Abstract in English:The objective of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method for quantification of glucosamine and chondroitin in pharmaceutical formulations. Multivariate calibration combined with infrared spectrophotometry allowed this analysis. 25 mixtures of glucosamine-6-sulphate and chondroitin-6-sulphate were used for calibration. Average errors found with this model during external validation were 1.37% for glucosamine sulphate and 1.30% for chondroitin sulphate. This method presented satisfactory results for assessed variables, what indicating that it is suitable for simultaneous quantification of glucosamine and chondroitin.
Abstract in English:Vanadium oxide supported on hydrotalcite-type precursors was studied in the decomposition of isopropanol. Hydrotalcite-type compounds with different y = Mg+2/Al+3 ratios were synthesized by the method of coprecipitating nitrates of Mg+2 and Al+3 cations with K2CO3 as precipitant. The X-ray diffraction patterns of Al-rich hydrotalcite precursors showed the presence of crystalline phases of brucite and gibbsite. It was shown that chemical composition, texture, acid-base properties of the active sites and also Mg/Al ratio strongly affect the formation of the products in the oxidation of isopropanol. The Al-rich catalysts were much more active than the Mg-rich ones, converting isopropanol mainly to propylene.
Abstract in English:Ferric chloride as a new activating agent was used to obtain activated carbons from agroindustrial waste. This material was prepared at three temperatures of pyrolysis, 200, 280 and 400 ºC. The carbonaceous materials obtained after the activation processes showed high specific surface areas (BET), with values higher than 900 m² g-1. The materials showed different behaviors in the adsorption of methylene blue dye and reactive red textile dye in water solutions. An important fact in the use of FeCl3 as an activating agent is that the activation temperature is at 280 ºC, well below of those commonly employed in chemical or physical activations described in the literature.
Abstract in English:The ornamental rock industry generates huge amounts of wastes during the process of extraction and sawing of rock blocks. The ornamental rock powder waste is a non-biodegradable material, which represents the increase in environmental problem. The waste was collected from a granitic rock sawing plant located in Santo Antônio de Pádua, Rio de Janeiro. The chemical-environmental characterization and classification of the waste were done according to ABNT standards. The results showed that the granitic rock powder waste should be classified as Class II A - "No Inert", because of its high concentrations of lead, chrome, iron and manganese.
Abstract in English:The removal of As(V) by a crosslinked iron(III)-chitosan adsorbent was evaluated under various conditions. The adsorption capacity of CH-FeCL was around 54 mg/g of As(V). The kinetics of adsorption obeys a pseudo-first-order model with rate constants equal to 0.022, 0.028, and 0.033 min-1 at 15, 25 and 35 ºC respectively. Adsorption data were well described by the Langmuir model, although they could be modeled also by the Langmuir-Freundlich equation. The maximum adsorption capacity, calculated with the Langmuir model, was 127 mg g-1 of As(V). The inhibition by competing anions is dependant on their kind and valence.
Abstract in English:Electrochemical behavior of pesticides is extensively studied, but little attention has been given to the study of their degradation products (by-products) by electrochemical methods. However, the degradation products of pesticides can be even more toxic then the parent products and such studies should be encouraged. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the electroactivity of by-products of imazaquin, methylparathion, bentazon and atrazine, generated by UV irradiation and measured using cyclic and differential pulse voltammetry and UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry. Results have shown that several by-products exhibit electroactivity, allowing, in some cases, the simultaneous determination of both parent and degradation products.
Abstract in English:An evaluation of the performance of a continuous flow hydride generator-nebulizer for flame atomic absorption spectrometry was carried out. Optimization of nebulizer gas flow rate, sample acid concentration, sample and tetrahydroborate uptake rates and reductant concentration, on the As and Se absorbance signals was carried out. A hydrogen-argon flame was used. An improvement of the analytical sensitivity relative to the conventional bead nebulizer used in flame AA was obtained (2 (As) and 4.8 (Se) µg L-1). Detection limits (3σb) of 1 (As) and 1.3 (Se) µg L-1 were obtained. Accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing an oyster tissue reference material.
