Abstract in English:In atmospheric aerosol sampling, it is inevitable that the air that carries particles is in motion, as a result of both externally driven wind and the sucking action of the sampler itself. High or low air flow sampling speeds may lead to significant particle size bias. The objective of this work is the validation of measurements enabling the comparison of species concentration from both air flow sampling techniques. The presence of several outliers and increase of residuals with concentration becomes obvious, requiring non-parametric methods, recommended for the handling of data which may not be normally distributed. This way, conversion factors are obtained for each of the various species under study using Kendall regression.
Abstract in English:Three mixtures of triterpenes (maniladiol and breine; alpha and beta-amyrin; lupenone, alpha and beta-amyrinone) were isolated from Protium heptaphyllum March resin. The structural identification was based on NMR and mass spectrometry data. Lupenone, and alpha and beta-amyrinone were not reported before as constituents of this resin. The resin was submitted to methylation and acetylation reactions. The pure and derivatized resins and the mixtures (maniladiol and breine; alpha and beta-amyrin) were analyzed by TG and DSC. The TG curves revealed that the derivatization decreases the thermal stability of the resin. The DSC curves showed peaks that can be assigned to evaporation and phase transitions processes.
Abstract in English:An aliphatic-aromatic copolyester of poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, and poly(ethylene adipate), PEA, PET-co-PEA, was synthesized by the high temperature melt reaction of post-consumer PET and PEA. As observed by NMR spectroscopy, the reaction yielded random copolyesters in a few minutes through ester-interchange reactions, even without added catalyst. The copolyesters obtained in the presence of a catalyst presented higher intrinsic viscosity than that obtained without the addition of catalyst, due to simultaneous polycondensation and ester-interchange reactions. The structure of the aliphatic-aromatic copolyesters obtained in different PET/PEA ratio is random as observed by NMR analysis.
Abstract in English:Two new marine metabolites, 3Z, 6Z, 9Z-dodecatrien-1-ol (1) from the ascidian Botrylloides giganteum and 4H-pyran-2ol acetate from the sponge Ircinia felix (4) are herein reported. The known bromotyrosine compounds, 2-(3,5-dibromo-4-methoxyphenyl)-N,N,N-dimethylethanammonium (2) and 2,6-dibromo-4-(2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl)phenol (3), have been isolated from the sponge Verongula gigantea. Serotonin (5) is reported for the first time from the sponge Cliona delitrix, and tambjamines A (15) and D (16) isolated as their respective salts from the nudibranch Tambja eliora. Only tambjamine D presented cytotoxicity against CEM (IC50 12.2 µg/mL) and HL60 (IC50 13.2 µg/mL) human leukemya cells, MCF-7 breast cancer cells (IC50 13.2 µg/mL), colon HCT-8 cancer cells (IC50 10.1 µg/mL) and murine melanoma B16 cancer cells (IC50 6.7 µg/mL).
Abstract in English:Memora peregrina (local name: 'ciganinha' - Bignoniaceae) is a weed that often invades pastures in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso do Sul. From its leaves and subterranean parts, the following compounds were isolated: allantoin (20.7 w/w in subterranean parts), the iridoid 6beta-hydroxyipolamiide, hyperin, 3'-O-methylhyperin, 4-hydroxy-N-methylproline, beta-sitosterol, alpha-amirin and beta-amirin, and lupeol. Allantoin exhibited an activity of inducing germination in seeds of Lactuca sativa used as a biological model, and the iridoid showed moderate activity in the larval development of Anagasta kuehniella. These results, associated with this plant's behavior, are suggestive of the occurrence of adaptive and competitive strategies in relation to other plant species.
Abstract in English:Passive films formed in bicarbonate solutions on carbon steel, chromium steel and high speed steel have been characterized by XPS. The passive films formed on chromium and high speed steels showed superior protective properties than those formed on carbon steel. It was confirmed by XPS that the steel composition influences the passive film composition. Chromium oxide and hydroxide, as well as molybdenum and tungsten oxides and hydroxides are present in the passive film of chromium steel and high speed steel, respectively, besides iron oxide and hydroxide. The more complex composition of the oxide film on high speed steel explains its electrochemical behaviour and highest corrosion resistance.
Abstract in English:The purpose of this work was the production of ammonium sulfate double labeled with 15N and 34S ((15NH4)2(34)SO4)), employing the ion exchange technique in two different processes. The first one was carried out using Na2(34)SO4 and (15NH4)2SO4 previously enriched. It was possible to obtain about 54g of (15NH4)2(34)SO4 from 70.0g of Na2(34)SO4 and 64.2g of (15NH4)2SO4 . The second method involved the production of H2(34)SO4, by ion exchange, and its subsequent reaction with 15NH3(aq), using a distillation system, to yield 58 g of (15NH4)2(34)SO4 from 43.1 g of H2(34)SO4.
