Abstract in English:Four new extraction-free spectrophotometric methods have been established for the quantitation of famotidine (FMT). The methods are based on the formation of yellow ion-pair complexes between FMT and four sulphonphthalein dyes viz., bromothymol blue (method A), bromophenol blue (method B), bromocresol purple (method C) and bromocresol green (method D) in dioxane or acetone medium. The experimental variables such as reagent concentration, solvent medium and reaction time have been carefully optimized to achieve the highest sensitivity. The proposed methods were applied successfully to the determination of famotidine in tablets with good accuracy and precision and without interferences from common excipients. The results obtained by the proposed methods were compared favorably with those of the reference method.
Abstract in English:This work describes the occurrence and contents of aporphinoids alkaloids in seedlings of Ocotea puberula from germination until 12 months old and in leaves from adult plants. Seedling leaves showed an alkaloids profile similar to leaves of adult plant. However, leaves in seedlings showed higher contents of the alkaloids boldine, dicentrine, leucoxine and isodomesticine when compared to adult plants. The alkaloids concentration in stems and leaves increased during the development of the seedlings, followed by a remarkable decrease of these compounds in roots. Cultivation in a seedling-nursery method is also described.
Abstract in English:The objective this study was to monitor pesticide residues in groundwater at three different times and in seven regions producing rice in southern Brazil, in the 2007/08 season. Imazethapyr and fipronil were found in all regions studied. All groundwater samples from the Planície Costeira Interna to Lagoa dos Patos and Santa Catarina contained at least one pesticide. The lowest number of contaminated samples were detected in the Southern region. The highest frequency of contaminated samples was found after drainage of the rice fields. Only fipronil exceeded limits of potability, in 27% of samples, according European Community criteria.
Abstract in English:The knowledge of the structure characteristic of the Organic Matter is important for the understanding of the natural process. In this context aquatic humic substances (principal fraction) were isolated from water sample collected from the two distinct rivers, using procedure recommended for International Humic Substances Society and characterized by elemental analysis, electron paramagnetic resonance and nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR). The results were interpreted using principal component analysis (PCA) and the statistical analyses showed different in the structural characteristics of the aquatic humic substances studied.
Abstract in English:CeO2 and mixed CeO2-ZrO2 nanopowders were synthesized and efficiently deposited onto cordierite substrates, with the evaluation of their morphologic and structural properties through XRD, SEM, and FTIR. The modified substrates were employed as outer heterogeneous catalysts for reducing the soot originated from the diesel and diesel/biodiesel blends incomplete combustion. Their activity was evaluated in a diesel stationary motor, and a comparative analysis of the soot emission was carried out through diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. The analyses have shown that the catalyst-impregnated cordierite samples are very efficient for soot oxidation, being capable of reducing the soot emission in more than 60%.
Abstract in English:Hydrophobically modified O-carboxymethylchitosan derivatives were synthesized through a reaction with lauroyl chloride and applied for adsorption of congo red dye. The Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm model was found to be the most suitable one for the VC adsorption and maximum adsorption capacity obtained was 281.97 mg g-1 at a pH value of 7.0 for HL 1.0. The adsorption process follows the pseudo-second-order kinetics and the corresponding rate constants were obtained. The thermodynamic parameters showed that adsorption process is spontaneous (positive ∆Hº) and favorable (negative ∆Gº). The hydrophobic derivatives are able to adsorb the dye even in high pH values.
Abstract in English:In the present study, various amides of 2-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-diazenyl-4-phenyl-1, 3-thiazole was synthesized and their biological activities were evaluated. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by the combination of elemental analysis and standard spectroscopic methods. They are screened for anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as well as screened for antifungal activity against Aspergillus niger and Apergillus oryzae by cup plate method at 1 µg/ mL concentration in DMF.
Abstract in English:The goal of this research was to evaluate the biodegradation of diesel by a microbial consortium collected in a region close to distributors of fuel. The experiments were monitored by SPME-GC-FID and SPME-GC-MS. The consortium showed a high potential for production of biosurfactants, presenting an emulsification index of 53%. The consortium degraded completely n-alkanes, while dimethylnaphtalene, hepthyl-cyclohexane and 2,6,10-trimethyl-undecane were partially degraded and pristane was not degraded. From this consortium five strains were isolated and identified as Acinetobacter baumannii. Based on this initial investigation this consortium appears to be effective for bioremediation in Porto Velho - RO region.
