Abstract in English:Samples of soil, water and sediment were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate chromium contamination due to deposition of tannery residues onto soils under different management regimes. The results showed that soils used for sugar cane cultivation were not adversely impacted. However, in the case of mango plantations, variable concentrations of chromium were measured in the soil profile, with 22.2% of values being higher than permitted legal limits, and 38.9% being at levels requiring remediation. Concentrations of bioavailable chromium were lower than the detection limit of the method (0.01 mg of chromium kg-1 of soil), indicating that all of the chromium present in the samples was either complexed or in an insoluble form. Chromium concentrations measured in samples of water and sediments were indicative of low mobility of the metal in soils. The main cause of differences found between soil samples obtained from different cultivations was the type of soil management.
Abstract in English:In this work, the combustion process of ammonium dinitramide, ADN, has been modeled in two different situations: decomposition in open environment, with abundant air and decomposition in a rocket motor internal environmental conditions. The profiles of the two processes were achieved, based on molar fractions of the species that compose the products of ADN combustion. The velocity of formation and quantity of species in the open environment was bigger than the ones in the rocket motor environment, showing the effect of the different atmosphere in the reactions kinetics.
Abstract in English:KSr2Nb5O15 is a ferroelectric material. The sintering process of the KSr2Nb5O15 ceramic doped with different amounts of CuO was investigated in this research. It was found that CuO is effective as promoter of the densification process of the KSN ceramic. The developed microstructures were different due to the amount of CuO and secondary phases were observed in the microstructures. However, the results of X - ray diffraction showed that only the tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) structure was identified in all the investigated ceramic systems. The thermal behavior of CuO and also of the CuO - KSN phase mixture was investigated by thermal analysis.
Abstract in English:Six compounds comprising the groups of steroids, the ergosterol, the ergosterol peroxide, the cerevisterol, the neociclocitrinols, the ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, the 25-hydroxy-ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one, were isolated from Penicillium herquei fungus obtained from Melia azedarach. The structures were identified by spectral methods of RMN 1D and 2D and MS.
Abstract in English:An analytical method for the isolation based on matrix solid-phase dispersion technique and gas chromatographic determination of pesticides in cattle plasma is presented. It was fortified 0.25 g of plasma with pesticides and blended with 1 g each C18 and Na2SO4. The homogenized matter was transferred to a SPE cartridge, which contained 1 g of activated florisil with 5 mL acetonitrile. The analites were eluted under vaccum with 15 mL acetonitrile, the extract was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification of the method was 0.04 mg L-1 for chlorphenvinfos and fipronil and 0.02 mg L-1 for cypermethrin..
Abstract in English:The metal ions removal on cashew bagasse, a low-cost material, has been studied by batch adsorption. The parameters chemical treatment, particle size, biosorbent concentration, and initial pH were studied. In this study the maximum ions removal was obtained on the cashew bagasse treated with 0.1 mol/L NaOH/3 h, at optimum particle size (20-59 mesh), biosorbent concentration (50 g/L) and initial solution pH 5. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption metal follows pseudo-second order model for a multielementary system and equilibrium time was achieved in 60 min for all metal ions.
Abstract in English:In this work were prepared composites of iron oxide and carbonaceous materials in two different weight proportions (Carbon/Fe 1/1 and 1/2). The physico-chemical properties of the composites were determined by temperature programmed reduction (TPR), adsorption/dessorption of N2, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pulse titration H2. The XRD and XPS analysis showed a cubic iron oxide phase, identified as maghemite, formed over the carbon surface. The particle size of maghemite showed to be within 10-30 nm. Carbon/Fe 1/2 was the most active in MB removal kinetics and ESI-MS studies showed that MB removal by both composites leads to oxidized intermediates.
Abstract in English:In this study, controlled release formulations of Atrazine (ATZ) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and characterized by elemental, FTIR, SEM, BET and DSC analyses. The release kinetic of ATZ from the formulations in CaCl2 0.01 mol L-1 medium was monitored by UV/Vis spectroscopy. In all formulations, ATZ was physically dispersed on the Si-polymer, and the dispersion grade decreased with increasing amount of herbicide. The ATZ release kinetics was controlled mainly by dissolution, and the data could be fitted to the Korsmeyer - Pepper model. The ATZ as xerogel presents a lower affinity for soil than as granulated form.