Abstract in English:A flow system coupled to a tungsten coil atomizer in an atomic absorption spectrometer (TCA-AAS) was developed for As(III) determination in waters, by extraction with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (NaDDTC) as complexing agent, and by sorption of the As(III)-DDTC complex in a micro-column filled with 5 mg C18 reversed phase (10 µL dry sorbent), followed by elution with ethanol. A complete pre-concentration/elution cycle took 208 s, with 30 s sample load time (1.7 mL) and 4 s elution time (71 µL). The interface and software for the synchronous control of two peristaltic pumps (RUN/ STOP), an autosampler arm, seven solenoid valves, one injection valve, the electrothermal atomizer and the spectrometer Read function were constructed. The system was characterized and validated by analytical recovery studies performed both in synthetic solutions and in natural waters. Using a 30 s pre-concentration period, the working curve was linear between 0.25 and 6.0 µg L-1 (r = 0.9976), the retention efficiency was 94±1% (6.0 µg L-1), and the pre-concentration coefficient was 28.9. The characteristic mass was 58 pg, the mean repeatability (expressed as the variation coefficient) was 3.4% (n=5), the detection limit was 0.058 µg L-1 (4.1 pg in 71 µL of eluate injected into the coil), and the mean analytical recovery in natural waters was 92.6 ± 9.5 % (n=15). The procedure is simple, economic, less prone to sample loss and contamination and the useful lifetime of the micro-column was between 200-300 pre-concentration cycles.
Abstract in English:Chemical investigation of Z. ekmanii resulted in the isolation of skimmianine, dictamnine, tembamide, sesamin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol. The structures were established by spectroscopic analyses. This is the first report on the phytochemical study of the roots and leaves of Z. ekmanii.
Abstract in English:In this work the degradation of aqueous solutions of reactive azo-dyes is reported using a combined reductive/advanced oxidative process based in the H2O2/zero-valent iron system. At optimized experimental conditions (pH 7, H2O2 100 mg L-1, iron 7 g L-1) and using a continuous system containing commercial iron wool, the process afforded almost total discolorization of aqueous solutions of three reactive azo-dyes (reactive orange 16, reactive black 5 and brilliant yellow 3G-P) at a hydraulic retention time of 2.5 min. At these conditions the hydrogen peroxide is almost totally consumed while the released total soluble iron reaches a concentration compatible with the current Brazilian legislation (15 mg L-1).
Abstract in English:Eighteen circular blocks of resins cured either by a LED or a halogen lamp (20, 40 and 60 s), had their top (T) and bottom (B) surfaces studied using a FT-Raman spectrometer. Systematic changes in the intensity of the methacrylate C=C stretching mode at 1638 cm-1 as a function of exposure duration were observed. The calculated degree of conversion (DC) ranged from 45.0% (B) to 52.0% (T) and from 49.0% (B) to 55.0% (T) for the LED and halogen lamp, respectively. LED and halogen light produced similar DC values with 40 and 60 s of irradiation.
Abstract in English:Sand samples collected from two sampling sites on Guarapari and Iriri beaches, state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, were studied in an attempt to better describe their chemical and mineralogical compositions and radioactive behaviors. The sands were found to contain about 6 (Guarapari) and 2 dag kg-1 (Iriri) of rare earth and thorium that, if allocated to the monazite-(Ce) structure, lead to the averaged formulae Ce3+0,494Gd3+0,012La3+0,209Nd3+0,177Pr3+0,040Sm3+0,024Th4+0,033 (PO4) and Ce3+0,474La3+0,227Nd3+0,190Pr3+0,044Sm3+0,032Th4+0,024 (PO4). From Mössbauer spectroscopy data, the magnetic fractions of these sands were found to contain stoichiometric hematite (47.4 dag kg-1, from Guarapari, and 25.1 dag kg-1, from Iriri) and magnetite (44.1 and 58.8 dag kg-1). The specific alpha and beta radiation activities were also measured for both samples.
Abstract in English:In this work, we report the synthesis and the photoluminescence features of Eu(III)-doped yttrium-aluminium oxide obtained by non-hydrolytic sol-gel routes. After heating the powders above 600 ºC the XRD patterns show the presence of the Y4Al2O9 (YAM) and Y3Al5O12 (YAG) phases. At 800 and at 1500 ºC the PL spectra display the Eu(III) lines characteristic of the YAM monoclinic phase. The 5D0->7F2 transition is favored relatively to the 5D0->7F1 lines. However, at 1100 ºC the cubic YAG is the preferential phase and the 5D0->7F1 transition dominates the spectrum. The Eu(III) ions lie in a centrosymmetrical site. The different solvents used in the sol-gel synthesis also change the relative proportion between these two phases. This is monitored analyzing the modifications in the relative intensity between the 5D0->7F2 and the 5D0->7F1 transitions.
