Abstract in English:Chemical investigation of the MeOH extract of the leaves of Machaonia brasiliensis (Rubiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl stigmasterol, 3beta-O-beta-glucopyranosyl sitosterol, secologanoside, 7-O-beta-glucopyranosyl quercetagetin, 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. The structures of these compounds were established by spectroscopic analysis, including 2D NMR experiments. The chemotaxonomic relevance of the isolation of secologanoside is discussed.
Abstract in English:The atomization behavior of Au, Ag, Bi, Cd, Pb, and Sn from pyrolitic graphite coating (L'vov platform) with the use Pd and Mg solutions, and zirconium coated platform with the analytes in nitric acid 0.2% v/v and in ethanol was investigated. In ethanol medium, the sensitivity gain was three-fold for Bi and Cd using Zr as modifier. Without modifier, the ethanol medium is appropriate only for Au and Cd. In nitric acid medium, the Zr coated platform elevates sensitivity at least two-fold for Bi and Cd. The method was applied to the determination of Ag, Au and Bi of certified steel samples, after on-line preconcentration, sorption on a minicolumn filled with C-18 bonded to silica gel and elution with ethanol. The concentrations obtained agreed with the recommended values.
Abstract in English:The first chemical study of non-volatile constituents from the bark and stem of Melaleuca alternifolia (Myrtaceae) led to the isolation and identification of 3,3'-O-dimethylellagic acid (1) and five pentacyclic triterpenes: 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (arjunolic acid, 2), 3beta-hydroxylup-20(29)-en-27,28-dioic acid (melaleucic acid, 3), betulinic acid (4), betuline (5), 3beta-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), a mixture of fatty acids and esters, and several hydrocarbons. For 2alpha,3beta,23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and 3beta-O-acetylurs-12-en-28-oic acid (6) a first detailed assignment of ¹H NMR is presented.
Abstract in English:A new method has been developed for determining the content of mixtures of octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX), the HMX/RDX ratio, in explosive compositions by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), in the regions MIR (mid infrared) and NIR (near infrared) with reference values obtained by chromatographic analysis (HPLC). Plots of relative MIR (A917 / A783) or NIR absorbance values (A4412 / A4317) versus HMX/RDX ratio determined by HPLC analysis revealed good linear relationships.
Abstract in English:A new configuration for coupling a gas diffusion cell to a sequential injection system is presented. The matrix exchange is made without the need for additional rotary injection valves or peristaltic pumps, keeping the original mechanical components of the sequential injection apparatus: one syringe pump (or peristaltic pump) and one selection valve. The system was tested constructing analytical curves for sulfide exploring the formation of the methylene blue dye. The proposed method has a detection limit of 60 µg L-1 S2-, with a linear dynamic range between 0.10 and 4.0 mg L-1 S2- concentrations, with a sampling frequency of 20 h-1.
Abstract in English:Nickel, palladium and platinum micro-crystals were dispersed in films covering a vitreous carbon plate electrode by ion exchange followed by electroreduction of their ions. These modified electrodes were used in the electrocatalytic hydrogenation of several substrates of different classes and their efficiency is reported. A comparison among them was performed based on the structural characteristics of the metals. A modified electrode containing platinum showed to be more efficient than a palladium modified electrode and the one of nickel was the less efficient.
Abstract in English:The parameters which affect the degradation and stabilization of diclofenac in suspensions of nanocapsules and of the corresponding spray-dried powders were investigated. Formulations were subjected to 14 months of storage at room temperature. In addition, a study of the degradation of diclofenac was carried out by exposing the formulations or mixtures (drug and adjuvants) to UVC wavelengths. The presence of Epikuron 170® in a concentration higher than 3.06 mg/mL stabilizes the drug, avoiding its reduction or degradation. The degradation products were isolated, analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and identified as 2-(2',6'-dichlorophenyl)aminobenzyl alcohol and N-(2',6'-dichlorophenyl)anthranilylaldehyde.
Abstract in English:The aim of the present work was to test the combination of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) isolation using fumed silicon dioxide with capillary gas-chromatography (C-GC) with splitless injection for the analysis of NEFAs in human plasma. Injection volume, solvent re-condensation and split purge flow-rate were the parameters evaluated for the analysis of fatty acid methyl esters by C-GC. The use of a solvent re-condensation technique, associated with 1.0 µL injection and a split purge flow rate of 80 mL/min resulted in satisfactory analysis of NEFAs. Fourteen fatty acids were identified in plasma samples, ranging from 2.03 to 184.0 µmol/L. The combination of both techniques proved useful for routine analyses of plasma NEFAs.