Abstract in English:The caffeine solubility in supercritical CO2 was studied by assessing the effects of pressure and temperature on the extraction of green coffee oil (GCO). The Peng-Robinson¹ equation of state was used to correlate the solubility of caffeine with a thermodynamic model and two mixing rules were evaluated: the classical mixing rule of van der Waals with two adjustable parameters (PR-VDW) and a density dependent one, proposed by Mohamed and Holder² with two (PR-MH, two parameters adjusted to the attractive term) and three (PR-MH3 two parameters adjusted to the attractive and one to the repulsive term) adjustable parameters. The best results were obtained with the mixing rule of Mohamed and Holder² with three parameters.
Abstract in English:The humic substances were extracted from sediments, water and soil close to the Lagoa dos Patos-MS. The characterization was performed through fluorescence emission. In the HSs it is possible to see strong indications of incorporation of compounds originating from lignin degradation, confirmed by fluorescence emission (EEM and synchronous spectra). These differences observed in HSs may be due to tropical regions displaying a great variety of vascular plants and aquatic macrophytes that contribute natural organic matter. The seasonality effect also causes the entrance of pedogenic material and the suspension of sediments by the action of winds.
Abstract in English:Traditional biomarker parameters and aromatic compounds were applied to characterize and classify ten Cuban asphaltites (asphaltene-rich petroleum occurring as seeps or filling veins, joints, cavities and fissures). Genetic molecular parameters were compared in order to establish oil-oil correlations between samples. Thermal evolution was investigated using saturated biomarker and aromatic maturity parameters. All samples seem to represent petroleum in the early catagenetic stage. Statistical procedures used as auxiliary techniques show that they represent oils of Family II (marine anoxic carbonate sourced oils), except for 2 samples interpreted as belonging to Family III oils (normal marine siliciclastic suboxic sourced oils).
Abstract in English:This work describes the optimization of pretreatment steps for the destruction of organic matter in samples of waters and biological fluids, by using an UV irradiation system with a high power UV radiation source (400 W). The efficiency of the system constructed for the photo-decomposition of samples of model waters, natural waters and biological fluids was investigated by performing recovery experiments of the metallic species Zn(II), Cd(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Al(III) and Fe(III). The use of UV irradiation allowed the liberation of metals bound to the organic matrix and the determination of the total content of elements in the samples.
Abstract in English:Biological monitoring is very important to guarantee health to workers. This method was developed for simultaneous determination of xylene, toluene, styrene and ethylbenzene metabolites. It involves only dilution and centrifugation of urine samples and improved chromatographic conditions. Analyses show recovery > 95%; r² > 0.99; intermediate precision CV% < 6% and % bias < ±10. Exposed subjects presented at least three metabolites in urine. The method proved to be feasible, reliable and important in biological monitoring, especially in exposure to organic solvent mixtures.
Abstract in English:Four flavonoids, 3,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (garbanzol), 7,4'-dihydroxyflavone, 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavone (geraldone) and 3,4,7,4'-tetrahydroxyflavane (Rel-2R,3S,4S-leucoguibourtinidine, guibourtacacidine) were isolated from the wood of Schizolobium parahyba (Leg., Caesalpinoideae) together with lignan balonofonine, sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The structures were established by IR, NMR and mass spectral data analysis and comparison with literature values.
Abstract in English:Three technologies were tested (TiO2/UV, H2O2/UV, and TiO2/H2O2/UV) for the degradation and color removal of a 25 mg L-1 mixture of three acid dyes: Blue 9, Red 18, and Yellow 23. A low speed rotating disc reactor (20 rpm) and a H2O2 concentration of 2.5 mmol L-1 were used. The dyes did not significantly undergo photolysis, although they were all degraded by the studied advanced oxidation processes. With the TiO2/H2O2/UV process, a strong synergism was observed (color removal reached 100%). Pseudo first order kinetic constants were estimated for all processes, as well as the respective apparent photonic efficiencies.