Abstract in English:The use of carbon paste electrodes (CPE) of mineral sulfides can be useful for electrochemical studies to overcome problems by using massive ones. Using CPE-chalcopyrite some variables were electrochemically evaluated. These variables were: (i) the atmosphere of preparation (air or argon) of CPE and elapsed time till its use; (ii) scan rate for voltammetric measurements and (iii) chalcopyrite concentration in the CPE. Based on cyclic voltammetry, open-circuit potential and electrochemical impedance results the recommendations are: oxygen-free atmosphere to prepare and kept the CPE until around two ours, scan rates from 10 to 40 mV s-1, and chalcopyrite concentrations > 20%.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work was to study the influence of enzymes Alcalase, Flavourzyme and Novozym in the functional properties of hydrolysates of Bluewing searobin (Prionotus punctatus) minced. The hydrolysates of Bluewing searobin were evaluated for the chemical composition and the functional properties. The Novozym enzyme presented greater specific activity differing significantly from the enzymes Alcalase and Flavourzyme. The hydrolysates of Bluewing searobin presented protein content above of 87% and excellent solubility, capacity of water retention, capacity of oil retention and emulsifying capacity.
Abstract in English:The proposal of this study was to obtain the profile of these metals distribution Al, Co, Cu, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Zn in sediments from lakes in the city of Londrina-PR and evaluate the environmental risk resulting from such distribution. The parameters of comparison were the values of geological occurrence of these metals in soil from this region, the concentrations of metals in soil samples in the surroundings of the sediments collection points, the guiding values from CETESB and resulting rate risk from RAC criterion application. The result shows that the numerical scale RAC alone is incomplete to this evaluation.
Abstract in English:Samplings of atmospheric particulate matter (PM) were carried out between the months of March and April of 2007, simultaneously in two areas of Londrina, an urban (Historical Museum) and other rural (Farm School-UEL). PM was collected using the cascade impactor consisting of four impaction stages (0.25 to 10 μm). The results indicated that the fine fraction (PM2.5) represented a significant portion of the mass of PM10 (70 and 67% in the urban and rural places, respectively). Cl-, NO3- and SO4(2-) were determined by ion chromatography and the size distribution is presented. Natural and anthropogenic sources were suggested to the ionic components in the fine and coarse mode of PM.
Abstract in English:A flow injection chemiluminescence method for the determination of paracetamol in pharmaceutical formulations is described. It is based on the consumption of the sodium hypochlorite by paracetamol and decreases of the analytical signal. The analytical curve was linear in the paracetamol concentration range from 5.0 x 10-6 to 5.0 x 10-5 mol L-1, with a detection limit of 1.8 x 10-6 mol L-1. The RSDs were 2.0 and 1.2% respectively for 2.0 x 10-5 and 4.0 x 10-5 mol L-1 paracetamol solutions (n = 10) and a sampling frequency of 180 h-1 was obtained.
Abstract in English:The phytochemical investigation of Coussarea platyphylla led to the isolation of triterpenes betulonic and betulinic acid, monoterpenes monotropein and monotropein salt, the diterpene trans-phytol and esteroids. The structures of the isolated compounds were assigned on the basis of spectroscopic data, including two-dimensional NMR methods. The antiproliferative properties against human cancer cell lines and molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of the crude methanolic extract and of its fractions were investigated.
Abstract in English:A flow-injection (FI) spectrophotometric procedure is proposed for tetracycline (TC) and doxycycline (DXC) determination in pharmaceuticals. The method is based on the reaction of oxidation of these drugs by chloramine-T in alkaline medium producing red color products (λmax = 535 and 525 nm). Beer´s law is obeyed in the concentration range from 6.62 x 10-5 to 7.72 x 10-4 mol L-1 and 5.37 x 10-5 to 7.16 x 10-4 mol L-1 for TC and DXC, respectively. The analytical frequency was 50 h"1 and 45 h-1 for TC and DXC, respectively. The results obtained by the proposed method were in good agreement with those obtained by the official method at 95% confidence level.
