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Bone formation and osteointegration of micro and nanostructured biomaterial in sheep

Bone replacement is often required in veterinary clinics and hospitals routine, even because fractures, bone tumors or any orthopedic disease that entail in bone loss. In this sense, biomaterials capable of promoting this substitution, avoiding the use of bone grafts or transplants have been searched. The aim of this study was evaluated the osteoregenerative capacity of biomaterials in different compositions, implanted in sheep's tibia. Eight female, mongrel sheeps, 12 months old, weighting 28,5±7,4kg were obtained for this study. Three bone defects, 6mm each, in both tibias, a total of six bone defects, were produced, being four of them treated with four different types of biomaterials and two with autogenous bone grafts, as a control group. The biomaterials implanted were: hydroxyapatite (HA), beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP-β), hydroxyapatite/beta-tricalcium phosphate 60:40 (HA/TCP-β 60:40) and the nanocomposite hydroxyapatite and alumina (HA/Al2O3 5%). The animals were allocated in two groups: Group 60 (n=04), in which the animals were euthanized sixty days after the implantation of the biomaterials and Group 90 (n=04), in which the animals were euthanized ninety days after the procedure. Were performed radiograph images on the preoperative period, immediate postoperative and at 30, 60 and 90 days of postoperative period, to excluded any previously disease or postoperative complications that could compromise this research. After euthanasia, the tibias were collected for macro and microscopic evaluation, which was accessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optic microscopy. The results suggest that HA, TCP-β and HA/TCP-β present a great osteoregenerative capacity. The last one seems to be better for a long-term outcome, due its best control in the solubilization and releasing of calcium and phosphates ions through the biological environment during bone formation. The nanocomposite HA/Al2O3 5% didn't show a good response on this study, and we suggest new researches to better evaluate the potential and applicability of this new biomaterial. We concluded that HA, TCP-β and HA/TCP-β 60:40 presented excellent capacity of bone repair, and could be used as bone substituts; the association HA/TCP-β (60:40) is superior due his intermediary velocity of absortion comparing to HA and TCP-β isolated, providing adequate supporting to the neoformed tissue; the HA/Al2O3 5% showed incompatibility, causing rejection reaction by the host and insignificant formation of bone tissue, suggesting further research on this material.

Biomaterial; hydroxyapatite; beta-tricalcium phosphate; sheep; bone formation

Colégio Brasileiro de Patologia Animal - CBPA Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, Caixa Postal 74.591, 23890-000 Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil, Tel./Fax: (55 21) 2682-1081 - Rio de Janeiro - RJ - Brazil