Abstract in English:The crude methanol extract and hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol fractions from leaves of S. garckeana were examined in vitro for their antiproliferative activity on MCF-7, NCI-ADR, NCI-460, UACC-62, 786-0, OVCAR-03, PCO-3 and HT-29 human cancer cell lines. Among the assayed fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction showed to be cytotoxic against 786-0, UACC-62, OVCAR-03 and NCI-ADR cell lines with IC50 values of 12 µg/mL, 42 µg/mL, 53 µg/mL and 51 µg/mL, respectively. Through fractionation and isolation procedures compound (1) was obtained from the EtOAc fraction and its structure was elucidated by spectral techniques.
Abstract in English:On a laboratory scale effluents were produced from bichromic dyeing of acrylic fabrics with the basic dyes Blue Astrazon FGGL 300% and Yellow Gold Astrazon GL 200%. The residual dyeing baths were subjected to a photoelectrochemical treatment and reused in a second dyeing process. In the reutilization study, dyeings with treated effluent were compared with standard dyeings with distilled water. The results of dyeings using 100% of treated effluent were unsatisfactory, but the substitution of 10 to 30% of the treated effluent by distilled water resulted in reduced and more acceptable values for difference in colour intensity (ΔE) between 1.86 and 0.3.
Abstract in English:Fresh green bananas (Musa sp., subgroup Prata) were treated with a dose of only 90 ηg g-1 of 1-MCP for 13 hours and the evolution of the volatile compounds along the ripeness was studied. A method to quantify the emission of esters was developed by cryogenic headspace and gas chromatography. Esters of acetate, butyrate, isobutyrate and isovalerate were found as major compounds. The application of the 1-MCP for 13 hours delayed the appearance of the coloration 8 of the peel for 3 days and decreased quantitatively in about 46% the total production of esters in the banana until the 15° day of harvested.
Abstract in English:Extraction and clean-up are essential points in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) analysis in a solid matrix. This work compares extraction techniques and clean-up procedures for PAH analysis. PAH levels, their toxicological significance and source were also evaluated in the waters of the Cocó and Ceará rivers. The efficiency of PAH recovery was higher for the soxhlet and ultrasonic techniques. PAH recovery varied from 69.3 to 99.3%. Total PAH concentration (ΣHPA) varied from 720.73 to 2234.76 µg kg-1 (Cocó river) and 96.4 to 1859.21 µg kg-1 (Ceará river). The main PAH sources are pyrolytic processes and the levels were classified as medium so that adverse effects are possible.
Abstract in English:This work optimized the HPLC conditions for the simultaneous determination of luteolin, apigenin, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol in aglycone form, as well defined the best conditions for hydrolysis/extraction of these flavonoids in fruits, using the statistical central composite design and response surface analysis. A reverse phase method was developed using a gradient of methanol/water acidified with 0.3% formic acid as mobile phase and a photodiode array detector. The samples were extracted with methanol/water (50:50 v/v) at 90 ºC. The optimum time and HCl concentration varied for the different fruits investigated, demonstrating the necessity of optimizing these conditions for each fruit analyzed. Good recovery (87.1 to 96.3%), repeatability and linearity were obtained.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present work was to evaluate the distribution of Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn among the different fractions of contaminated soil, before and after rice cultivation. Seven soil samples with different degrees of contamination were studied using a randomized experimental design, with four replicates. Using an ICP-OES we analyzed the contents of heavy metals in fractions of soil, the organic matter therein, the oxides and the residual content before and after rice cultivation. The largest concentrations of Cd, Cu, Mn and Zn in the soil are found in the fractions with stable chemical bonds.
Abstract in English:The 3-methylindole (3MI) oxygenation sensitized by psoralen (PSO) has been investigated in 100%, 20% and 5% O2-saturated water/dioxane (H2O/Dx) mixtures. The lowering of the ¹O2* chemical rate when water (k chem∆3MI = 1.4 × 109 M-1 s-1) is replaced by deuterated water (k chem∆3MI = 1.9 × 108 M-1 s-1) suggests that hydrogen abstraction is involved in the rate determining step. A high dependence of the chemical rate constant on water concentration in H2O/Dx mixtures was found showing that water molecules are absolutely essential for the success of the 3MI substrate oxidation by ¹O2* in water-rich solvent mixtures.
