Abstract in English:A study of the kinetics of oxygen evolution in alkaline conditions from ceramic films of Mn2O3 supported on stainless steel was carried out. This study has been done through the determination of transfer coefficients, Tafel slopes and exchange currents using potentiodynamic and quasi-potentiostatic measurements. The activation energy was determined as a function of the overpotential and, additionally, the electrode active surface was estimated. The results are consistent with data already published for other electrodes, implying that the methods used in this work were reliable and precise.
Abstract in English:Titanium dioxide was prepared by hydrolysis and polycondensation of titanium tetraisopropoxide. TiO2 films were obtained by spin coating of the precursor solution on ITO substractes (glass covered with indium doped tin oxide). Films were prepared using different temperatures and hydrochloric acid contents. The effect of the drying temperature of the films (100 or 400ºC) was also investigated. TiO2 films were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometry, ultraviolete-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractrometry.
Abstract in English:Speciation studies of Fe, Cr, Co, Ni and Cu on reactive fraction (adsorved on oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and clay minerals) and pyrite were performed in Avicennia schaueriana and Rhizophora mangle sediments from Amapá shoreline-Brazil. The soil under Avicennia showed a higher heavy metal concentration in reactive fraction than under Rhizophora. The soil under Rhizophora showed low heavy metal bioavailability, having an increasing association with pyrite across sediment section.
Abstract in English:In the CNS, NPY has been implicated in obesity and feeding, endocrine function and metabolism. Potent and selective rNPY antagonists will be able to probe the merits of this approach for the treatment of obesity. We report the synthesis and preliminary evaluation of some hydrazide derivatives as antagonists of rNPY.
Abstract in English:Gadolinium oxyortho-silicate, Gd2SiO5, presents a monoclinic structure with two crystallographic sites in which Gd3+ ions are equally distributed with coordination numbers CN, 7 and 9, respectively. By doping this host with Er3+ it is possible to distinguish and attribute the two sites by means of lifetime determination of the 4S3/2 state, (in this case, Er3+ substitutes Gd3+ ions). Samples doped with 0.1 and 5.0% molar Er3+ were prepared by solid state reaction and characterized by X-ray Diffractometry, Vibrational and Electronic Absorption Spectroscopies, and Time Resolved Photoluminescence. Based on the experimental results, it is possible to verify that, for the 5,0% doped sample, the lifetime value of the 4S3/2 state of the erbium ion inserted in site 1, (CN = 9), is 2.7 ± 0.1 mus, and for the one inserted in site 2, (CN = 7), it is 1.5 ± 0.1 mus.
Abstract in English:Complexation between acyclovir (ACV), an antiviral drug used for the treatment of herpes simplex virus infection, and beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) was studied in solution and in solid states. Complexation in solution was evaluated using solubility studies and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (¹H-NMR). In the solid state, X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and dissolution studies were used. Solubility studies suggested the existence of a 1:1 complex between ACV and beta-CD. ¹H-NMR spectroscopy studies showed that the complex formed occurs with a stoichiometry ratio of 1:1. Powder X-ray diffraction indicated that ACV exists in a semicrystalline state in the complexed form with beta-CD. DSC studies showed the existence of a complex of ACV with beta-CD. The TGA studies confirmed the DSC results of the complex. Solubility of ACV in solid complexes was studied by the dissolution method and it was found to be much more soluble than the uncomplexed drug.
Abstract in English:The precise nature of the reaction between chromium chloride and potassium niobate at specific pH levels 12.0, 10.8 and 7.6 has been studied by means of electrometric techniques involving pH and conductometric titrations. The well defined breaks and inflections in the titration curves provide cogent evidence for the formation and precipitation of chromium ortho-Cr2O3.3Nb2 O5, hexa-4Cr2O3.9Nb2 O5 and meta-Cr2O3.3Nb2 O5 niobates in the vicinity of pH 7.5, 6.8 and 5.6, respectively. Analytical investigations of the precipitates have also been carried out which substantiate the results of the electrometric study.
Abstract in English:During the biological evolution, marine macroalgae have developed biochemicals tools in order to utilize components of seawater such as sulfates and halogens, to produce a variety of chemicals (secondary metabolites).This review shows and discuss the occurrence of sulfated and/or halogenated phenolic compounds in seaweeds.
Abstract in English:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocabons (PAHs) and their nitroderivatives (NPAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment and they are produced in several industrial and combustion processes. Some of these compounds are potent carcinogens/mutagens and their determination in biological samples is an important step for exposure control. A review of the analytical methodologies used for the determination of PAHs and their metabolites in biological samples is presented.
Abstract in English:The field of flow injection potentiometry (FIP) is reviewed and its current status assessed. The research development and application of electrodes in flow injection systems are presented and discussed.
Abstract in English:A review with 94 references focusing on mu3-oxo-triruthenium carboxylate clusters is presented. The electronic, magnetic, electrochemical, and catalytic properties of these compounds are discussed. Main synthetic routes and structural characteristics, including their use as building blocks in supramolecular systems are described.