Abstract in English:An evaluation of the pesticides extraction from onion using a modern sample preparation method (QuEChERS) and determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was carried out. All the calibration curves showed r>0.99. The recoveries ranged between 61.8 and 120.0% with relative standard deviation lower than 20% for all compounds. Due to the occurrence of matrix effect, the quantification was performed using matrix-matched calibration. The limits of quantification of the method were between 0.0005 and 0.05 mg kg-1. The method shows the advantages of not require the clean-up step and consume low volume of organic solvents, decreasing time, costs and residues.
Abstract in English:In this work we report the synthesis of sulfonamide derivatives using a conventional procedure and with solid supports, such as silica gel, florisil, alumina, 4Å molecular sieves, montmorillonite KSF, and montmorillonite K10 using solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods. Our results show that solid supports have a catalytic activity in the formation of sulfonamide derivatives. We found that florisil, montmorillonite KSF, and K10 could be used as inexpensive alternative catalysts that are easily separated from the reaction media. Additionally, solvent-free and microwave-assisted methods were more efficient in reducing reaction time and in increasing yield.
Abstract in English:Materials containing aluminum and iron oxide were synthesized through the preparation of hybrid spheres and tested in the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene in the presence of CO2. The catalytic results suggest that the high initial ethylbenzene conversion is due to the contribution of basic sites. These results also point to a competitive process between CO2 adsorption and the oxidative dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene for the basic sites (lattice oxygen). In spite of the coke deposition is originating from ethylbenzene and CO2, the amount of carbonaceous deposits was smaller with the presence of CO2, if compared with the dehydrogenation in the absence of CO2.
Abstract in English:The polyphenol contents and antioxidant capacity of Brazilian red grape juices and wine vinegars were analyzed. Additionally, it was analyzed the human polyphenol absorption and acute effect in plasmatic oxidative metabolism biomarkers after juice ingestion. The organic Bordo grape juice (GBO) presented a higher level of trans-resveratrol, quercitin, rutin, gallic acid, caffeic acid and total flavonoids then other juices and vinegars as well as antioxidant capacity. The plasmatic polyphenol increased 27.2% after GBO juice ingestion. The results showed that juices and vinegars from Brazilian crops present similar chemical and functional properties described in studies performed in other countries.
Abstract in English:Preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) was successfully applied for separation and purification of sesquiterpenoids from an extract of Tussilago farfara L. with a two-phase solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate- methanol-water (1:0.5:1.1:0.3, v/v/v/v). The separation produced a total of 32 mg of tussilagone, 18 mg of 14-acetoxy-7β-(3'-ethyl cis-crotonoyloxy)-lα-(2'-methyl butyryloxy)-notonipetranone and 21 mg of 7β-(3'-ethyl cis-crotonoyloxy)-lα-(2'- methyl butyryloxy)-3,14-dehydro-Z-notonipetranone from 500 mg of the crude extract in one step separation with the purity of 99.5, 99.4 and 99.1%, respectively, as determined by HPLC. The structures of these compounds were identified by ESI-MS, ¹H-NMR and 13C-NMR.
Abstract in English:Two alkaloids, erysodine (1) and erysothrine (2) were isolated from the flowers of a Pakistani medicinal plant, Erythrina suberosa. These compounds were investigated for anxiolytic properties, and the results showed significant effect, in an acute oral treatment with 1-2, which were suspended in saline (NaCl 0.9%) plus DMSO 1%, and evaluated in 122 Swiss male mice exposed to two tests of anxiety - the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the light/dark transition model (LDTM).
Abstract in English:Mn, Zn, Fe, Cd, Pb and Hg were determined in Zn-C and alkaline batteries manufactured along almost 20 years. After samples disassembly the electroactive components were treated with aqua regia in bath ice for 24 h. Metals were analyzed by ICP-OES. Zn and Mn amounts did not vary significantly. Fe amount decreased, specially after 2000. Hg, Cd and Pb amounts dramatically decreased along time, being virtually absent in alkaline batteries manufactured after 2005. Pb still remains in Zn-C samples. Scanning electron microscopy of batteries manufactured in 1997 and 1998 showed the presence of Bi, In and Cr in the plastic/paper anode-cathode separator.
