Abstract in English:Rare earth elements supported in zeolites are the most important catalysts in the fluid cracking of petroleum. The solid state ion exchange of Eu3+ in Y zeolite was investigated. First of all, the hydrated EuCl3 was well mixed in a ball mill and was then heated at 300ºC for different times. The quantitative determination of Eu3+ showed that the degree of ion exchange depends on the reaction time at constant temperature, being ~95% in 4 h. The X-ray study showed that the crystallinity of the zeolite is little affected by the exchange procedure. The study of spectroscopic properties of Eu3+, emission spectra and lifetime, give information about the migration and position of the ion in the zeolite cages.
Abstract in English:This work presents a new methodology for searching the present state of chemical evolution for different taxa, grouping five classes of secondary metabolites. Ocurrences of 10370 natural products isolated from Asteraceae were used to exemplify the method. Relationships among tribes are discussed.
Abstract in English:Hexafluoroacetylaceton derivatives of some synthesized components of the guazatine fungicide were prepared, and their separation and identification performed through gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chromatogram obtained from hexafluoroacetylacetone derivative of the commercial guazatine presented 14 major peaks, and 9 of them were identified through both techniques mentioned above.
Abstract in English:The construction of a tubular hydrogen ion-selective potentiometric electrode without inner reference solution, based on the tridodecylamine (TDDA) ionophore, and its evaluation in a flow system are described. TDDA was dissolved in 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether, dispersed in a PVC membrane and applied directly to a conducting support which consisted of an epoxy resin and graphite mixture. The electrode was designed with a tubular geometry to effort facilities to be coupled as part of a flow injection network. The main working characteristics such as response time, linear pH range, selectivity and life time were evaluated and compared with those obtained which a conventionally shaped electrode based on the same sensor. The electrode showed a slope of 51-52 mV dec-1 within a linear pH range from 4.0 up to 12.0.
Abstract in English:In the present work we reported the study of rice hull enzymatic hydrolysis using a commercial cellulase preparation. The results showed that previous treatment with light and sodium chlorite inhibits the enzymatic process (31.4 and 11.8%, respectively) while hydrogen peroxide and ozone favoured the enzymatic production of reducing sugars (5.9 and 54.9%, respectively). Studies performed by quimiluminescence showed that the chlorite treatment produced the most significant change in the structure of rice hull. Nevertheless, this treatment did not favour the subsequent enzymatic process. Photomicrographs obtained from rice hull hydrolysates showed that pre-treatment changed mainly the inner epidermis and parenchyma cell and that they did not change cellular organization of the hull.
Abstract in English:beta-dicarbonyl compounds were oxidized electrocatalytically, with fragmentation and loss of "ch2", using ceric methanesulphonate as a mediator. 2,4-pentanedione yields acetic acid (90%), methyl acetoacetate yields acetic acid (84%) plus methanol and dimethyl malonate yields methanol (64%). For 1,3-diphenyl-1,3-propanedione and 1,3-cyclohexanedione, benzoic acid (61% yield) and glutaric acid (75% yield) were obtained, respectively. Methyl cyanoacetate and malononitrile were inert.
Abstract in English:The FTIR spectroscopy has been used to quantify the secondary structures of proteins, using amide I band (1600 - 1700 cm-1). The resolution enhancement methods have been used to resolve the individual components of this band that correlate to the secondary structure. In this paper we discuss the methods of derivative, Fourier deconvolution and fitting with simulated spectra. The results shows that they have serious problems and can be used only as a qualitative or semiquatitative method.
Abstract in English:The metal-catalyzed autooxidation of S(IV) has been studied for more than a century without a consensus being obtained as to reaction rates, rate laws or mechanisms. The main objective in this work was to explore the reaction between Cu(II) and SO2 in the presence of M(II), paying special attention to the formation of double sulfites like Cu2SO3.M(II)SO3.2H 2O. The two principal aspects studied were: i) a new way to prepare double sulfites with high purity degree and the selectivity in the M(II) incorporation during the salt formation.
Abstract in English:Alumina supported niobium oxide was prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of NbCl5. The alumina was calcined and pretreated at differents temperatures in order to vary the density of OH groups on the surface which was determined by thermogravimetric analysis. A good correlation was found between the amount of anchored niobium and the total number of anionic sites (oxide and hydroxyl groups) on the surface of the alumina. The infrared spectra on the OH stretching region indicate that OH groups coordinated to at least one tetrahedral aluminum were more reactive towards NbCl5.
Abstract in English:By DSC data, the kinetical parameters Ea , n and A were calculated for the thermal decomposition of the adducts CdCl2.2dmf, CdCl2.dmf and CdBr2.dmf (dmf= dimethylformamide) by using Rogers and Smith method. The found values were : Ea = 85, 176 and 101 kJ mol-1 , n= 0.23, 0.25, and 0.17, A= 2.40x10(9), 1.89x10(19) and 1.07x10(9) respectively. By TGA data, the kinetical patameters for the thermal decomposition of the adduct CdCl2.1,5 dmeu (dmeu=dimethylethyleneurea) were calculated by using five different methods.
