Abstract in English:This study aims to evaluate the bioaccumulation of macronutrients and heavy metals in the golden mussel according to its collection site and seasonality in the aquaculture area of the reservoir from April/2009 to March/2010. There is no difference (p > 0.05) in the concentration of metals with respect to the point of collection. The concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cd and Pb were higher (p < 0.05) in spring and summer than in fall and winter. Values of the heavy-metal pollution index (MPI) for collection point and seasonality indicate environmental contamination in the aquaculture area.
Abstract in English:The application of Lipozyme (Termomyces lanuginosus) immobilized in gelatin gel in aliphatic ester synthesis was investigated taking the esterification of hexanoic acid with n-butanol as a model reaction. Conditions were optimized by factorial design and the highest conversion was obtained under the following conditions: molar ratio alcohol: acid of 2:1, reaction time of 48 h and biocatalyst weight of 7.0 g. Under these conditions the esterification yield was around 98 %. The operational stability of the immobilized lipase was assessed and results showed that after 12 batch runs, the enzyme showed no significant loss of activity.
Abstract in English:A simple, sensitive and selective cloud point extraction procedure is described for the preconcentration and atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions in water and biological samples, after complexation with 3,3',3",3'"-tetraindolyl (terephthaloyl) dimethane (TTDM) in basic medium, using Triton X-114 as nonionic surfactant. Detection limits of 3.0 and 2.0 µg L-1 and quantification limits 10.0 and 7.0 µg L-1were obtained for Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, respectively. Relative standard deviation was 2.9 and 3.3, and enrichment factors 23.9 and 25.6, for Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions, respectively. The method enabled determination of low levels of Zn2+ and Cd2+ ions in urine, blood serum and water samples.
Abstract in English:The partial oxidation of ethanol on γ-Al2O3, CeO2, ZrO2 and Ce xZr1-xO2 supported rhodium catalysts was investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The catalysts were characterized by temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) and cyclohexane dehydrogenation. DRIFTS studies on the partial oxidation of ethanol showed that ethanol is adsorbed dissociatively, through O-H bond breaking, with the formation of ethoxy species, followed by successive dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde and acetyl species. Further oxidation to acetate and carbonate species lead to the formation of CO, CH4 and H2 by decomposition. The presence of CeO2 in the catalysts favored the oxidation steps due to its oxygen storage capacity.
Abstract in English:Titanium dioxide nanostructured catalysts (nanotubes) doped with different metals (silver, gold, copper, palladium and zinc) were synthesized by the hydrothermal method in order to promote an increase in their photocatalytic activity under visible light. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and specific area and pore volume determination. The materials' photocatalytic activity was evaluated by rhodamine B decomposition in a glass batch reactor. Under UV radiation, only nanotubes doped with palladium were more active than the TiO2 P25, but the samples doped with silver, palladium and gold exhibited better results than the undoped samples under visible light.
Abstract in English:Low-rank coals are an important source of humic acids, which are important in retention processes of water and nutrients in plants. In this study coal samples of Montelibano, Colombia, were oxidized with air at different temperatures and subsequently with H2O2 and HNO3. The materials were characterized by FTIR, proximate and elemental analysis, and quantification of humic acids. The oxidation process led to an increased content of oxygenated groups and humic acids in the carbonaceous structure. The solid oxidized with air at 200 ºC for 12 h and re-oxidized with HNO3 for 12 h showed the highest percentage of humic acids (85.3%).
Abstract in English:This work shows the results of a Proficiency Testing performed by a partnership between INMETRO and ANP. The performance of 49 Brazilian laboratories (using the z-score statistical test) in determining 10 quality parameters of ethanol fuel and biodiesel was evaluated. The certified reference values were provided by INMETRO, allowing a more rigorous assessment of the laboratories. For hydrous ethanol, the acidity parameter showed the lowest number of laboratories with satisfactory results (48%), while 85% of the laboratories presented satisfactory results for ethanol content. For biodiesel, the percentage of laboratories with satisfactory results ranged from 46% (kinematic viscosity) to 92% (acid number).
Abstract in English:A final 241 µM of ascorbyl palmitate and 555 µM of the following antioxidants separately: BHA, myricetin and quercetin standards, and extracts of Byrsonima crassifolia, Inga edulis or Euterpe oleracea, were added to crude açai oil and submitted to the oxidation process at 60 ºC for 11 days. Among the antioxidants used, only the myricetin standard showed the ability to defer the oxidation process until the third day of treatment. B. crassifolia, I. edulis and E. oleracea extracts showed no preventive capacity against the oxidation process, despite their high concentration phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities.
Abstract in English:A simple, precise, specific, repeatable and discriminating dissolution test for primaquine (PQ) matrix tablets was developed and validated according to ICH and FDA guidelines. Two UV assaying methods were validated for determination of PQ released in 0.1 M hydrochloric acid and water media. Both methods were linear (R²>0.999), precise (R.S.D.<1.87%) and accurate (97.65-99.97%). Dissolution efficiency (69-88%) and equivalence of formulations (f2) was assessed in different media and apparatuses (basket/100 rpm and paddle/50 rpm) tested. Discriminating condition was 900 mL aqueous medium, basket at 100 rpm and sampling times at 1, 4 and 8 h. Repeatability (R.S.D.<2.71%) and intermediate precision (R.S.D.<2.06%) of dissolution method were satisfactory.