Abstract in English:Asphaltenes from two Brazilian crude oils were submitted to mild oxidation to disrupt their structure, releasing the occluded oil. The released hydrocarbons were compared with those from the original crude oil, and used to evaluate the alteration of the oils, especially as a result of biodegradation, but also thermal maturity. The crude oils used are depleted in n-alkanes, which are usually related to biodegradation. However, the released products from the corresponding asphaltenes have n-alkane distributions from nC10 to nC40, suggesting a protection effect from biodegradation. The m/z 191 mass chromatograms showed higher relative intensities for tricyclic terpanes than the hopanes in the crude in comparison with the released ones.
Abstract in English:The immersion enthalpy of activated carbon in 3-chlorophenol solutions, of 100 mg L-1, is determined at different pH values between 3 and 11 with results between 37.6 and 21.2 J g-1. The 3-chlorophenol adsorbed quantities on the activated carbon during the calorimetric experience, are between 1.13 and 2.19 mg g-1, for different pH values of the solution. The 3-chlorophenol adsorbed quantity and the immersion enthalpy decrease by increasing of the pH solution, while increasing the adsorbed quantity increases the immersion enthalpy value.
Abstract in English:This work presents alterations in the concentrations of alkaline metals sodium, lithium and potassium, in abiotic compartments, at Araçá stream micro-basin, located in Canoas, RS. Its spring is located in a low populational density region and crosses an elevated environmental impacted urban area. Its final course crosses an agricultural area. Samples of atmospheric particulates, macrophites, water and sediments were analyzed. High concentrations of alkaline metals, related with draining of rice fields or with the ground type, as well as correlations among its concentrations with regional activities were verified. Tripogandra diurética has shown bioaccumulation compatible with their concentrations on waters.
Abstract in English:The obtained corn germ phytic acid (CGPA) antioxidant potential was evaluated through the deoxyribose, bathophenanthroline (BPS) and DPPH• assays. In the concentration of 130.5 μM of CGPA the hydroxyl radical maximum sequestering antioxidant activity was 29.3% while standard phytic acid (SPA) presented this maximum activity of 18.2% in the concentration of 33.2 μM of SPA. The BPS assays revealed that the chelation activity towards Fe2+ increased concurrently with the increase of CGPA concentration and its Fe2+ contact time. Finally, DPPH• assay showed that CGPA and SPA did not present electron-donating capacity to DPPH•.
Abstract in English:The objective of this work was to obtain hydrolysates with different degrees of hydrolysis using Alcalase 2.4L® and to evaluate the effect of the enzyme [E] and substrate [S] concentration on the functional properties of the hydrolysates. It was obtained hydrolysates with hydrolysis degree values ranging from 12.2 to 43.7%. The values of solubility and water holding capacity were similar for the greater number of the hydrolysates with minimum values in the pH 5.0. The hydrolysis degree showed direct relationship with the solubility and indirect with the water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsifying capacity and foaming capacity.
Abstract in English:The effect of the introduction of nitrogen atoms upon the triplet excited state reactivity of 1,4-diaza-9-fluorenone (1) and 1,4-diaza-9-benz[b]fluorenone (2), in acetonitrile, was investigated employing the nanosecond laser flash photolysis technique. The intersystem crossing quantum yield (Φces) for 1 and 2 was determined using 9-fluorenone as a secondary standard (Φces= 0.48, in acetonitrile) and for both diazafluorenones a value of Φces= 0.28 was found. Quenching rate constants ranged from 8.17x10(4) L mol-1 s-1 (2-propanol) to 1.02x10(10) L mol-1 s-1 (DABCO) for 1,4-diaza-9-fluorenone and from 6.95x10(5) L mol-1 s-1 (2-propanol) to 5.94x10(9) L mol-1 s-1 (DABCO) for 1,4-diaza-9-benz[b]fluorenone, depending if the quenching process involves energy, hydrogen or electron transfer. A comparison between quenching rate constants for both diazaflurenones and the parent compound, i.e. 9-fluorenone, a ketone with lowest triple state of ππ* configuration, lead to the conclusion that the reactive triplet excited state for 1,4-diaza-9-fluorenone and 1,4-diaza-9-benz[b]fluorenone has ππ* configuration.