Abstract in English:In this work, a new adsorbent was prepared by microencapsulation of sulfoxine into chitosan microspheres by the spray drying technique. The new adsorbent was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and microanalysis of energy dispersive X-rays. The Cu(II) adsorption was studied as a function of pH, time and concentration. The optimum pH was found to be 6.0. The kinetic and equilibrium data showed that the adsorption process followed the pseudo second-order kinetic model and the Langmuir isotherm model over the entire concentration range. An increase of 8.0% in the maximum adsorption capacity of the adsorbent (53.8 mg g-1) was observed as compared to chitosan glutaraldehyde cross-linked microspheres.
Abstract in English:The use of square-wave voltammetry in conjunction with a cathodically pre-treated diamond electrode for the analytical determination of sodium cyclamate is described. The samples were analyzed as received in a 0.5 mol L-1 H2SO4 solution in the concentration range from 5.0 × 10-5 mol L-1 to 4.1 × 10-4 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 4.8 × 10-6 mol L-1. The RSD was smaller than 1.2 % and the proposed method was applied with success in the determination of sodium cyclamate in several dietary products.
Abstract in English:The aim of this work is the production and characterization of plasma polymerized acetaldehyde thin films. These films show highly polar species, are hydrophilic, organophilic and easily adsorb organic reactants with CO radicals but only allow permeation of reactants with OH radicals. The good step coverage of films deposited on aluminum trenches is useful for sensor development. Films deposited on hydrophobic substrates may result in a discontinued layer, which allows the use of preconcentration in sample pretreatment. Deposition on microchannels showed the possibility of chromatographic columns and/or retention system production to selectively detect or remove organic compounds from gas flows.
Abstract in English:The moisture sorption isotherms of Chilean papaya were determined at 5, 20, and 45 ºC, over a relative humidity range of 10-95%. The GAB, BET, Oswin, Halsey, Henderson, Smith, Caurie and Iglesias-Chirife models were applied to the sorption experimental data. The goodness of fit of the mathematical models was statistically evaluated by means of the determination coefficient, mean relative percentage deviation, sum square error, root-mean-square error, and chi-square values. The GAB, Oswin and Halsey models were found to be the most suitable for the description of the sorption data. The sorption heats calculated using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation were 57.35 and 59.98 kJ·mol-1, for adsorption and desorption isotherms, respectively.
Abstract in English:A chromatographic method was developed for cholesterol determination in feed for ruminants using response surface methodology. Among the five approaches of sample preparation methods tested, the saponification of the sample without heating presented less interference in the gas chromatography. The method presented a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.3%, recoveries between 84 and 87% and detection limit of 0.001 mg of cholesterol per g of feed.
Abstract in English:Decoction of roots of the Amazonian palm açaí (Euterpe precatoria Mart.) is widely used by Brazilian and Peruvian people as an anti-inflammatory, to heal kidney and liver diseases and against snake bites. In this study, the antioxidant activity of extracts and flavonoids (quercetin, catechin, epicatechin, rutin and astilbin) isolated from roots and leaf stalks of E. precatoria was investigated using β-carotene in TLC plates and DPPH radical scavenging in a spectrophotometric bioassay. All extracts and flavonoids showed activity. Also, the cytotoxic activity of these extracts was evaluated by the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvicide bioassay and was lower than that of lapachol, used as control. The presence of flavonoids and sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside in the extracts can justify the use of the plant in traditional medicine.
Abstract in English:2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an energetic material that shows scarce crystalline properties that can be improved by addition of 2,2',4,4',6,6'-hexanitrostilbene (HNS) in the crystallization process. HNS is a very important high explosive used in a variety of military, aerospace and industrial formulations owing to its suitable properties. It is an insensitive and thermal stable explosive that can be produced from 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT). The purpose of this work is the quantitative determination of HNS and TNT in explosives by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).
Abstract in English:Non-polluting polyurethane aqueous dispersions, with 40% of solids content, were synthesized based on block copolymers of poly(ethylene glycol) and poly(propylene glycol) (PEG-b-PPG), with PEG hydrophilic segments content of 7 and 25%, poly(propylene glycol) (PPG), dimethylolpropionic acid (DMPA), isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI), and hydrazine. Different formulations were synthesized by varying the equivalent-grams ratios between isocyanate and hydroxyl groups (NCO/OH) and PPG and (PEG-b-PPG). The presence of high amounts of PEG in the formulations provoked the formation of gels. Average particle size and viscosity of the dispersions were determined. Mechanical properties and water absorption resistance of cast films were evaluated.