Abstract in English:A fruit chemical composition reflects its maturation stage. For coffee, it is also the reflex of the post-harvesting processing type, dry, semi-wet and wet. The object of this work was to verify if headspace solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography (HS-SPME-GC) could be used to discriminate between samples harvested in different maturation stages and treated by different processes. With application of principal component analysis to the area of 117 compounds extracted by SPME, using divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, it was possible to discriminate, in the roasted and ground coffee, the maturity stage and processing type used .
Abstract in English:A factorial design applied in a voltammetric stripping method for the measurement of Ag(I) in natural water is described. The procedure is based on the effective pre-concentration of silver ions on electrode surface. The calibration graph was linear in the silver concentration range from 7.92 x 10"7 to 1.07 x 10"5 mol L"1 with a detection limit of 3.81 x 10-7 mol L-1. The determination of Ag(I) in natural water samples was carried out satisfactory with the proposed electrode.
Abstract in English:Chitosan, poly[β-(1-4)-linked-2-amino-2-deoxy-D-glucose], is the N-deacetylated product of chitin which is a major component of arthropod and crustacean shells such as lobsters, crabs, shrimps, and cuttlefishes. In addition, chitosan has many significant biological and chemical properties such as biodegradability, biocompatibility and bioactivity as well as polycationic properties. Thus, it has been widely used in many industrial and biomedical applications including wastewater treatment, chromatographic support, carriers for controlled drug delivery and enzyme immobilization. This review is an insight into the exploitation of utilization of chitosan based-supports in different geometrical configurations on the immobilization of enzymes by different protocols for further application in biotransformation reactions.
Abstract in English:This review describes the advantages and disadvantages of using capillary liquid chromatography (CLC), which is considered the newest member in the analytical separation science arsenal. Although CLC has tremendous potential for being the next major innovation in separatory analysis, it has not yet obtained great popularity compared to conventional high performance (and ultra-high performance) liquid chromatography. Comparisons are made between these techniques and some of the reasons that CLC has not yet reached its potential will be advanced.
Abstract in English:Over 50 years, several scientists and industries have developed new alternatives for wastewater treatment and remediation. Recently, electrochemical technology has been largely developed mainly because of its versatility and environmental compatibility. Scientific contributions about role of the electrode material have allowed determining that the influence of material in the selectivity is an important parameter. However, to interpret this behavior, comprehensive physical chemistry models for organics destruction, related to electrochemical phenomena and material surfaces, were proposed in the last decades. So, this paper presents a critical and comprehensive review about the principles and recent mechanism advances in electrocatalysis for wastewater treatment.
Abstract in English:The simultaneous determination of two or more active components in pharmaceutical preparations, without previous chemical separation, is a common analytical problem. Published works describe the determination of AZT and 3TC separately, as raw material or in different pharmaceutical preparations. In this work, a method using UV spectroscopy and multivariate calibration is described for the simultaneous measurement of 3TC and AZT in fixed dose combinations. The methodology was validated and applied to determine the AZT+3TC contents in tablets from five different manufacturers, as well as their dissolution profile. The results obtained employing the proposed methodology was similar to methods using first derivative technique and HPLC.
Abstract in English:Infrared spectroscopy is a versatile technique used for qualitative and quantitative determination of all types of molecular species. As far as analysis of confined or flowing gases is concerned, different types of cell can be found in the market, but they are often very expensive. This study describes the construction of a very efficient gas cell with good reproducibility for qualitative infrared analysis of confined or flowing gases, using easily available and low-cost materials.
Abstract in English:Composite methods using ONIOM and different basis sets have been used to calculate proton and electron affinities for a set of alcohols at QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,p) level of theory. The study was carried out considering HF, MP2 and DFT (25 exchange correlation functional) methods. The calculation performed at ONIOM2(QCISD(T)/6-311++G(2df,p):HF/6-31G(d))//ONIOM2(O3LYP/6-31G(d):HF/6-31G(d)) resulted in the smallest average absolute deviation for AP and AE, 4,75 kJ/mol e 0,43 eV, respectively.
Abstract in English:The objective of the present study was the identification and quantification of ethyl carbamate (EC), by HPLC-FLD, after different periods of storage in an oak (Quercus sp) barrel and a glass vessel. The concentration of EC in the cachaça samples varied from <LD to 17.46 µg L-1, for the period during which the cachaça was stored in an oak barrel, and <LQ to 18.51 µg L-1 for the cachaça stored in a glass recipient. The storage of the beverage in both the oak barrel and the glass vessel resulted in a significant increase in the concentration of this contaminant.