Abstract in English:The inputs of organic matter derived from natural and anthropogenic sources to Sepetiba Bay were investigated by using aliphatic hydrocarbons and sterols in superficial sediments. Concentrations ranged from 0.26 to 2.65 μg g-1, <0.01 to 17.41 μg g-1 and 0.77 and 9.24 μg g-1 for n-alkanes, UCM (unresolved complex mixture) and total sterols, respectively. The selected markers and ratios among individual compounds showed the major contribution of terrestrial sources to the total pool of sedimentary organic matter in the bay, but the accumulation of autochthonous organic matter increased with distance from the shoreline. The input of petroleum hydrocarbons and sewage (coprostanol in the range 0.01 to 0.43 μg g-1) were also detected, especially in the more urbanized regions of the bay, but at lower levels of contamination when compared to estuaries in other Brazilian coastal regions.
Abstract in English:FeBr2 has reacted with an equivalent of mnt2- (mnt = cis-1,2-dicyanoethylene-1,2-dithiolate) and the α-diimine L (L = 1,10'-phenantroline, 2,2'-bipyridine) in THF solution, and followed by adding of t-butyl-isocyanide to give [Fe(mnt)(L)(t-BuNC)2] neutral compound. The products were characterized by infrared, UV-visible and Mössbauer spectroscopy, besides thermogravimetric and conductivity data. The geometry in the equilibrium was calculated by the density functional theory and the electronic spectrum by the time-dependent. The experimental and theoretical results in good agreement have defined an octahedral geometry with two isocyanide neighbours. The π→π* intraligand electronic transition was not observed for cis-isomers in the near-IR spectral region.
Abstract in English:Offretite T zeolite was synthesized using different source of Si (Ludox AS-30, Ludox LS-30 and Aerosil 200 Degussa). The obtained materials were characterized by different complementary techniques: XRD, textural analysis by N2 adsorption, IV, SEM and chemistry analysis. This zeolite has an intermediary structure between offretite and erionite zeolites. In all experiments offretite T phase was obtained. Offretite phase presenting better crystalility are obtained in synthesis with stirring and employing aerosil as silicon source. This zeolite presents a potencial application as catalyst for hydroisodewaxing process.
Abstract in English:Trophic transfer of trace elements along marine food chains has been recognized as an important process influencing metal and metalloid bioaccumulation. The trophic transfer of mercury was observed between trophic levels from prey (considering fish with different feeding habits and squid) to top predator (dolphin) in a Northern coastal food chain of Rio de Janeiro. Selenium showed some evidence of trophic transfer between lower trophic levels. Dolphin presented the highest mercury concentrations whereas the benthic carnivorous fish showed the highest selenium concentrations. Mercury is biomagnified through the food chain while selenium does not present the same behavior.
Abstract in English:The seasonal behavior of NO2 concentration shows a maximum occurring during sugarcane crop and this suggests that the biomass burning is significant source of emission at this time of the year. Along the day, the variation of the NO2 showed a decrease during the increased sunlight and an increase thereafter, caused by occurrence of photochemical reactions. Measurements of NO2 were done inside of residential and industrial kitchens and also inside of a parking garage located in the underground of a supermarket building. The indoor concentrations of NO2 were significantly higher than the concentrations of the external atmosphere and it shows the importance of the sources of internal emissions.
Abstract in English:Six known alkaloids iboga type and the triterpen α- and β-amyrin acetate were isolated from the roots and stems of Peschiera affinis. Their structures were characterized on the basis of spectral data mainly NMR and mass spectra. 1D and 2D NMR spectra were also used to unequivocal ¹H and 13C chemical shift assignments of alkaloids. The ethanolic extract of roots, alkaloidic and no-alkaloidic fractions and iso-voacristine hydroxyindolenine and voacangine were evaluated for their antioxidative properties using an autographic assay based on β-carotene bleaching on TLC plates, and also spectrophotometric detection by reduction of the stable DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical.