Abstract in English:It is investigated in the present contribution the oscillatory co-electrodeposition of CuSn on a polycrystalline gold surface in the presence of Triton X-100 surfactant and citric acid as additive, in acidic media. The experiments were conducted under potentiostatic control and the system dynamics characterized in terms of the morphology and stability of the current oscillations. Besides modulations in the frequency and amplitude of the current oscillations, several patterned states were observed, including relaxation-like and mixed mode oscillations. The oscillations were found to be very robust and some time series presented regular motions up to about two hours.
Abstract in English:Determination of Cr(VI) and Cr(III) was studied in soil samples accidentally contaminated with sulphochromic solution. Molecular absorption spectrophotometry based on the diphenylcarbazide method was used for the determination of Cr(VI) after its alkaline extraction. The total chromium concentration was determined using ICP OES. The quantification of Cr(III) was accomplished by subtracting the Cr(VI) concentration from the total chromium concentration. Regardless of the known contamination of the soil samples by sulphochromic solution, concentrations of Cr(VI) were below the detection limit. Addition and recovery experiments for Cr(VI) in soil samples with and without organic matter indicated its influence on the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III).
Abstract in English:The dissolution enthalpy (ΔH0soln) of sodium sulfacetamide in water was determined by means of isoperibolic solution calorimetry. It was found that ΔH0soln diminishes as the drug concentration increases. Otherwise, the calorimetric values obtained as a function of the drug concentration were significantly different than those predicted by the van't Hoff method. It was demonstrated that the later is not a fully reliable method for the determination of ΔH0soln values in the specific case of highly soluble sodium salts. The observed phenomenon could be explained by the presence of strong solute-solute interactions at high salt concentrations, in addition to solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions.
Abstract in English:In this study, novel Chitosan/PVA based films were chemically crosslinked by glutaraldehyde, under pH=(4,00 ±0,05), in order to achieve structures tailored for wound tissue engineering applications. Both precursors and developed films were characterized by FTIR, SEM and XRD in order to determine the presence of chemicals groups and nanostructural order, respectively. The results have shown that the glutaraldehyde crosslinking have altered the crystallinity of pure chitosan and the increase on the C=N bands and simultaneous decrease on NH2 bands suggested that Chitosan/GA crosslinking has preference to occur in carbon-2 of the saccharide ring by the Schiff's base reaction. Also, FTIR spectroscopy clearly showed that crosslinking has also taken place with blends of PVA and chitosan. The mechanical properties presented high degree dependence with on the increase of the content of chitosan and glutaraldehyde. The results have indicated that, by controlling the ratio [PVA]/[chitosan] in the blends and the extent of chemical crosslinking, it was possible to tailor the hybrid network produced aiming to obtain properties of interest for the specific application.
Abstract in English:The chemical role of iron-bearing compounds on the dynamics of phosphorus in selected Brazilian latosols was investigated. The iron oxides were characterized in an attempt to assess their main chemical-mineralogical properties influencing the ion sorption mechanisms in those pedosystems. It was found that increasing total iron contents tend to increase the phosphorus adsorption capacity in the selected soils. 110 K-Mössbauer data reveal that the dominant iron oxides are hematite and goethite. Particularly for the yellower soil samples some prominent doublets, more certainly due to superparamagnetic relaxation, may be assigned to corresponding fractions of relatively small-sized particles.
Abstract in English:The flavonoid fraction was purified by a combination of chromatography on Amberlite XAD-2 and preparative silica gel TLC. Morin (3, 5, 7, 2', 4'- pentahydroxyflavone) was the only flavonol found in honey from Brazilian Citrus sp.. The structure of morin was determined on the basis of UV and ¹H and 13C NMR spectral data together with literature references. This is the first report on the isolation of morin from Brazilian Citrus honey.
