Abstract in English:The Mössbauer analysis along with the structural Rietveld refinement based on powder X-ray data for the magnetic fraction (saturation magnetization, sigma = 19 J T-1 kg-1) separated from a tuffite material from Alto Paranaíba, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, reveal that a (Ti, Mg)-rich maghemite (deduced sigma = 17 J T-1 kg-1) and, for the first time observed in this lithodomain, magnesioferrite (characteristic sigma = 21 J T-1 kg-1) respond for the magnetization of the rock material. Consistent models for the ionic distribution in these iron-rich spinel structures are proposed.
Abstract in English:Calculations based on density functional theory at the B3LYP hybrid functional level applied to periodic models have been performed to characterize the structural and electronic properties of PbTiO3. Two different slab terminations (PbO and TiO2) have been considered to obtain and discuss the results of band structure, density of states, charge distribution on bulk and surface relaxation. It is observed that the relaxation processes are most prominent for the Ti and Pb surface atoms. The electron density maps confirm the partial covalent character of the Ti-O bonds. The calculated optical band gap and other results are in agreement with experimental data.
Abstract in English:Biodiesel was produced by the transesterification of neutral soybean oil and anhydrous ethanol using NaOH as catalyst. Combinations of biodiesel and diesel in the proportions of 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% were tested, respectively, as fuel in an energy generator. The average consumption and mixture performance were analysed. The tests showed a reduction in Diesel oil consumption when mixed with up to 20% of biodiesel. The quality characteristics of these fuels were analyzed.
Abstract in English:Brucite (Mg(OH)2) is a structural model of several natural layered minerals as well as of synthetic layered double hydroxides (LDH). Exchange reaction studies of these compounds are well documented in the literature but surface chemical modifications, especially for brucite, are quite rare. We report the behaviour of brucite in reaction with succinic and benzoic acid in different solvents and temperatures. The compounds were analysed through X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surfaces of brucite crystals were grafted producing expansions, attributed to the arrangement of the grafted species between the layers.
Abstract in English:The ellipticines constitute a broad class of molecules with antitumor activity. In the present work we analyzed the structure and properties of a series of ellipticine derivatives in the gas phase and in solution using quantum mechanical and Monte Carlo methods. The results showed a good correlation between the solvation energies in water obtained with the continuum model and the Monte Carlo simulation. Molecular descriptors were considered in the development of QSAR models using the DNA association constant (log Kapp) as biological data. The results showed that the DNA binding is dominated by electronic parameters, with small contributions from the molecular volume and area.
Abstract in English:The effect of chromium on the catalytic properties of MCM-41 was evaluated in order to develop new catalysts for the trimethylbenzene transalkylation with benzene to produce ethylbenzene, a high-value aromatic in the industry. It was found that chromium decreases the specific surface area but increases the acidity, turning MCM-41 into an active and selective catalyst for ethylbenzene and toluene production. The coke produced on the catalyst is hydrogenated and mainly located outside the pores and thus can be easily removed. The catalyst is more active and selective than mordenite, a commercial catalyst, and thus more promising for commercial applications.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work is to present the catalytic performance of iridium supported on carbon nanofibers with macroscopic shaping in a 2 N hydrazine microthruster placed inside a vacuum chamber in order to reproduce real-life conditions. The performances obtained are compared to those of the commercial catalyst Shell 405. The carbon-nanofiber based catalyst showed better performance than the commercial catalyst from the standpoint of activity due to its texture and its thermal conductivity.
Abstract in English:The alpha-zirconium (IV) hydrogenphosphate (alpha-ZrP) has received great attention in the last years due to its properties like ion exchange, intercalation, ionic conductivity and catalytic activity. This work reports a method to produce metallic copper clusters on alpha-ZrP to be used as catalysts in petrochemical processes. It was found that the solids were non-crystalline regardless of the uptake of copper and the reduction. The specific surface area increased as a consequence of the increase of the interlayer distance to accept the copper ions between the layers. During the reduction, big clusters of copper (0,5-11µ) with different sizes and shapes were produced.
Abstract in English:Two high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods for the quantitative determination of indinavir sulfate were tested, validated and statistically compared. Assays were carried out using as mobile phases mixtures of dibutylammonium phosphate buffer pH 6.5 and acetonitrile (55:45) at 1 mL/min or citrate buffer pH 5 and acetonitrile (60:40) at 1 mL/min, an octylsilane column (RP-8) and a UV spectrophotometric detector at 260 nm. Both methods showed good sensitivity, linearity, precision and accuracy. The statistical analysis using the t-student test for the determination of indinavir sulfate raw material and capsules indicated no statistically significant difference between the two methods.
