disponen dan pautas sobre su importancia profética en un momento crucial por la que atravesaba Judá. En el texto sobresale la autoridad que ella ejercía como portavoz de YHWH. A parte de Juldá, los textos bíblicos mencionan a otras mujeres en la historia de la salvación. Las recensiones que se hacen de ellas tienden a darles un rol segundario en escenarios androcéntricos. El papel que tiene la mujer dentro de la teología tiene rasgos proféticos. Para emprender un camino sinodal, en el cual sea posible la plena participación de la mujer en la sociedad y en la Iglesia, será importante a parte de conocer sus frutos teológicos, conocer también los escenarios en los cuales ellas han escrito y estado presente con su voz.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The article is based on the character of the prophetess Huldah (2 Kings 22:11-20). There is little biographical information about her, but that which is available gives some indication of her prophetic importance at a crucial moment in Judah’s history. Her authority as YHWH’s spokesperson stands out in the text. Apart from Huldah, the biblical texts mention other women in salvation history, generally giving them secondary roles in androcentric settings. The role of women in theology has prophetic features. In order to embark on a synodal journey, in which the full participation of women in society and in the Church is possible, it will be important not only to know their theological fruits, but also to know the scenarios in which they have written and been present with their voice.
  • Women and Salvation in Latin America. An Approach from the Testimony of Lived Experiences Artículos

    Fernández, Nurya Martínez-Gayol

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN El propósito de esta contribución es afrontar la cuestión de la salvación contemplada y vivida desde la perspectiva de las mujeres latinoamericanas. El contenido es el resultado de una investigación realizada desde la aportación de las propias mujeres en un trabajo de campo, cuyo análisis cuantitativo y cualitativo he tratado de verificar, a través de una “muestra de contraste” realizada a un grupo de varones. Desde la lectura de este, trato de concluir poniendo en evidencia una coincidencia básica, a nivel teórico, de la visión de la salvación entre varones y mujeres, así como algunos rasgos particulares que se destacan en la experiencia de salvación vivida por las mujeres.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This study addresses the question of the experience and contemplation of salvation from the point of view of Latin American women. The results are based on the contributions of different women in a field work investigation. A quantitative and qualitative analysis with a “contrast sample” was carried out with a group of men. Based on these results, I plan to come to a conclusion by highlighting a basic coincidence, at a theoretical level, of the vision of salvation among men and women, as well as some particular features that stand out in the experience of salvation lived by women.
  • THE VIOLENCE OF THE ORDEAL AGAINST WOMEN SUSPECTED OF ADULTERY IN NUMBERS 5:11-31 Articles

    Artuso, Vicente

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO A relevância do artigo está na análise do ritual do ordálio em Nm 5,11-31 que evidencia as formas de violência contra a mulher. A abordagem do texto se serve da hermenêutica de gênero: masculino-feminino. Ela se mostra apropriada no contexto sociorreligioso patriarcal e androcêntrico da época. Assim, o objetivo do estudo é realçar a ideologia do ritual do ordálio que legitima a discriminação e práticas de violência contra a mulher. Percorre-se os passos seguintes: introdução, contexto e objetivo do relato no Livro dos Números, tradução, estrutura, análise dos personagens e das ações e hermenêutica. Resulta desse estudo uma visão mais realista da situação da mulher suspeita de adultério, pois mediante o ordálio ela é submetida a um risco interpretado como castigo, caso ela seja culpada de infidelidade. De vítima acusada sem provas ela é tornada culpada. O artigo conclui que a violência narrada serve de controle seguro dos corpos das esposas por parte dos maridos ciumentos. Essa leitura crítica desautoriza a forma do julgamento mediante o ordálio, existente também em outras culturas do Antigo Oriente.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT1 The relevance of the article lies in the analysis of the ritual of the ordeal in Num 5,11-31, which highlights the forms of violence against women. The text uses the hermeneutic male/female approach to gender, appropriate to the patriarchal and androcentric socio-religious context of the time. Thus, the study aims to highlight the ideology of the ordeal ritual that legitimizes discrimination and practices of violence against women. The following steps are taken: introduction, context and purpose of the report in the book of Numbers, translation, structure, analysis of characters and actions and hermeneutics. This study results in a more realistic view of the situation of a woman suspected of adultery, as, through the ordeal, she is subjected to a risk interpreted as punishment if found guilty of infidelity. From alleged victim, she becomes the guilty one. The article concludes that the narrated violence serves as a strict control of the wives’ bodies by their jealous husbands. This critical reading disallows the form of judgment through the ordeal, which also exists in other cultures of the Ancient East.
  • The Qualitative Method in Feminist Theology. The Experience of Women and a Dialogue with Stephanie Klein about her Listening Artículos