Abstract in English:Determination of organic acids in soils and organic materials is important due to the important role they play in improving the soil's physical, chemical and microbiological conditions. This study identified and quantified low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOA) in soils (dystroferric Red Latosol, dystrophic Red-Yellow Latosol and Quartzarenic Neosol) and organic materials (cow, pig, chicken, quail and horse manures, sawdust, coconut fiber, pine bark, coffee husks, biochar, organic substrate, sewage sludges 1 and 2, garbage compost, pig slurry compost). The following acids were identified: acetic, citric, D-malic, formic, fumaric, maleic, malonic, oxalic, quinic, shikimic, succinic and tartaric.
Abstract in English:In this work, hydrotalcite, a layered double hydroxide, had its ion exchange properties combined with the magnetic properties of iron oxide to produce a magnetic adsorbent, HT-Fe 500. These magnetic composites can be used as adsorbents for anionic contaminants in water and subsequently removed from the medium by a simple magnetic process. Removal of chromium (VI) from aqueous solutions using HT-Fe 500 was achieved using batch adsorption experiments. The adsorption capacity, calculated with the Langmuir-Freundlich model showed to be dependent on temperature, reaching values of 25.93 and 48.31 mg g-1, respectively, for temperatures of 25 and 30 ºC.
Abstract in English:Hydrated compounds prepared in aqueous solution by reaction between amidosulfonic acid [H3NSO3] and suspensions of rare earth hydroxycarbonates [Ln2(OH)x(CO3)y.zH2O] were characterized by elemental analysis (% Ln, % N and % H), infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The compounds presented the stoichiometry Ln(NH2SO3)3.xH2O (where x = 1, 5, 2.0 or 3.0). The IR spectra showed absorptions characteristic of H2O molecules and NH2SO3 groups. Degree of hydration, thermal decomposition steps and formation of stable intermediates of the type [Ln2(SO4)3] and (Ln2O2SO4), besides formation of their oxides, was determined by thermogravimetry.
Abstract in English:Arrabidaea chica (H&B) Verlot is a plant popularly known as Pariri and this species is a known source of anthocyanins, flavonoids and tannins. This report describes an approach involving enzymatic treatment prior to extraction procedures to enhance A chica crude extract anticancer activity. Anticancer activity in human cancer cell lines in vitro using a 48 h SRB cell viability assay was performed to determine growth inhibition and cytotoxic properties. The final extraction yield without enzyme treatment was higher (24.28%) compared to the enzyme-treated material (19.03%), with an enhanced aglycones anthocyanin ratio as determined by HPLC- DAD and LC-MS with direct infusion.
Abstract in English:Microalgae biomass has been described by several authors as the raw material with the greatest potential to meet the goals of replacing petroleum diesel by biodiesel while not competing with arable land suitable for food production. Research groups in different countries are seeking the most appropriate production model for productivity, economic viability and environmental sustainability. This review focused on recent advances and challenges of technology for the production of biodiesel from microalgae, including the procedures used to obtain biomass.
Abstract in English:This is an overview of LC-MS techniques applied for macrolide determination in food, including sample preparation and method validation, as well as the policies adopted by international agencies regarding their presence in food. Techniques for the analysis of macrolides in food normally include solid phase or liquid-liquid extraction followed by HPLC. UHPLC presents advantages in running time, detectability and solvent consumption. Triple-quadrupoles are the most common analyzers in instruments used for the determination of contaminants in food, but time-of-flight and ion-trap spectrometers have been successfully applied for analyses focusing on the investigation of structural formula or the presence of degradation products.
Abstract in English:The first diagnosis of risk of environmental contamination was conducted for an area of intense agricultural activity in the semiarid cearense (Baixo Jaguaribe and Litoral de Aracati area). We verified the use of 201 rural products (pesticides) in the region, comprising 151 active ingredients. Regarding the active ingredients evaluated, 15.9% were associated with sediment and 29.8% were dissolved in surface water. The study showed that 13.2% to 36.4% of the active ingredients evaluated were classified as potential contaminants of groundwater resources. The study also revealed the most abundant pesticides and which environmental compartment must be evaluated.
Abstract in English:The convenience of the multivariate optimization of SPME procedures through ANOVA calculated using Doehlert designs has been demonstrated for twelve PCBs in the complex matrix of milk. For this study, the main parameters of the extraction were selected and valued through univariate and multivariate optimization. In addition, the analysis of variance allowed identification of the statistically significant variables in this model: high temperature (95 ºC) and ionic strength (36% m/v) proved significant for all the PCBs while intermediate time (70 min) and low methanol concentration (5% v/v) also contributed to the extraction of the majority of these PCBs.
Abstract in English:This work describes the software Quiptabela, suggests a teaching activity, and analyses responses of general chemistry students from the Biological Sciences distance course at the Federal University of Tocantins. The software was described according to its educational potential, featuring the creation of dozens of charts or tables correlating physicochemical properties of the elements, being Brazilian, and free distribution. The teaching activities suggested analyzed students' ability to create and analyze tables and charts correlating the properties of chemical elements. Some 41% of students tested could define the term "periodic", but failed to use the concept to explain and differentiate changes in mass or atomic radius with the atomic number of elements.
Abstract in English:The aim of this paper is to describe a chemometrics experiment for undergraduate chemistry students using basic concepts of experimental design to determine setting-time of commercial gelatins.
Abstract in English:The Química Nova Interativa (QNInt) portal was launched in 2009 by the Brazilian Chemical Society (SBQ) to offer free quality content for broad audiences. QNInt provides peer-reviewed articles from SBQ journals on science & society, chemical concepts, classroom activities and educational research. With 3,000,000 visits, QNInt also offers a unique library of interactive molecules. In the International Year of Chemistry QNInt served for distributing pH kits and registering data from IUPAC's Global Water Experiment, yielding Brazil the largest share of the global pH data set. The portal performance makes QNInt a valuable resource for connecting science to education.