Abstract in English:A simple and rapid precipitation titration method was developed and validated to determine sulfate ion content in indinavir sulfate raw material. 0.1 mol L-1 lead nitrate volumetric solution was used as titrant employing potentiometric endpoint determination using a lead-specific electrode. The United States Pharmacopoeia Forum indicates a potentiometric method for sulfate ion quantitation using 0.1 mol L-1 lead perchlorate as titrant. Both methods were validated concerning linearity, precision and accuracy, yielding good results. The sulfate ion content found by the two validated methods was compared by the statistical t-student test, indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the methods.
Abstract in English:The essential oils from leaves, root bark and root wood of Cochlospermum vitifolium were investigated for the first time. The oils were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The main volatile constituents were beta-caryophyllene (8.2 - 46.5%), beta-bisabolene (11.5 - 29.3%), gamma-muurolene (28.4%), alpha-humulene (26.0%), 1-hydroxy-3-hexadecanone (16.2 - 19.5%) and beta-pinene (10.6%). Phytochemical analysis of the root bark and root wood extracts yielded excelsin, pinoresinol, narigenin, aromadendrin, galic acid and a triacylbenzene, along with beta-sitosterol and stigmasterol and their D-glucosides. The structures of all compounds were determined by analyses of the spectroscopic data (NMR and MS), and comparison with the literature.
Abstract in English:In this study the efficiency of advanced oxidative processes (AOPs) were investigated toward the degradation of aqueous solutions containing benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTX). The results indicated that BTX can be effectively oxidized by the UV-A-assisted photo-Fenton process. The treatment permits almost total degradation of BTX and removal of more than 80% of the phenolyc intermediates at reaction times of about 30 min. Preliminary investigations using solar light suggest a good potentiality of the process for the treatment of large volumes of aqueous samples containing these polluting species.
Abstract in English:Solid municipal waste contains a large volume of polymers and its final disposal is a serious environmental problem. Consequently, the recycling of the principal polymers present in the solid waste is an alternative. In this review we describe the mechanical and chemical recycling of polymers and the energy recovery from plastic wastes. Polymer recycling involves not only the development of processing technologies, but also the solution of many chemical and analytical problems. The technological, economical and social aspects of polymer recycling are also considered.
Abstract in English:Solid-phase organic synthesis (SPOS) has been considered the main strategy for the construction of combinatorial libraries, because its simplicity leads to faster synthetic procedures. In addition to that, a series of reports in the specialized literature show great advantages in the use of microwave activation, when compared to classical heating, for instance: shorter reaction times, in some cases from several hours to a few minutes, increase of selectivity and product yields, energy economy and reduction and/or elimination of solvent. This review describes the use of microwave ovens/reactors in solid phase organic synthesis, describing the advantages, equipment and reactions using both techniques.
Abstract in English:Thiazoles comprise an important class of heterocyclic compounds present in many potent biologically active molecules. This heterocyclic ring also shows various applications in organic synthesis to obtain new compounds. This paper presents different methodologies for the preparation of thiazole ring systems, as well as their synthetic applications.
Abstract in English:The Baccharis genus is represented by more than 500 species distributed mainly in the tropical areas of South America. Many of them are extensively used in folk medicine in the treatment or prevention of anemias, inflammations, diabetes and stomach, liver and prostate diseases. Phytochemical and biological investigations in about 120 species resulted mainly in the isolation of clerodane and labdane diterpenes and flavonoid aglicones with the flavone unit being the most frequent.
Abstract in English:In general, molecular modeling techniques applied in medicinal chemistry have been static and drug based. However the active site geometry and the intrinsic flexibility of both receptor and ligand are fundamental properties for molecular recognition and drug action. As a consequence, the use of dynamic models to describe the ligand-receptor complex is becoming a more common procedure. In this work we discuss the relevance of considering the receptor structure in medicinal chemistry studies as well as the flexibility of the ligand-receptor complex.
Abstract in English:The world is in a process of awakening with respect to the environment. Our society has started to recognize that the environment is one of our largest resources and has begun legally enforce its protection. In Brazil, the environmental law is constitutionally guaranteed. International treaties have been signed, amongst them the Agenda 21 which is a commitment to sustainable development. Green Chemistry is a strategy that helps make this commitment. The literature presents many examples of studies of the application of Green Chemistry philosophy. In this paper we will present some points that we believe to be important and promising.
Abstract in English:The history of the rare earths is rich in innovation and these elements have been the object of study of a number of scientists. Rare earths are used practically in almost all aspects of life and these applications are due to their outstanding properties, mainly spectroscopic and magnetic. In industry, the applications of rare earths are many, such as in catalysis, phosphors, magnetism, glass and lasers. In biological systems, rare earths are used, for example, as luminescent probes in the investigation of binding sites in proteins, labels in immunoassays and in noninvasive tests.