Abstract in English:Quinine and quinidine are well-known 4-quinolinecarbinolamines that exhibit antimalarial activity, but, in contrast, their epimers 9-epiquinine and 9-epiquinidine are almost inactive. Literature data are conflicting in describing the 4-quinolinecarbinolamine interaction mode with the molecular target, the ferriprotoporphyrin IX [Fe(III)PPIX]. In the present paper, a pharmacophore is proposed based on the binding of the non-aromatic nitrogen to the iron atom. The 4-quinolinecarbinolamine antimalarials were superimposed on the pharmacophore under consideration and complexes with Fe(III)PPIX were constructed. Conformational analyses of the complexes were performed applying the MM+ molecular mechanics method. The analysis of the complexes showed that the proposed ligand mode is possible although it does not explain the activity differences between epimers. A discussion of the structural aspects is also provided.
Abstract in English:This work reports the preparation, characterization and study of the ion exchange behavior of hydrous niobium oxide prepared by a homogeneous precipitation method. The precipitating agent was obtained in aqueous solution by thermal decomposition of urea or ammonium carbonate. The compounds were chemically and physically characterized by X-ray diffractometry, thermal analysis (TG/DTG), surface area measurements and ion exchange behavior with sodium. The materials prepared with ammonium carbonate presented a higher degree of crystallinity and better ion exchange capacity with sodium than materials prepared with urea. In the homogeneous precipitation method, materials were obtained with specific surface area of 123 - 224 m² g-1. A variation of the preparation process produced hydrous niobium oxide with a different degree of hydration and specific surface area. This provided materials with different physico-chemical properties.
Abstract in English:Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) is widely used in materials characterization. In this work, we briefly introduce the main concepts related to this technique such as, linear and non-linear viscoelasticity, relaxation time, response of material when it is submitted to a sinusoidal or other periodic stress. Moreover, the main applications of this technique in polymers and polymer blends are also presented. The discussion includes: phase behavior, crystallization; spectrum of relaxation as a function of frequency or temperature; correlation between the material damping and its acoustic and mechanical properties.
Abstract in English:Products resulting from the ethoxylation of hydroxylated compounds, especially water and ethanol, are of great commercial importance. This work presents several aspects concerning the catalytic reactions of ethylene oxide, a chemical substance used in the production of a wide variety of products. Mechanisms of ethoxylation, distribution of products, formation of undesired by-products and perspectives for new processes using heterogeneous catalysis are also reviewed and discussed.
Abstract in English:Bisphosphonates are drugs that have been widely used in different bone diseases, and have recently been used successfully against many parasites. Various synthetic routes to prepare different types of bisphosphonates have been described, with distinct potency and pharmacological activity. A number of analytical techniques are currently being used to analyze these drugs; among these, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), with different systems of detection, is worth highlighting. However, the development of more sensitive methods is still necessary, once they are essential for bioavailability and bioequivalence studies. This paper reports the major synthesis routes, chemical analysis methodologies and pharmacological applications of bisphosphonates.
Abstract in English:The preparation and application of organic-inorganic hybrid materials are under fast development and constitute an interesting research topic on account of the versatility and wide range of applications offered by these materials. These properties can be achieved due to the mixture of the components at the molecular level. The present review covers the state of the art, the most useful preparation routes and the potential applications of these materials.
Abstract in English:Raman dispersion refers to the dependence of the position of Raman bands on the energy of the exciting radiation. In this work, the three main models currently used to explain this phenomenon (Conjugated Length Model, Amplitude Mode Model and Effective Conjugation Coordinate Model) are discussed. Raman dispersion is a consequence of pi electron delocalization, but each model describes in a different way how pi electron delocalization affects the position of Raman bands. Here the features, qualities and problems of the three models are highlighted.
Abstract in English:The process of anaerobic digestion has been greatly developed during the last decades for the treatment of wastewater from food industries as for example, wastewaters from sugar and starch manufacturing and from breweries. However, for wastewaters which contain high amounts of fats and proteins, such as those from slaughterhouses and dairies, anaerobic digestion was found to be troublesome, due to the potential of sludge flotation, the formation of scum layers of lipids at the surface of the reactor, which are not digested and the toxicity of the intermediate compounds (long chain fatty acids) generated during the anaerobic digestion of the wastewater. The addition of hydrolytic enzymes, such as lipases prior to the anaerobic digestion can minimize these problems. In this work, this strategy is reviewed and the technical issues that must be considered in determining its feasibility are discussed.
