Pituitary abscess syndrome is a neurologic disease responsible for sporadic cases and outbreaks especially in calves leading to high mortality rates. This paper aimed to report the occurrence and the clinical, laboratorial and pathologic findings in three 8 to 11-month-old calves with pituitary abscess syndrome from Mid-Western Brazil. The most important clinical findings were nervous signs of cerebral and brainstem origin with clinical evolution of 7-20 days. Hematology revealed leucocytosis by neutrophilia and hyperfibrinogenemia. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed neutrophilic pleocytosis. Arcanobacterium pyogenes was isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. One calf recovered after antibiotic treatment. Mortality rate was 66.6% (2/3). Necropsy findings included single para-hypophyseal abscesses or located in the glandular parenchyma; one calf showed necrotizing rhinitis and another abscedative pneumonia. Histological exams of the central nervous system reveal complete absence of normal pituitary tissue due to the wide necrosis and neutrophilic inflammatory infiltrate. The authors reiterate the importance of adequate management practices to reduce incidence of several diseases especially in calves, including the pituitary abscess syndrome.
Abscess; bacterial diseases; calves; central nervous system; pituitary