Abstract in English:The hedonic level of commercial cachaças, was evaluated by consumers and by a tasters. The results of sensorial methods analyzed trough Principal Components Analysis, Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and the Pearson linear correlation indicated that the best classified cachaças were produced in copper stills and aged in oak casks. By contrast the worst classified exhibited as the main features be not aged and high alcohol percentage. The index of preference is positively correlated with the intensity of yellow color, wood flavor, sweetness and fruit aroma. There is a negative preference correlation with the acidity, the taste of alcohol and bitterness.
Abstract in English:Films of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate and their mixture were evaluated in terms of interactions between the polymers, morphology, water absorption and application as seed coatings. FTIR analysis suggested that only hydrophobic interactions occurred between the polymers. The coating of bean seeds was confirmed by microscopy, indicating the formation of dense and homogeneous films with 7 μm thickness. The obtained films did not affect the germination capacity of the seeds. In summary, the characteristics and properties of the films formed and the water absorption capacity, indicate that these systems are viable for use in seed coating processes.
Abstract in English:Magnetic soils forming on tuffite of the region of Alto Paranaíba, Minas Gerais, Brazil, usually contain iron-rich spinels exceptionally rich in magnesium and titanium. In this work, samples of the magnetically separated portion from the sand fraction of a Brunizém (Chernossolo) and from its mother-rock material were analyzed with synchrotron X-ray diffraction and 57Fe-Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnesioferite (MgFe2O4) and maghemite (its pure non-stoichiometric spinel structure, Fe8/3 ⊕ 1/3 O4, where ⊕ = cation vacancy, corresponds to γFe2O3) were the magnetic iron oxides so identified. Basing on these data, a consistent chemical-mineralogical model is proposed for the main transformation steps involving these iron oxides in the pedosystem, starting on magnesioferrite to finally render hematite (αFe2O3), passing through maghemite as an intermediate specie.
Abstract in English:Inspired by the structure and biological activities of resorcinolic lipids and, particularly cytosporone A- a potent inhibitor of plantule germination and growth, we have performed the synthesis of the analogs 3-heptyl-3-hydroxy-5,7-dimethoxy-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one (1) and 3-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxy-2-benzofuran-1(3H)-one (2). The intermediates and products were submitted to allelopathic test using Lactuca sativa L. seeds. Target compound 1 showed an inhibitory effect on germination and growth of hypocotyl and radicle in milimolar range.
Abstract in English:In recent years nanomaterials, such as metallic nanoparticles, nanowires, nanotapes, nanotubes and nanocomposites, have attracted increasing interest for several technological applications. In catalysis, the great potential of nanomaterials is related to the high catalytic activity exhibited by these materials as a function of the high surface/volume ratio when the particles acquire diameter below 5 nm. In this work, a review about concepts and background of nanoscience and nanotechnology is presented with emphasis in catalysis. Special attention is given to gold nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, focusing the properties and characteristics of these materials in several catalytic reactions.
Abstract in English:In this paper the evolution of the concept of aromaticity is discussed. It considers not only historical aspects of the aromaticity concept but also the different criteria (theoretical and experimental) that have appeared to explain the properties of the aromatic compounds. The topics range from the isolation of benzene by Faraday (1825) until the modern criteria based on geometries, magnetic properties, resonance energy (RE), aromatic stabilization energy (ASE), topological analyses, and others. A chronological separation of issues concerning aromaticity was made, splitting the definitions before and after the appearance of the quantum chemistry. This work reviews the concept of aromaticity.
Abstract in English:This review describes aspects of the Bromeliaceae family dealing the traditional applications, biological activities and distribution of secondary metabolites in distinct subfamilies. Some species are used with medicinal purposed in the treatment of respiratory, diabetes or inflammation diseases, and gastrointestinal disorders. Special emphasis on cycloartane triterpenoids and flavonoids, typical metabolites of this family, are presented. Bromeliaceae is unique amongst the monocotyledons in the frequency and variety of flavonoids with hydroxylation or methoxylation at the 6-position. Other compound classes as steroids, hidroxycinnamic acids, phenylpropane diglycerides, lignans, are presented.