Abstract in English:Sialic acids are nine-carbon carbohydrates that occur widely in nature and occupy the terminal portions of some glycoproteins and glycolipids of cell membranes. These carbohydrates are closely involved in cell-cell interactions and in processes such as microbial infection, inflammation, etc. Studies on the participation of sialic acids in biological processes have provided comprehension about their role in the infection by the influenza virus, the causal agent of flu. In this article, we present an overview of the importance of sialic acids in the influenza virus infection and how the knowledge of their involvement in this process has allowed the development of selective and efficient drugs against the virus.
Abstract in English:This review presents a brief account concerning the production, characterization and evolution of the knowledge in the area of diamond and boron-doped diamond films. The most important methods used for the growth of these films, such as chemical vapor deposition and high pressure/high temperature systems, as well as the several kinds of reactors which can be employed are reviewed. However, larger emphasis is given to the CVD method. Morphological, structural and electric properties of these films, as well as their role in the performance of voltammetric electrodes for electrochemistry and electroanalytical chemistry are also discussed.
Abstract in English:The saccharinate anion, obtained by deprotonation of the N-H moiety of saccharin (o-sulfobenzimide) is a very versatile and polyfunctional ligand in coordination chemistry. In this review the different forms of metal-to-ligand interactions involving this anion and some other coordination peculiarities are briefly discussed on the basis of some selected examples.
Abstract in English:The soils of the world contain more carbon than the combined total amounts occurring in vegetation and the atmosphere. Hence soils are a major reservoir of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems and an important sink. Recently, emphasis has been placed on the need to sequester carbon from atmospheric carbon dioxide into soil organic matter because of international concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change. The best strategies to built-up carbon stocks in the soil are basically those that increase the input of organic matter to the soil, and/or decrease the rate of soil organic matter decomposition. Grain crop systems based on soil ploughing and harrowing lead to CO2 emissions combined with tremendous soil losses. In Brazil, no-tillage system was introduced to combat soil erosion by water and this soil management led to the build-up of soil carbon stocks with simultaneous high crop yields. However, the present procedure used to quantify carbon stocks in soils is laborious and of high cost. The use of infrared spectroscopy is very promising as an alternative low-cost method of soil carbon determination.
Abstract in English:Research in chemistry education has recognized the need for facilitating students' understanding of different concepts. In contrast, most general chemistry curricula and textbooks not only ignore the context in which science progresses but also emphasize rote learning and algorithmic strategies. A historical reconstruction of scientific progress shows that it inevitably leads to controversy and debate, which can arouse students' interest and thus facilitate understanding. The objective of this article is to review research related to the evaluation of general chemistry textbooks (based on history and philosophy of science, HPS) and suggest alternatives that can facilitate conceptual understanding.
Abstract in English:A simple low-cost flow cell was developed, built and optimized in order to observe dynamic interfacial tension of continuous flow systems. Distinct materials can be used in one of the cell walls in order to observe the intermolecular forces between the flowing liquid and the chemical constitution of the walls. The fluorescence depolarization was evaluated using Rhodamine B as fluorescent probe seeded in ethylene glycol. The effects of the positioning angles on the data acquired across the cell are reported. The reproducibility of the data was evaluated with a spectrometer assembled in-house and the relative standard deviation was below 3%.
Abstract in English:A new computer program has been developed to help the users of force methods for magnetic moment determination. It provides a user-friendly interface for the calculation of corrected magnetic susceptibilities of paramagnetic materials and enables the user to simulate a number of chemical formulations for the sample under study. The program is written in the Perl scripting language and runs on a Unix platform.
Abstract in English:A simple experiment for the preparation of transparent conducting glass electrodes by deposition of pure and fluorine doped SnO2 films is described. This procedure was tested in the undergraduate inorganic course at IQ-UNICAMP. The success in achieving a conducting layer was easily checked using the standard probes of a volt-ohm meter. The optical transmittance and thickness were studied by UV-vis spectrophotometry. To discuss the experimental results we place significant emphasis on molecular orbital and energy band model theories. The undergraduate students can also discuss the concepts related to the electronic properties of solids and to interesting new materials, such as transparent conducting films, which are the subject of significant current research and technological applications.
Abstract in English:This work reports the situation of technicians employed in chemical industries in Curitiba city, working in chemistry and related fields. The aim of this study is to characterize not only their work conditions, but also their social, economic, professional and educational profiles.
Abstract in English:This paper aims to discuss and reflect about the use of computers in the teaching of Quantum Chemistry. A course on Computational Quantum Chemistry concentrating on Medicinal Chemistry projects was developed for undergraduate and graduate students. The results showed that students got more motivated and involved when there is an articulation between theory and practice. This work presents an alternative way to teach Theoretical Chemistry using projects.
Abstract in English:In this work we describe an experiment for the thermal cracking of octane and heptane and the qualitative analyses of the products using the Baeyer test for unsaturated compounds and gas chromatographic analyses. The experiment is very simple and requires one period of two hours and is suitable for undergraduate organic chemistry experimental courses.