    Azcuy, Virginia Raquel

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN En el marco de una investigación en curso sobre el método cualitativo en teología, este artículo se propone mostrar la pertinencia de este método en el ámbito de la teología feminista cristiana, con particular atención a la experiencia de las mujeres. Entre los presupuestos de la reflexión se asume una epistemología feminista, en vistas a la elucidación crítica de la experiencia de las mujeres como elemento clave en el método teológico, de manera que se haga visible el sesgo opresivo del contexto socio-cultural y religioso androcéntrico y las aspiraciones de liberación de las mujeres en él. A su vez se considera la experiencia de la women-church o Iglesia de las mujeres como movimiento histórico de solidaridad entre mujeres y con varones, en vistas a una plena liberación de la humanidad. La exigencia de un relevamiento científico de estas experiencias conduce a la necesidad de justificar el valor, la utilidad, y la eficacia de la investigación cualitativa en la teología feminista, con atención a algunos desarrollos representativos en diversos contextos. Junto a otras autoras como Ada María Isasi-Díaz y Rebecca Chopp, se destaca el aporte de Stephanie Klein por mostrar la función sanadora y empoderadora de la “escucha peligrosa” que puede asumir una teología mediada por el método cualitativo, para renovar su discurso a partir de las diversas y dolientes experiencias de mujeres que buscan liberación.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT In the context of an ongoing study of the qualitative method in theology, the aim of this article is to show the relevance of this method in the field of Christian feminist theology, paying special attention to the experience of women. Among the assumptions of this reflection, a feminist epistemology is taken on in order to provide the critical clarification of the experience of women as a key element in the theological method, making the oppressive biases in the male-centered, socio-cultural and religious context, as well as women’s aspiration for liberation within it, visible. Likewise, the experience of the women-church, or Church of the Women, is considered as an historic movement of solidarity between women and men, keeping in mind a full liberation of humanity. The demand for a scientific study of these experiences leads to the need for justifying the value, usefulness, and efficiency of qualitative research in feminist theology, paying attention to some representative developments in different contexts. Together with other authors like Ada María Isasi-Díaz and Rebecca Chopp, Stephanie Klein’s contribution stands out. It displays the healing and empowering role of “dangerous listening”, which may assume a theology mediated by the qualitative method, to renew its discourse drawing from the painful and diverse experiences of women in search of liberation.
  • Saint Teresa of Avila: 50 Years Doctor of the Church Artigo

    Pedrosa-Pádua, Lúcia

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO O presente artigo tem como objeto a declaração de Santa Teresa de Ávila como Doutora da Igreja, em 1970. Aprofunda alguns significados deste acontecimento para a teologia e, especialmente, para a relação entre este saber e as mulheres. Inicia apresentando a figura de Santa Teresa a partir de algumas características da sua humanidade, em consonância com a homilia de Paulo VI na proclamação da Doutora da Igreja. Em seguida, traz aspectos históricos da importância da doutrina teresiana para a espiritualidade cristã. Explicita os fundamentos teológicos que possibilitaram o reconhecimento do doutorado das mulheres, no século XX, e dá as razões do doutorado teresiano, em contraste com a misoginia experimentada pela Santa em seu tempo histórico. Finaliza com os desdobramentos deste acontecimento para a teologia.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This article addresses the proclamation of St. Teresa of Avila as a Doctor of the Church in 1970. It expands on some of the meanings of this event for theology,especially for the relationship between this knowledge and women. It begins by presenting the figure of Saint Teresa based on some characteristics of her humanity, in line with the homily of Paul VI in her proclamation as a Doctor of the Church. Then, it brings historical aspects of the importance of Teresian doctrine for Christian spirituality. After that, it explains the theological foundations that enabled the recognition of women’s doctorate in the 20th century, and gives the reasons for the Teresian doctorate, in contrast with the misogyny experienced by Saint Teresa in her historical time. It concludes with the explanations of this event for theology.
  • ¿Estas no son Guacas Tambien, como las Nuestras? Cult Image and Evangelization in the Southern Andes Artículos

    Aguirre, Federico

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN El presente artículo busca establecer el vínculo entre el culto prehispánico a las huacas y el surgimiento de la imagen de culto latinoamericana. Aun cuando la empresa conquistadora intentó erradicar la sensibilidad religiosa de los pueblos prehispánicos, esta pervivió y contribuyó al proceso de inculturación del evangelio en Latinoamérica. En este sentido, la imagen sin alma que trajo el conquistador, se termina convirtiendo en una imagen que habla con su pueblo, reivindicando la función sacramental de la imagen cristiana prerrenacentista. A partir del concepto antropológico de “agencia”, plantearemos la huaca andina como antecedente de la imagen de culto latinoamericana, intentando, a su vez, explicitar los fundamentos teológicos de la función sacramental que asume la imagen en este caso. De este modo, sostenemos que la huaca andina es una semilla del verbo en la que florece el anuncio del evangelio.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT This article seeks to establish the link between the pre-Hispanic cult of the Huacas and the emergence of the Latin American cult image. Even when the conquerors tried to eradicate the religious sensitivity of the pre-Hispanic peoples, it survived and contributed to the process of inculturation of the gospel in Latin America. In this sense, the image without a soul brought by the conqueror, ends up becoming an image that speaks to the people, claiming the sacramental function of the pre-Renaissance Christian image. Based on the anthropological concept of “agency”, we will propose the Andean huaca as a predecessor of the Latin American cult image, trying to make explicit the theological foundations of the sacramental function assumed by the image in this case.
  • The Liturgical Rule and the Symbolic Play Artigo