Abstract in English:Humans are exposed to a variety of chemicals from the consumption of food, including undesirable compounds such as pesticides and mycotoxins. Chemical human risk assessment is a process intended to estimate the risk to a given population from the exposure to a chemical (or to a chemical group having the same mechanism of action). The process consists of four steps, namely hazard identification, hazard characterization, exposure assessment and risk characterization. Chemical dietary risk assessment is an essential procedure to establish safe food standards. In this review the tools and data sources currently used in the risk assessment process will be discussed.
Abstract in English:Fuels and biofuels have a major importance in the transportation sector of any country, contributing to their economic development. The utilization of these fuels implies their closer contact to metallic materials, which comprise vehicle, storage, and transportation systems. Thus, metallic corrosion could be related to fuels and biofuels utilization. Specially, the corrosion associated to gasoline, ethanol, diesel, biodiesel, and their mixtures is discussed in this article. Briefly, the ethanol is the most corrosive and gasoline the least. Few investigations about the effect of biodiesel indicate that the corrosion is associated to their unsaturation degree and the corrosion of diesel is related to its acidity.
Abstract in English:Oxocarbons ions are cyclic compounds presenting unusual electronic and vibrational properties. These molecules anions possess a high symmetry and degree of electronic delocalization, characteristics that have been discussed in several structural and spectroscopic investigations. Compounds in which one or more of the carbonyl oxygen atoms are replaced by other atoms or groups are called pseudo-oxocarbons. Compounds formed by substitution of the carbonyl groups by nitrogen groups former a new class named squaraines. Specificity the dicyanomethylene groups are interesting because of the possibility of further extension of the electronic delocalization and a new coordination site. These molecules also present interesting coordination properties which make these systems potentially useful in crystal engineering research.
Abstract in English:This review deals with silica based hybrid materials obtained by the sol-gel method. It involves concepts, classifications and important definitions regarding the sol-gel method that allows obtaining materials with organic and inorganic components dispersed in a molecular or nanometric level. We discuss the properties and characteristics of hybrid materials related to experimental synthesis conditions. We devote a special attention to the nanostructured materials, where the self-organization is imposed by the organic component. Finally, we present some important applications of these materials based on their specific properties.
Abstract in English:The spectroscopic behavior of thioxanthone and benzil (diphenylethanedione or dibenzoyl) in the ionic liquid [bmim.PF6] has been investigated employing the laser flash photolysis technique. Triplet-triplet absorption spectra for these carbonyl compounds in [bmim.PF6] are similar to those observed in organic solvents. The triplet lifetime for thioxanthone in desogygenated samples is very long (71 μs), whereas in oxygen-saturated solution is 500 ns, which indicates the low oxygen solubility in this solvent. For benzil, lifetimes of 10 μs in [bmim.PF6] and 3.8 μs in acetonitrile were obtained. The decay for triplet thioxanthone and benzil follows a clear first order kinetics in [bmim.PF6], from which one can conclude that triplet-triplet annihilation is not an important decay process in this solvent.
Abstract in English:This study validated a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the quantitative evaluation of quercetin in topical emulsions. The method was linear within 0.05 - 200 μg/mL range with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, and without interference in the quercetin peak. The detection and quantitation limits were 18 and 29 ng/mL, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay precisions presented R.S.D. values lower than 2%. An average of 93% and 94% of quercetin was recovered for non-ionic and anionic emulsions, respectively. The raw material and anionic emulsion, but not non-ionic emulsion, were stable in all storage conditions for one year. The method reported is a fast and reliable HPLC technique useful for quercetin determination in topical emulsions.