Abstract in English:The main purpose of the present work is to study the concentration of atmospheric particles (PM10 and PM2.5) in the Candiota (RS) region using HV PM10 and dichotomous samplers. Four sampling sites at a distance of 50 km from the emission source were selected: Aceguá, Aeroporto, 8 de Agosto and Pedras Altas. Samples were collected from December 2000 to December 2001. The values obtained with the ISCST (Industrial Source Complex Term) model and with the samplers were compared on January 21st, April 5th, July 14th, August 1st, and October 13th 2001, and are representative of frontal systems occurring in the study area.
Abstract in English:Several models for the estimation of thermodynamic properties of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) are presented. The predicted thermodynamic quantities calculated by the proposed models agree with experimental thermodynamic data. A thermodynamic study of the anion exchange process on LDHs is also made using the described models. Tables for the prediction of monovalent anion exchange selectivities on LDHs are provided. Reasonable agreement is found between the predicted and the experimental monovalent anion exchange selectivities.
Abstract in English:The effect of synthetic zeolites on stabilizing Zn-contaminated soil using 0.01 mol L-1 CaCl2 leaching solution in batch experiments was investigated. The zeolites were synthesized from coal ash by hydrothermal treatment with alkaline solution. The additive enhanced the sorption capacity of the soil and reduced leaching. Zinc leaching was reduced by more than 80% using a minimum of 10% additive. The higher cation exchange capacity of the zeolite/soil mixtures and higher pH were responsible for stabilizing Zn in soil. The poly(2-aminobenzenesulfonic acid)-coated mercury thin-film electrode was used for the determination of zinc.
Abstract in English:This paper describes the analytical methods for determination of total chlorogenic acid (CGA) and their individual isomers. Spectrofotometric methods are adequate for total CGA analysis in green coffee but they can provide inflated results for coffee products. High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gel permeation column and ultraviolet (UV) monitoring is adequate for the simultaneous analysis of total CGA, alkaloids and sugars in coffee products. HPLC-UV-reversed phase is a simple, rapid and precise method for the determination of the individual isomers of CGA. Gas chromatography (GC) also is applied to the analysis of the individual isomers but phenolic acids need to be derivatized before analysis. Both HPLC- and GC-mass spectrometry provide an unequivocal identification of the individual isomers. The capillary electrophoresis method is simple, rapid and adequate to the simultaneous analysis of polyphenols and xanthines. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed throughout the text.
Abstract in English:Methylmercury is the most hazardous mercury species known. Due to its high stability, lipid solubility, and ionic properties, this compound shows a high ability to cross membranes in living organisms, damaging the central nervous system, mainly the brain, and the effects of chronic poisoning are progressive. In this paper some aspects related to the toxicity and the cases of methylmercury poisoning are described. Other aspects related to the behavior of methylmercury and the environmental factors that influence the transformation of mercury in the water and sediment, with emphasis on the methylation/demethylation reactions and the mercury cycle are discussed.
Abstract in English:The synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) by hydrothermal-LDH reconstruction and coprecipitation methods is reviewed using a thermodynamic approach. A mixture model was used for the estimation of the thermodynamics of formation of LDHs. The synthesis and solubility of LDHs are discussed in terms of standard molar Gibbs free energy change of reaction. Data for numerous divalent and trivalent metals as well as for some monovalent and tetravalent metals that may be part of the LDH structure have been compiled. Good agreement is found between theoretical and experimental data. Diagrams and tables for the prediction of possible new LDH materials are provided.
Abstract in English:Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are carbon and energy storage materials that are accumulated as intracellular granules in a variety of microorganisms during unbalanced growth. PHAs have drawn attention due to their properties similar to conventional plastics and complete biodegradability. They can be used for food and cosmetics packaging, and in medicine and agriculture. However, their applicability is reduced because of their high production cost compared to conventional plastics. An overview on production strategies of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) aiming at reducing the production costs is presented.
Abstract in English:The application of biocatalysis is a promising field related to new technologies for organic synthesis. The development of immobilization techniques is very important due to the multiple or repetitive use of a single batch of enzymes and the ability to stop the reaction rapidly, at any stage, by removing the enzymes. In most cases, after immobilization, enzymes and microorganisms maintain or even increase their activity and stability. This work presents an overview of the common methods for lipase immobilization in polymers and applications of these systems to obtain compounds of synthetic interest.
Abstract in English:The Hansch Analysis, also known by QSAR-2D, is an extremely effective tool in the identification and/or improvement of the pharmacological or toxicological profile of xenobiotics. This article presents the theme didactically and with enough detail to clarify the conceptual basis of Hansch Analysis. Besides, it shows the application of the technique in measuring the influence of physicochemical properties on the biological activity of compounds with pharmacological interest.