Abstract in English:The identification of the chemical compounds of the essential oil was performed with a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The oil was left in the presence and absence of light and submitted to different temperatures to evaluate its stability. The yields of the major compounds were evaluated every fifteen days. Citral and myrcene, the major compounds of the essential oil, were degraded over time in both the presence and absence of light, but temperature only influenced the degradation of myrcene.
Abstract in English:Phytochemical investigation from leaves of the Qualea grandiflora (Vochysiaceae) resulted in the isolation and identification of kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-E-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-α-L-(4"-Z-p-coumaroyl)-rhamnoside, squalene, phytol, lupeol, α-amyrin, β-amyrin, sitosterol, sitostenone, sitosterol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, ursolic and oleanolic acids. The structures of the compounds were identified by 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments, mass and UV spectrometry and comparison with literature data.
Abstract in English:This paper describes an approach for the colour-based classification of RGB (red-green-blue) images, acquired using a common scanner, of commercial carbonated soft drinks. Mean histograms of image colour channels were evaluated for the PCA classification of 29 brands of Guaraná, Cola, and orange flavors. Loadings for principal component axes resulted in different patterns for sample grouping on score plots according to RGB histograms. pH, sorbic acid and sucrose measurements were also correlated to the analyzed brands through PCA score plots of the digitalized images.
Abstract in English:Physicochemical constraints severely limit the number of molecules that can be considered as candidates for transdermal delivery. Iontophoresis is a non-invasive technique in which a weak electric current is used to enhance the penetration of molecules into or through the skin. In this review the underlying mechanisms that drive iontophoresis and the impact of key experimental parameters - namely, formulation, drug concentration and pH - on iontophoretic delivery efficiency are discussed. In the final section some devices that are currently commercialized are also described.
Abstract in English:This review presents natural, semi-synthetic and synthetic bioactive macrolactams and their structure-activity relationships when available. For macrolactams in clinical use the advantages and disadvantages in relation to other drugs are presented, and for synthetic macrolactams the method used in the cyclization is showed. Regarding macrocyclic synthesis by the tri-n-butyltin hydride-mediated radicalar carbocyclization reaction the precursor, the reaction conditions, products and yields, mechanism and cyclization mode are discussed.
Abstract in English:Monoglycerides (MAG) are non-ionic surfactants, widely used in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Although MAGs are manufactured on an industrial scale by chemical glycerolysis of oils and fats, new developments in lipase catalyzed synthesis have been studied as an alternative to the classical method seeking to use clean technology and green chemistry. In this work, different methods such as glycerolysis, selective hydrolysis of fats and oils, and esterification of fatty acids or transesterification of esters with glycerol are presented. The properties and applications of the monoglycerides are also included in this review.
Abstract in English:Plastic packaging materials intended for use in food packaging is an area of great interest from the scientific and economic point of view due to the irreversible internationalization and globalization process of food products. Nevertheless, a debate related to food safety aspects has emerged within the scientific community. Therefore, the development of analytical methods that allow identifying and quantifying chemical substances of toxicological potential in the packaging is considered essential. This article focuses on the main analytical methods, including validation parameters, as well as extraction and quantification techniques for determination of volatile organic compounds from food packaging materials.
Abstract in English:Polymeric materials are widely used in the chemical industry and are part of our daily lives. Inorganic species may be added to them as additives, anti-oxidizing agents, stabilizers, plasticizers, colorants and catalysts and may be present in a wide range of concentrations. Their determination demands the development of analytical methods considering different kinds of polymeric materials, their composition and the final use of the material. Although many different analytical techniques may be used, this review emphasizes those based on atomic absorption and emission spectrometry. Solid sampling techniques and digestion methods are described and discussed and compared considering published results.
Abstract in English:In this paper historical aspects of analytical pyrolysis, the equipment used, the fundamentals and the mechanisms of pyrolysis of different polymeric materials are discussed. The latest work on analytical pyrolysis applied to various types of synthetic and natural samples is reviewed. Current applications of this technique that are discussed include identification of microorganisms, analysis of trace compounds by forensic laboratories, investigation of food and agricultural products, study of the chemical composition of wood, authentication and conservation of artworks, and the study of environmental and geochemical samples.