Abstract in English:An analytical procedure to quantify 3-benzophenone, octylmethoxycinnamate and octylsalicylate was validated and employed to assess these ultraviolet filters in sunscreen formulations and from skin penetration studies. The effect of the vehicle on the skin retention of these filters was investigated. HPLC and extraction procedure were found to be reliable when obtaining data for the sunscreen formulations and for evaluation skin penetration. The results demonstrated that a cream gel generated higher epidermal concentrations of these filters than a lotion or cream-based formulation. Additionally, when comparing the skin retentions of each filter using the same formulation, 3-benzophenone showed the highest skin retention.
Abstract in English:A new simple and sensitive flotation-spectrophotometric method for the determination of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) is reported. The method is based on the formation of an ion- associate between CPC and Orange II (OR) which is floated in the interface of aqueous phase and n-hexane by vigorous shaking. The aqueous solution was discarded and the adsorbed ion associate on to the wall of a separating funnel was dissolved in a small volume of methanol solvent and its absorbance was measured at 480 nm. The apparent molar absorptivity (Ε) of the ion associate was determined to be 4.12 x 10(5) L mol-1 cm-1. The calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 15-800 ng mL-1 of CPC with a correlation coefficient of 0.9988. The limit of detection (LOD) was 10.8 ng mL-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for determination of 100 and 800 ng mL-1 of CPC was 3.47 and 2.04% (n=7), respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of CPC in a commercial mouth washer product.
Abstract in English:Ten common doubts of chemistry students and professionals about their statistical applications are discussed. The use of the N-1 denominator instead of N is described for the standard deviation. The statistical meaning of the denominators of the root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) and root mean square error of validation (RMSEV) are given for researchers using multivariate calibration methods. The reason why scientists and engineers use the average instead of the median is explained. Several problematic aspects about regression and correlation are treated. The popular use of triplicate experiments in teaching and research laboratories is seen to have its origin in statistical confidence intervals. Nonparametric statistics and bootstrapping methods round out the discussion.
Abstract in English:The pedagogic training of university professors has been overlooked in institutions of higher education. In the second semester of 2009, students of the Graduate Chemistry Program at the Federal University of Minas Gerais participated in an investigation that aimed to evaluate the students' perceptions of their own training to become professors. It was found that a large number of students felt prepared to teach at institutions of higher education, despite their lack of experience at this education level. A significant point in this work was the finding that most students do not acknowledge the need of associating the teaching practice with teaching-learning theories, but instead consider the knowledge of scientific content important.
Abstract in English:Through the analysis of articles with proposals for experimental activities and with current pedagogical, epistemological and environmental discussion on experimentation by Chemistry professors, this paper investigates ways of highlighting relevant methodological characteristics that can be incorporated in experiments. Based on analysis of the suggestions for experiments it appears that of particular importance are: a concern for students' physical welfare and for the effects of residues; the need to confront an impoverished infrastructure that hinders experimentation; and the valorisation of clarifying student knowledge. It argues in favour of the need to set out the problems of experimentation in educators' professional development.
Abstract in English:This article evaluates the technologies adopted for recycling and reuse of automobile components, through the analysis of patents documents. The automobile batteries recycling is the main topic, followed by the automatic disassembly of vehicles, tires recycling and polyurethane recycling. None document approached recycling of steel and aluminum or ceramics products. The reduced number of technologies for the recycling of the polymeric compounds (including polyurethane) indicates that a bigger number of research and inventions must be elaborated in the next years, aiming at to the reduction of costs of processes and adequacy to the more restricted environmental legislation.
Abstract in English:This paper presents a technology roadmap applied to renewable raw materials as a basis for public policy and strategies in Brazil. The roadmap, developed by Braskem professionals and academic experts, intends to be a basis of discussion and common language creation regarding the possible utilization of renewable raw materials for biofuel and chemical production in Brazil. Following this perspective, the roadmap is presented to public debate and contribution from the stakeholders. The paper describes the roadmap construction and presents the main implications for policy and strategy goals. An analysis of the innovation dynamics in renewable raw materials is developed as an outcome of the roadmap.