Abstract in English:The ability of biomolecules to catalyze chemical reactions is due chiefly to their sensitivity to variations of the pH in the surrounding environment. The reason for this is that they are made up of chemical groups whose ionization states are modulated by pH changes that are of the order of 0.4 units. The determination of the protonation states of such chemical groups as a function of conformation of the biomolecule and the pH of the environment can be useful in the elucidation of important biological processes from enzymatic catalysis to protein folding and molecular recognition. In the past 15 years, the theory of Poisson-Boltzmann has been successfully used to estimate the pKa of ionizable sites in proteins yielding results, which may differ by 0.1 unit from the experimental values. In this study, we review the theory of Poisson-Boltzmann under the perspective of its application to the calculation of pKa in proteins.
Abstract in English:Fuel cells are attracting much interest as efficient and clean energy conversion devices. The main components of low temperature fuel cells are the electrocatalysts used to promote the anodic and cathodic reactions, which are based on platinum and platinum alloys. These electrocatalysts are normally prepared in the form of metal nanoparticles supported on a conductive material, usually high surface area carbon, to improve catalyst utilization and reduce cost. This work presents and comments some methods used presently to produce these electrocatalysts. The performances of the produced electrocatalysts are compared to that of state-of-the-art commercial E-TEK electrocatalysts.
Abstract in English:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative pathology with severe economic and social impact. There is currently no cure, although cholinesterase inhibitors provide effective temporary relief of symptoms in some patients. Nowadays drug research and development are based on the cholinergic hypothesis that supports the cognition improvement by regulation of the synthesis and release of acetylcholine in the brain. There are only four commercial medicines approved for treatment of AD and natural products have played an important role in the research for new acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
Abstract in English:In this technical note, we describe the construction of a low-cost computer controlled device for layer-by-layer film fabrication. The software allows to control multiple material deposition, washing and drying steps and the time for each operation. To test the device, we produced and characterized self-assembled films of conductive polymers by alternating poly(o-methoxyaniline) (POMA) and poly(3-thiophene acetic acid) (PTAA) via the layer-by-layer technique.
Abstract in English:A new version of the normal coordinate analysis package NCT is presented. The upgrade was mainly devised to enable the NCT package to manipulate easily the Hessian matrix evaluated by quantum chemical calculations. Program codes were almost wholly rewritten to be more efficient with GNU Fortran77, or g77, and compiled under FreeBSD and MS-DOS with the DJGPP implementation. Three typical usages of the program package are presented by giving the related input and output files. Functionality of the programs was carefully and satisfactorily checked for some sample calculations.
Abstract in English:The diffusion of sodium through glass, the basis of a sodium coulometer, was revised and modified for the application to present-day light bulbs. Low pressure inert gas-filled incandescent lamps are useless to attain satisfactory results. The inclusion of a 450 V power supply in series with the electrolysis cell provided sufficient potential to overcome the effect of the inert gas molecules inside the bulb.
Abstract in English:This article decribes a simple and systematic method to interpret an infrared spectrum using a flow chart to elucidate the structure of a simple organic compound. It is aimed at undergraduate courses of organic chemistry to make beginners proficient. The proposed flow chart for infrared spectrum interpretation and characterization of organic compounds is suitable for theoretical and experimental courses.
Abstract in English:This work presents a proposal for the management of residues from teaching laboratories. The main goals of the proposal are: scale reduction of experiments, reuse of residues as raw materials for new experiments and appropriate treatment and storage of residues. The methodology includes standardized labels for residue classification and registration of experimental classes and their residues in files. The management seemed to be efficient, resulting in a reduction of the amount of reagents utilized and residues generated, and an increase of reutilization of residues. A considerable decrease of needed storage space and suitable methods for correct residue disposal were achieved. We expect that all laboratories, including those exclusively for research activities, become involved, in a near future, in the Residue Management Project of URI - Campus Erechim.
Abstract in English:Samples of copper compounds covering all of the XXth century and the end of the XIXth century were submitted to classical and instrumental quantitative analysis. The amount of impurities greatly decreased with time, reaching a constant level since the 1960's. The gravimetric method was suitable for the determination of copper although other procedures also gave good or reasonable results. However, for metal contaminants, atomic absorption spectrometry was the best choice because of its lower detection limits, being able to determine several elements in the oldest samples. Ion chromatography detected several anions in copper salts manufactured before the 1950's. An increasing quality of raw materials and a better sensitivity of analytical methods led to quality improvement of copper compounds with time.