Abstract in English:The chemotherapy agents against cancer may be classified as "cell cycle-specific" or "cell cycle-nonspecific". Nevertheless, several of them have their biological activity related to any kind of action on DNA such as: antimetabolic agents (DNA synthesis inhibition), inherently reactive agents (DNA alkylating electrophilic traps for macromolecular nucleophiles from DNA through inter-strand cross-linking - ISC - alkylation) and intercalating agents (drug-DNA interactions inherent to the binding made due to the agent penetration in to the minor groove of the double helix). The earliest and perhaps most extensively studied and most heavily employed clinical anticancer agents in use today are the DNA inter-strand cross-linking agents.
Abstract in English:Anthropogenic pollution of groundwater and surface water has become a very serious environmental problem around the world. A wide range of toxic pollutants is recalcitrant to the conventional treatment methods, thus there is much interest in the development of more efficient remediation processes. Degradation of organic pollutants by zero-valent iron is one of the most promising approaches for water treatment, mainly because it is of low cost, easy to obtain and effective. After a general introduction to water pollution and current treatments, this work highlights the advances, applications and future trends of water remediation by zero-valent iron. Special attention is given to degradation of organochloride and nitroaromatic compounds, which are commonly found in textile and paper mill effluents.
Abstract in English:In this work a closed-vessel microwave-assisted acid decomposition procedure for clays was developed. Aluminum, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, and Ti were determined in clay digestates by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The most critical parameter for total decomposition of clays was the composition of the reagent mixture. The applied power and the heating time exerted a less critical influence. Best decomposition conditions were attained using a reagent mixture containing 4 mL aqua regia plus 3 mL HF and the heating program was implemented in 12 min. The accuracy of the results was demonstrated using two standard reference materials and a paired t-test showed a good agreement between determined and certified values at a 95% confidence level.
Abstract in English:In this work we show how to build a piece of equipment for depositing thin films by the dip-coating process, using inexpensive components easily found on the market. This equipment allows us to control the dipping and pulling velocity at which the substrate is put in the film precursor solution, two very important parameters for obtain thin films. This article discusses the construction of the mechanical and electric parts of the equipment, a simple method to interface it to a computer and the development of the software to control the dip-coating parameters.
Abstract in English:The spectrophotometric determination of Cd(II) using a flow injection system provided with a solid-phase reactor for cadmium preconcentration and on-line reagent preparation, is described. It is based on the formation of a dithizone-Cd complex in basic medium. The calibration curve is linear between 6 and 300 µg L-1 Cd(II), with a detection limit of 5.4 µg L-1, an RSD of 3.7% (10 replicates in duplicate) and a sample frequency of 11.4 h-1. The proposed method was satisfactorily applied to the determination of Cd(II) in surface, well and drinking waters.
Abstract in English:This paper describes methodologies for the extraction and characterization by TLC, UV-VIS, IR and NMR of bixin from Bixa orellana L. (urucum) seeds. Based on the results, the extraction with NaOH 5% is the fastest, uses low-cost materials, requires two to four laboratory hours and is a useful alternative for an experimental Organic Chemistry discipline.
Abstract in English:The experiment introduces the undergraduate students to the crystal field theory. The electronic spectra of the octahedral complexes of [Ni(L)n]2+ (L = H2O, dmso, NH3 and en) obtained in the experiment are used to calculate 10Dq and B parameters. The experiment shows how the parameters can be calculated and correlated with the nature of the ligands and the field intensities produced.
Abstract in English:This work presents a detailed routine applied to the identification of unknown chemicals and wastes. 786 specimens were analyzed during 20 months. Unknown materials fell into three basic classes: (i) commercial chemicals without labels or illegible ones; (ii) laboratory synthesis products; (iii) used solvents (including mixtures). Uranium and thorium were recovered form their wastes. Unknown chemicals were mainly inorganic compounds, many of which had never been opened. Alkaline salts were dominant, but also precious metal compounds were identified. Laboratory synthesis products were organic compounds. The final destination depended on the nature of the chemical. Most organic compounds were sent to incineration; inorganic salts were distributed among several public organizations, including secondary and technical schools. The work described in this paper greatly reduced the amount of wastes that had to be sent to disposal.
Abstract in English:Classical methods of analysis played a fundamental role in the development of Chemistry and the chemical industry. They have been tools for analytical procedures since the 18th century, remaining useful until today. The technological appeal of the instrumental methods seems to dazzle the incoming generations of chemists who do not recognize the importance of titrimetry. A short description of the development of titrimetry is presented in order to call attention to historical landmarks for teaching and learning activities in Portuguese. A compilation of some current standard analytical methods that employ titrations is presented to illustrate the availability of titrimetry nowadays.