Abstract in English:In this paper some studies concerning the electroreduction of Mo(VI) in sulphuric acid solutions are described. We have shown that at suitable experimental conditions very stable molybdenum oxide films can be electrochemically deposited at glassy carbon electrodes, the reduction of bromate occurring at less negative potentials on the modified surface. Coulometric experiments have shown that bromide is not the only product of the catalytic bromate reduction by the molybdenum film and species like BrO2 may have part in this process. Based on chronoamperometric curves recorded at -0.60 V, analytical curves have been obtained for the reduction of bromate in the 0.1 - 0.8 mM range, a limit of detection of 20 µM for bromate being determined.
Abstract in English:In the present work "ex situ"Raman microscopy was employed in the identification of some of the pigments present in the painting "Portrait of Murilo Mendes" by Cândido Portinari. In the investigated samples it was possible to identify unambiguously two pigments: Prussian blue and lapis-lazuli (or its synthetic analogue, ultramarine blue) - the former is observed together with organic substances, possibly used as dispersants, what suggests a further use of a mass for recover the painting.
Abstract in English:The organometallic chemistry of tin has experienced a phenomenal growth in the last decades. From virtually no important research or applications 50 years ago it has blossomed into a vigorous branch of the chemical sciences. This article aims at reviewing its characteristics and the reasons for this growth, concentrating on the current trends and the latest research in the area.
Abstract in English:In coordination chemistry the study of geometrical isomerization and reactivity of specific isomers is a topic of major importance. The preparation of specific isomers often requires considerable complexity, and it is important to acquire a sense of what is involved in studying isomerism in laboratory. If it is difficult sometimes to prepare pure isomers, it is not easier to understand the mechanisms of isomerization reactions since studies on this subject have shown conflicting results and diferent interpretations on the same system have been reported in the literature. Although cis-trans isomerism in octahedral metal complexes is a common occurrence, there are relatively few studies reporting how these isomerizations occur. This paper gives an overview on cis-trans isomerization processes and identification of these species.
Abstract in English:A brief discussion of the non-chromatographic continuous separation techniques is presented emphasizing the pervaporation process. It makes interesting choices for implementing various preliminary operations of the analytical process in order to accommodate the raw sample to the measuring instrument. Discussions include the perceived advantages and disadvantages, the underlying principles of pervaporation process, the flexible module and fields of application.
Abstract in English:This review has tried to collect and correlate all the various equations for the g matrix of strong field d5 systems obtained from different basis sets using full electron and hole formalism calculations. It has corrected mistakes found in the literature and shown how the failure to properly take in symmetry boundary conditions has produced a variety of apparently inconsistent equations in the literature. The review has reexamined the problem of spin-orbit interaction with excited t4e states and finds that the earlier reports that it is zero in octahedral symmetry is not correct. It has shown how redefining what x, y, and z are in the principal coordinate system simplifies, compared to previous methods, the analysis of experimental g values with the equations.
Abstract in English:A simple laboratory technique is described for the synthesis of cyclopentadienylthallium and methylcyclopentadienylthallium and their use in the preparation of air sensitive metallocenes in solution. It does not use manifold, drybox or any other special glassware and was applied to the synthesis of cobaltocene, nickelocene and their methyl substituted analogs.
Abstract in English:In the present paper, we report on the analytical use of a dynamic droplet based gas collection and an analysis system. A droplet formed at the tip of a tube represents a sampling approach that provides an indefinitely renewable surface and uses very little reagent. Sample gas flows past the droplet at a low flow rate. After the gas was sampled , the analysis can be carried out by different methodologies. The feasibility of the sensor is demonstrated by continuos determination of gaseous as: NO2, Cl2 and SO2.
Abstract in English:In the present work, the pH dependent colour change of the crude flower extracts is suggested as subject in teaching chemical or acid-base equilibria, visual indicators and some aspects of spectrophotometric concepts and applications. The vegetal species used are commonly found in Brazil, and the extraction methodology proposed is inexpensive and easy to perform in secondary schools and in general chemistry or instrumental undergraduate courses. A bibliographic review about the use of vegetal extracts in chemical education and a discussion of the flower colour are also presented.
Abstract in English:This paper aims to present some features of the Industrial Property Law now in force in Brazil, as far as they could be regarded to the activities of research and development in the field of Chemistry and related areas, not only in the chemical industry but also in the university. By means of analysis of the main articles and paragraphs, which could deal with the mentioned activities, the author points out the scope and limitations of that law and explains the meaning of common technical terms usually found in patent concerns. Ultimately, a brief discussion on the actual and the potential role of the Brazilian university in the sphere of the Industrial Property is made.