Abstract in English:Biogenic emissions of volatile organic compounds play a fundamental role in the atmospheric chemistry, vegetation being one of their major sources. Amongst the VOCs emitted by plants, olefins and terpenoids are the most abundant. These compounds, due to the presence of two or more double bonds and other structural features, are very reactive in the atmosphere and act as precursors of the photochemical smog and aerosols. This article presents a review of the reactions of olefins and terpenoids with ozone, in the gas phase, with emphasis toward the mechanisms and kinetic aspects.
Abstract in English:Perfluoro and sulfonated ion-exchange polymers are recognized as a very useful material for various mechanistic studies and applications in electrochemistry. These polymers are characterized by high equivalent weights and by a low number of ion-exchange sites interposed between long organic chains. The solubility enables a preparation of stable polyelectrolyte films on the electrode surface. Examples of the determination of trace metals and organic componds in real environmental samples are presented.
Abstract in English:A very short-strong hydrogen bond (<2 Å, >20kcal/mol) is found in the monoanion of certain dicarboxylic acids derived from maleic and dialkylmalonic acids. Certain aromatic diamines that are known as proton sponge have exceptionally high basicity (pKa) and are only monoprotonated with strong acids like percloric acid. The closed proximity between the two basic centers provokes a strong steric interaction that is relieved upon protonation. Similar effects are found in dicarboxylic acids (hydrogen maleate and hydrogen dialkylmalonates) that present a very short distance between the two oxygens and a short-strong hydrogen bond.
Abstract in English:Adsorption of cationic dyes on clays can be used as a model for the interactions between organic compounds and these minerals. Cationic dyes like methylene blue are used to study these interactions because of the spectroscopic changes observed when their molecules are adsorbed on clay surfaces. Depending on the structure and layer charge of the clay particles several processes may occur, like adsorption of dye monomers and aggregates on the external and internal surfaces of the clay tactoids, migration towards internal surfaces, protonation, etc. Under certain conditions the deaggregation-aggregation of the clay particles are accelerated trapping dye species during these processes. A general scheme is proposed for the processes occurring between clays and dyes in aqueous suspensions, which can be used to explain the behaviour of specific systems.
Abstract in English:For economical and ecological reasons, synthetic chemists are confronted with the increasing obligation of optimizing their synthetic methods. Maximizing efficiency and minimizing costs in the production of molecules and macromolecules constitutes, therefore, one of the most exciting challenges of synthetic chemistry. The ideal synthesis should produce the desired product in 100% yield and selectivity, in a safe and environmentally acceptable process. In this highlight the concepts of atom economy, molecular engineering and biphasic organometallic catalysis, which address these issues at the molecular level for the generation of "green" technologies, are introduced and discussed.
Abstract in English:Methylene blue (AM) was immobilised on surface of the silica gel modified with niobium oxide. This material was incorporated in a carbon paste electrode, which showed a redox couple in a potential of E= -113 mV vs SCE in KCl solution at pH 7.0. The formal potential, in 0.5 mol L-1 KCl at pH 7.0, shifted about 290 mV towards more positive values compared to those observed for AM solubilized in aqueous solution. The dependence on the formal potential with solution pH between 2 and 7 was much lower than those observed for AM solubilized in aqueous solution.
Abstract in English:In this paper we discuss an approach for two initial topics in Chemistry: atomic structure and periodic table. The focus of this approach is the use of educational software resources in the perspective of teacher's formation.
Abstract in English:The problem of convenient access to quantitative Hückel-level descriptions of Möbius and Hückel annulenes for undergraduate lectures about aromaticity is discussed. Frost circle, Zimmerman circle, double circle and Langler semicircular mnemonics are described. The relationship between spectra (complete sets of secular equation roots) for an isoconjugate pair of Hückel and Möbius annulenes and the corresponding acyclic polyene with one less carbon is fully developed. In addition to providing an alternative path to exact spectrum roots, this relationship provides immediate access to almost half of the eigenfunctions for an isoconjugate annulene pair. The remaining eigenfunctions may be obtained very easily.
Abstract in English:This article discusses the processes inherent in the production of salpeter in Colonial Brazil. In the main, the texts seen here present recipes accompanied by chemical explanations of the processes which denote a knowledge of science at the time. Various difficulties confronting the authors, however, prevented an effective contribution to the development of techniques for the production of salpeter. Consequenttly, at the end of the Nineteenth Century, Brazilian rulers are still facing many problems to obtain this precious material.
Abstract in English:Some general features about the role of Science and Technology in the modern western civilizations are discussed, emphasizing those related to Chemistry. The discussion is centered on the social regulation of technological and scientific institutions and on the way this regulation takes place in response to social demands. Finally, some new trends are presented about the Brazilian chemistry courses and how the local educational authorities intend to modernize them.