Abstract in English:The pKa values of the 6-[2´-(6´-methyl-benzothiazolylazo)]-1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzenedisulfonic acid (Me-BDBD) have been determined at 25 °C, in 0.10 mol L-1 NaCl medium by spectrophotometric method. The SQUAD computer program was used to process experimental data in pH range 1.78 - 11.54 and 290 - 720 nm. The pKa values obtained were 4.60 ± 0.04 and 9.48 ± 0.02. The Me-BDBD reagent was applied as indicator in titration of acid-base. The results were compared with phenolphthalein and bromocresol green indicators. Statistical t and F tests indicated that there were no statistically significant differences between the results for indicators with good agreement.
Abstract in English:A simple, precise, rapid and low-cost conductometric titration method for the determination of metformin hydrochloride (MET) in pharmaceuticals using silver nitrate as titrant is proposed. The method was based on the chemical reaction between the chloride of metformin hydrochloride molecule and Ag(I) ions, yielding the precipitate AgCl(s). The method was applied for MET determination in three pharmaceuticals and the obtained results with proposed method were in close agreement with those results obtained using an official method of the British Pharmacopoeia, at a 95% confidence level.
Abstract in English:An alternative methodology for analysis of acetaminophen (Ace), phenylephrine (Phe) and carbinoxamine (Car) in tablets by ion-pair reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography was validated. The pharmaceutical preparations were analyzed by using a C18 column (5 μm, 300 mm, 3.9 mm) and mobile phase consisting of 60% methanol and 40% potassium monobasic phosphate aqueous solution (62.46 mmol L-1) added with 1 mL phosphoric acid, 0.50 mL triethylamine and 0.25 g sodium lauryl sulfate. Isocratic analysis was performed under direct UV detection at 220 nm for Phe and Car and at 300 nm for Ace within 5 min.
Abstract in English:Glass-ceramics are prepared by controlled separation of crystal phases in glasses, leading to uniform and dense grain structures. On the other hand, chemical leaching of soluble crystal phases yields porous glass-ceramics with important applications. Here, glass/ceramic interfaces of niobo-, vanado- and titano-phosphate glasses were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, whose spatial resolution revealed the multiphase structures. Phase-separation mechanisms were also determined by this technique, revealing that interface composition remained unchanged as the crystallization front advanced for niobo- and vanadophosphate glasses (interface-controlled crystallization). For titanophosphate glasses, phase composition changed continuously with time up to the equilibrium composition, indicating a spinodal-type phase separation.
Abstract in English:The chemical amount values vary in a discrete or continuous form, depending on the approach used to describe the system. In classical sciences, the chemical amount is a property of the macroscopic system and, like any other property of the system, it varies continuously. This is neither inconsistent with the concept of indivisible particles forming the system, nor a mere approximation, but it is a sound concept which enables the use of differential calculus, for instance, in chemical thermodynamics. It is shown that the fundamental laws of chemistry are absolutely compatible to the continuous concept of the chemical amount.
Abstract in English:The barometric equation is revisited. Restrictions imposed for its derivation are investigated. Results are discussed and related to simple themes of ordinary life. The theoretical models fit to experimental data. Correction for temperature effect improves the fitting in comparison to the barometric formula. The scope for application of the model is discussed.
Abstract in English:After 470 years, a history of development, international seed smuggling and scientific development that caused deep changes in our society, has reached an end. In 1638, the countess of Chinchón contracted a disease while in the Amazon rain forest and was healed by a potion used by the native inhabitants. In 1856, William H. Perkin while attempting to obtain synthetic quinine, discovered the mauveína, a molecule that changed the world. The synthesis of quinine was also the subject of a bitter controversy among two excellent scientists of the 20th century. During centuries, quinine was the only hope against malaria disease and its exploration almost extinguished the Cinchona tree.
Abstract in English:As the foundation of the University of São Paulo completes 75 years, this article describes the history of a mansion at 463 Glette Boulevard, in São Paulo city, where several undergraduate courses of the University's Philosophy, Sciences and Letters Faculty operated until 1969. The first building of the school of Chemistry was erected there, 70 years ago. A brief retrospective of the Department of Chemistry at that place is given. The mansion was torn down by the middle of the 1970s, but it remained as a symbol of the school identity in the memory of all those who studied there.