    Maciel, Creômenes Tenório

    Abstract in Portuguese:

    RESUMO As normas da liturgia foram constantemente compreendidas a partir de um horizonte jurídico englobado pelo direito canônico positivo, e isso sem necessariamente considerar o enraizamento das normas na complexa realidade humana. A partir de alguns estudos feitos por C. Lévi-Strauss, J. Henriot, E. Fink, R. Caillois, C. Duflo, E. Ortigues, R. Guardini, H. Küng, L-M. Chauvet, e M. Brulin sobre o jogo e o símbolo, este artigo busca mostrar que, ultrapassando os limites estabelecidos pelo direito, a regra da liturgia é profundamente enraizada em princípios partilhados ao mesmo tempo pelas ciências sociais e a teologia. A abordagem desta problemática, além de contribuir na reflexão sobre o fundamento do caráter jurídico das práticas litúrgicas, pode ajudar a reconhecer a vida litúrgica como fonte de suas normas.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The norms of liturgy have often been understood within a judicial horizon, bounded by positive canonical law, without necessarily taking into consideration the grounding of these norms in the complexity of human reality. Based on studies conducted by C. Lévi-Strauss, J. Henriot, E. Fink, R. Caillois, C. Duflo, E. Ortigues, R. Guardini, H. Küng, L.-M. Chauvet and M. Brulin on the play and the symbol, the present article seeks to show that, beyond the bounds established by law, the rule of liturgy is deeply rooted in the principles shared by both the social sciences and theology. Addressing this problem, in addition to contributing to the reflection on the basis of the judicial character of liturgical practices, can help to recognize liturgical life as the source of its norms.
  • Gregory of Nyssa and the Critical Function of the Interpretation of Scripture Against Culture: Criticism of Slavery in the Fourth Homily on the Ecclesiastes Artículos

    Pinzón, Orlando Solano; Vargas, Gabriel Alberto Jaramillo; Betancourt, Ana Cristina Villa

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN El escrito contextualiza la institución de la esclavitud en la antigüedad grecorromana para mostrar algunas posturas de personajes del siglo IV y anteriores frente a dicha institución. Dicha contextualización sirve de preámbulo para presentar la lectura crítica que hace Gregorio de Nisa en la cuarta homilía del Eclesiastés sobre la institución de la esclavitud, cuyos postulados marcaron una gran diferencia frente a la opinión de sus contemporáneos y siguen vigentes hoy como crítica a todo intento de esclavizar al ser humano.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The article contextualizes the institution of slavery in Greco-Roman antiquity, to show some postures of persons of the fourth century and earlier regarding that institution. This is worthwhile as a preamble to the presentation of the critical reading of Gregory of Nyssa, in the fourth homily of Ecclesiastes, on the institution of slavery. Those postulates show a great difference, compared to the opinion of his contemporaries, and are still valid today as a criticism of any attempt to enslave human beings.
  • Finding God in the Mundane as an Urban Pastoral Path in Bairro Matriz, of Valparaíso Artículos

    Álvarez, Gonzalo Arturo Bravo; Peralta, Maite Inés Jiménez

    Abstract in Spanish:

    RESUMEN La ciudad latinoamericana se presenta fragmentada, requiriendo una conexión más dialéctica en la acción pastoral de la Iglesia. El in-trascendente de la revelación de Dios en el barrio permite una reflexión teológica acerca del sentido de su presencia desde lo cotidiano; lo urbano es una realidad sensible que confronta al hombre. Se presentará el “barrio puerto” en Valparaíso (Chile), que animado por la acción eclesial, permite ser repensado como un espacio de revelación. Ello propicia una pastoral urbana donde la misión evangelizadora conlleva una transformación social que potencia la dignidad humana de quienes comparten en el sector su vida cotidiana, dado que “el reino contempla una trasformación positiva de toda realidad humana”.

    Abstract in English:

    ABSTRACT The Latin American city appears fragmented, requiring a more dialectical connection in the pastoral action of the Church. In the neighborhood, the in-transcendence of the revelation of God allows a theological reflection on the meaning of His presence from the everyday. “The urban” is a sensitive reality that confronts the man. The “harbor district” in Valparaiso (Chile), which will be presented as animated by ecclesial action, allows it to be reconsidered as a space of revelation. This provides an urban pastoral where the evangelizing mission entails a social transformation that enhances the human dignity of those who share their daily life in the sector, given that “the kingdom contemplates a positive transformation of all human reality”.
Faculdade Jesuíta de Filosofia e Teologia (FAJE) Avenida Doutor Cristiano Guimarães, 2127 - Bairro Planalto, Minas Gerais - Belo Horizonte, Cep: 31720-300, Tel: 55 (31) 3115.7000 - Belo Horizonte - MG - Brazil
E-mail: editor.pt@faculdadejesuita.edu.br