Abstract in English:Microwave irradiation offers a clean, inexpensive, and convenient method of heating, which is an alternative way of introducing energy into chemical systems. In particular, applications of microwave irradiation technology for petroleum processing have been developed in the last twenty years. The main objective of this paper is to review the use of microwave irradiation technology as an alternative technique applied during petroleum refining and primary processing of petroleum fluids, presenting and discussing successful applications of this technology as a tool for petroleum emulsion separation and catalytic reactions normally found at hydrorefining plants.
Abstract in English:A procedure for determining of the isotope ratio 235U/238U in UF6 samples was established using a quadrupole mass spectrometer with ionization by electron impact. The following items were optimized in the spectrometer: the parameters in the ion source that provided the most intense peak, with good shape, for the most abundant isotope; the resolution that reduced the non linear effects and the number of analytical cycles that reduced the uncertainty in the results. The measurement process was characterized with respect to the effects of mass discrimination, linearity and memory effect.
Abstract in English:This work presents hydrometallurgical routes for recovering valuable elements from spent button cells, based on leaching of internal components with sulfuric acid (Li/MnO2 and Zn-air) or nitric acid (Ag-Zn), at 90 ºC for 2h. Slow evaporation of the leachate crystallized MnSO4.H2O, whereas lithium was partially recovered as LiF. Mercury present in Zn-air and Ag-Zn samples was precipitated as HgS. Silver was recovered as AgCl before mercury precipitation. Zinc and iron were precipitated as hydroxides. The amount of iron varied according to the intensity of the corrosion of the external cell case. Final wastes are neutral and colorless sodium sulfate/nitrate solutions.
Abstract in English:In the petroleum refining industry, the use of crude from several origins is frequent. This leads to a product of variable chemical composition during refining, hindering quality control. Therefore, it is important to develop classification models that help to better characterize those products. The objective of this study is to develop a SIMCA recognition pattern to classify kerosene using infrared spectroscopy data. The model permits to differentiate two kerosene groups with different chemical compositions, which was corroborated by mass spectrometry.
Abstract in English:Quantitative analysis of colored substances is generally performed using a spectrophotometer for detection of radiation. However, the combination of digital images and mathematical conversion of colors is an alternative for quantitative procedures based on colored chemical reactions. This work proposes a didactic experiment using a scanner for determination of ascorbic acid in medicines based on the formation of the Prussian blue complex. Results were in good agreement with a conventional spectrophotometer method and the procedure is attractive for instrumental analysis undergraduate courses.
Abstract in English:A diagnostic instrument was developed to evaluate the basic chemistry concepts held by freshmen students of the three Chemistry undergraduate courses offered by the University of São Paulo. The instrument minimizes the use of algorithms or memorization by students and values high-order cognitive skills. Analysis of the students' performances reveals systematic use of "displacement reaction" as an algorithm and a mechanical use of Le Chatelier's Principle. Failure in comprehending the chemical equation and chemical language drives students to alternative models for chemical reactions in aqueous solution. For instance, reaction would occur between "ionic pairs" and/or between species situated in separate compartments.
Abstract in English:This article intends to answer the question: "what is the best way to evaluate the strength of acids and bases?" The meaning of the word strength, the main acid-base theories (ionotropic and electron pair), the neutralization reactions and the thermodynamical formalism are considered. Some cases are presented and discussed. In conclusion, evaluating acid-base strength is dependent on the theory (formalism) as well as on the system and measuring techniques.
Abstract in English:Since chemical residues management must be seriously considered at institutions of higher education and due to the relevance of this subject for students, this work proposes the involvement of the scientific community in the establishment of a program for management of chemical residues at universities, starting with a committee, to coordinate the process. The program should integrate the entire scientific community in an organized effort. The program involves legislative, educational and environmental management aspects, with environmental education as an important tool to integrate all the administrative areas of a chemistry department.
Abstract in English:In the present paper some controversies on the origin of life are discussed. Did the first living beings on Earth have an autotrophic or heterotrophic origin? What did come first, genetic code or metabolism? Were cells invented early? What was the role of minerals regarding the origin of life?